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Ch 10  helping students read, write, and spell
 

Ch 10 helping students read, write, and spell

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    Ch 10  helping students read, write, and spell Ch 10 helping students read, write, and spell Presentation Transcript

    • By: Iesha Collins, Noemi Estrada, Hayley Foster, Alexis Montemayor
    • *
    • * (Iesha) • Critical to students who have reading difficulties • not likely to outgrow difficulties • Most common reading difficulties come from: • reading fluency: speed and accuracy with which a student reads with • orally. prosody: ability to read smoothly with proper levels of stress, volume, pauses, and intonation (tone) • Figure 10.1 pg 374 • principles for effective early reading interventions • • • ex. assess student progress on a regular basis ex. use an instructional sequence that gradually moves from easy to more difficult tasks ex. activate students prior knowledge.
    • * * Model-lead-test-modeling and orally presenting the material to be learned, helping the student learn and understand through prompts and practice as well as testing the students mastery. * Time Delay- designing learning by delivering prompts that limit the likelihood that students will make errors. * System of least prompts- this involves presenting students the opportunity to respond without assistance, providing assistance by modeling the correct response and having students imitate it and physically guiding students in the making the correct response. Alexis
    • * Phonemic Awareness- The processing and manipulation of the different sounds that make up words and the understanding that spoken and written language are linked. (Burke et al., Lo et al., 2009) Instruction Includes activities that: • Develop students ability to hear rhymes • Identify sounds • Blend sounds into words • Segment or break words into sounds • Manipulate or delete sound Noemi
    • * * Choose books that interest and relate to them * Use games, technology, and the internet * Give reading choice * Allow students to read together * Acknowledge students’ efforts and reading practice * You model good oral reading * Promote phonological awareness * Promote vocabulary development and comprehension When Reading: * Talk about front cover author and illustrator * Use animated expressions and show illustrations Noemi
    • * Picture Books – Short books that use pictures and illustrations to enhance the reader’s understanding of the meaning and content of the story (Martinez, Roser, & Harmon, 2009; * They serve as role models * Share reading instructional strategies with them * They can update teacher on progress Zambo, 2007) * Patterned Books – Use a predictable and repeated linguistic and/or story pattern (Zapprich, Grace, & Grote-Garcia, 2009) * These types of books are most effective with students who have reading difficulties (ELL) Noemi
    • * (Iesha) Repeated Reading: • Students practice short, appropriate, and relevant reading materials at their independent or instructional level until they reach fluency of text. Previewing: • Listening preview: Allows student to listen to text being read and follow along. • Oral preview: student will read passage independently aloud prior to reading same passage in an entire class setting. • Silent preview: students read silently before the reading session
    • Fostering Word Identification: (Iesha) • Strategies for identifying unfamiliar words: • Process of identifying words by finding familiar things in the unfamiliar word. • Ex. Vowel alert (identify vowel sound after examining the letters before and after vowel) • Ex. Peeling off (focusing on the root word) • Ex. Seek the part you know • Ex. Rhyming keywords (able to read the word by comparing unfamiliar word to the rhyme of a familiar word (time..Crime) • strategies to help them learn to read unknown words: • Teach students Onset-rime by using color coding • F.I.S.H. (Find the rime, Identify the rime, Say the rime, Hook the new onset) • Strategies for syllable based reading: • break word into syllables or chunks
    • * (Iesha) • Use high interest books that are curriculum appropriate, multi cultural, but easy to read. • Give instructional feedback, error correction techniques, age appropriate prompts • Use videos to supplement print materials • Provide time for independent reading, but also read aloud to students. • Develop reading games appropriate for there age. • Provide tutoring to develop and support specific reading skills.
    • * * Whole-word, language * Teach letters and words using combinations of visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile modalities. * E.g. Tracing 3D letters with eyes shut, tracing letters on students’ backs, spelling word after saying it experience strategy for students with learning problems * Four Steps: 1. Tracing 2. Writing without tracing 3. Recognition in print 4. Word analysis Noemi
    • Enhance Students’ Text Comprehension *An effective reading program also focuses on developing students’ comprehension. *Text comprehension can be supported by helping them develop their vocabulary. Hayley
    • Develop Students’ Vocabulary Vocabulary instruction should be relevant to students’ learning and experiences. Students can identify and define important vocabulary words individually and in groups to create the following: • Vocabulary cards • • • • • picture/term on front; term’s relationship to important content/other vocabulary on back (see example on page 385; Figure 10.2} Vocabulary self-awareness • A listing of key vocabulary words, their definitions, and examples as well as rating by students of how well they know the words. Vocabulary picture dictionaries • This presents the vocabulary words, their definitions, and student drawings exhibiting the major elements of the words Word maps • Vocabulary word with its meaning, related key words, synonyms, antonyms, drawing of the word, and sentence using the word presented Personal vocabulary journals • Contains various entries related to vocabulary words they are learning and hints for learning and remembering Note that those products listed above can be digitalized so that all students can access them when they need them
    • Suggested Uses of Instructional Sequence to introduce vocabulary * Visually display the word, pronounce it, and ask the students to say it * Give students multiple examples of the word’s usage as well as discuss the meanings and display picture illustrating the word * Link the word and its meanings to students’ prior knowledge * Provide students with multiple opportunities to use the word offer specific feedback * Promote generalization by teaching multiple examples and uses of the word
    • Teachers should… • Introduce and then review new and critical vocabulary throughout lessons by using pictorials and videos, linking words and their meanings to kinesthetic and sensory experiences • Help students foster their vocabulary by teaching them how to use context clues, cognates, and key morphemes, affixes, and root words to determine meanings; discussing the origins of words, explaining idiomatic expressions, synonyms, and teaching students to use mnemonic devices to foster their memory skills • Visually present the critical features of new vocabulary words via various organizational strategies Hayley
    • Key Words to Know… Semantic feature analysis (SFA): a visual that guides students in comparing vocabulary words to determine the ways they are similar and different. Story grammars: outlines of the ways stories are organized Literature circles: literature discussion groups Shared book reading: a new or familiar story is read together to discuss aspects of the story as it is being read. Sustained silent reading: members of the class read selfselected materials for an extended period of time. Hayley
    • * * Whole-Word- this helps the student link between whole words and their oral counterparts. Because new words are taught within sentences and passages or in isolation students taught through this method tend to attempt to read unfamiliar words, use context cues rather than graphic cues, and substitute familiar words for new words. Modifications include: decreasing the number of words to be learned, using flash cards that have the word and a visual of the word, offering spaced practice sessions, providing opportunities for overlapping and delivering more frequent reinforcement. * Language Experience is highly individualized because of use of the students interest, hobbies and experiences as the basis. It is based of the belief that “What students think about, they can talk about; what students can say, they can write or have someone write for them; and what students can write, they can read.” so that the students are more motivated. * Whole Language This approach uses students’ natural language and experiences in and out of school to immerse them in a supportive, stimulating, natural learning environment that promotes literacy. The students are motivated to read by reading authentic, relevant, functional materials that make sense to them and relate to their experiences. While the students are learning to read, they also learn to write because they are encouraged to write about their experiences by writing letters, maintain journals, making lists, labeling objects in the class room and keeping records. Alexis
    • * * Whole-Word- this helps the student link between whole words and their oral counterparts. Because new words are taught within sentences and passages or in isolation students taught through this method tend to attempt to read unfamiliar words, use context cues rather than graphic cues, and substitute familiar words for new words. Modifications include: decreasing the number of words to be learned, using flash cards that have the word and a visual of the word, offering spaced practice sessions, providing opportunities for overlapping and delivering more frequent reinforcement. * Language Experience is highly individualized because of use of the students interest, hobbies and experiences as the basis. It is based of the belief that “What students think about, they can talk about; what students can say, they can write or have someone write for them; and what students can write, they can read.” so that the students are more motivated. * Whole Language This approach uses students’ natural language and experiences in and out of school to immerse them in a supportive, stimulating, natural learning environment that promotes literacy. The students are motivated to read by reading authentic, relevant, functional materials that make sense to them and relate to their experiences. While the students are learning to read, they also learn to write because they are encouraged to write about their experiences by writing letters, maintain journals, making lists, labeling objects in the class room and keeping records. Alexis
    • * * Students are taught letter- sound symbol correspondence: Viewing letters, hearing the sounds they make, linking letters to sounds, and writing letters. * When 10 letters are mastered, blending of sound is taught, then story writing, syllabification, dictionary skills, and instruction on spelling rules. * Highly structured * Use programs to teach reading via fast paced, scripted lessons that present information in small, focused and discreet steps that follow a planned sequence of skill. Noemi
    • *
    • * Hayley-use however many slides you want for every section just marking where slides go so we don’t get confused
    • * (Iesha) *Great way to make writing meaningful to students *Can link content-area to their own culture and experience. *Fosters a good relationship between students and teachers *Lets student write more in depth.
    • * Hayley- use however many slides you want for every section just marking where slides go so we don’t get confused
    • * Alexis- use however many slides you want for every section just marking where slides go so we don’t get confused
    • * (Iesha) *Have one on one conference with students *Help examine writing *Praise accomplishments and effort *Focus on no more then two writing problems at a time *Do not use red *Avoid frustration *Focus on things that make students writing not understandable.
    • * * Hayley-use however many slides you want for every section just marking where slides go so we don’t get confused
    • * * Eliminate worry of spelling, neatness, and grammar * Enlarged print and talking word processors help those who need it * Hear phonetically correct way to say words * Can speak to it and text shows up on screen * Light & portable * Check spelling * Cannot identify words that are badly misspelled * Identifies uncommon words as misspelled Noemi
    • * Technologies that use visual and auditory * Offer students words and phrases * Word Cueing – offer choices based on the first letters typed by students * Word Prediction – offer words or phrases based on context, word frequency, grammatical correctness, and commonly associated words or phrases prompts, graphic organizers, semantic mapping, and remind students of important information and terminology that needs to be in the text. * Offer prompts and writing ideas that can be tailored by teacher * Identify punctuation and grammar errors in text and provide solutions * Writing grading and feedback resources where students can submit work and receive immediate feedback and revise work based on feedback * Have animations, 3-D visuals, colorful graphics, audio pronunciation Noemi
    • *
    • * (Iesha) * Rule governed approach: identify words by the rules and patterns for each kind of word * Linguistic spelling approach: focus on rule of spelling and patterns related to whole world and then generalizing the rule. * Phonetic spelling approach: teaching the sounds that go with each letter and blending them together * Whole word approach * Test-study-test: students take a pre-test, study the words misspelled, then take a post-test. * Corrected-test: Helping students correct their spelling by modeling the word orally or written. * Word Study Techniques: Systematic studying technique that allows the student to have maximum exposure to word * Say the word, write the word, compare word to written model, trace the word, write word from memory, check word, finger spell word.
    • * * Hayley and alexis- part for spelling goes at the end here or wherever after this.
    • *
    • D-O-G * * Help students with spelling by teaching them to use spell checker * Teach useful prefixes, suffixes and root words to help them spell and define new multisyllabic words * Use technology to help students practice their spelling (instructional learning games) * Use spelling games to help motivate students to practice spelling in a non-threatening environment. (Scrabble) * Foster spelling by providing many opportunities for students to practice their spelling through memory enhancing strategies * Provide the students with feedback by correcting misspelled words and modeling correct spelling * Use a variety of strategies to asses the students’ spelling progress. (E.g. Test students on words missed rather than a new list of words.) * Allow students to record their progress, so they can be motivated to do better and set goals for themselves. Noemi