Referencing and bibliographies 2008


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Referencing and bibliographies 2008

  1. 1. Referencing at Gippsland Grammar
  2. 2. What is Referencing? <ul><li>It is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information you have used in your assignment or essay </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Use Referencing? <ul><li>Acknowledges all the sources used in the task </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the reader to identify and consult the sources </li></ul><ul><li>It avoids plagiarism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Referencing Styles <ul><li>Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>APA </li></ul><ul><li>MLA </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago </li></ul>
  5. 5. Harvard System of Referencing <ul><li>A brief reference is made within the text </li></ul><ul><li>Full bibliographic details are provided in the Reference list or Bibliography </li></ul>
  6. 6. Your Indispensable Reference <ul><li>Referencing : a guide for students (2002), edited by Ann Sheldon, Collingwood College, Melbourne. </li></ul>Note that the second line of the referencing sentence is indented to the fourth character
  7. 7. Compiling a Reference List or Bibliography <ul><li>There is a very useful document entitled Compiling a Bibliography on the Intranet which can be accessed through: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Portal </li></ul><ul><li>ISC </li></ul><ul><li>Research Assistance – Compiling a Bibliography </li></ul>
  8. 8. Harvard Bibliography Generator <ul><li>Does not include all sources. Refer to your booklet or handout for: </li></ul><ul><li>Online images </li></ul><ul><li>DVD – ROMS </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Communication – interviews, emails </li></ul>
  9. 9. Preparation Needed for Referencing <ul><li>Write down the full bibliographic details of your resources as you use them </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Point </li></ul><ul><li>ISC </li></ul><ul><li>Research Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography Worksheet template </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reference List /Bibliography <ul><li>A full list of all resources referred to in your writing is created at the end and is called a </li></ul><ul><li>Reference List </li></ul><ul><li>A full list of all resources referred to in your writing and also the resources you consulted but did not refer to is created at the end and is called a Bibliography </li></ul>
  11. 11. How To Structure A Bibliography <ul><li>Examine the printed Sample Reference List </li></ul><ul><li>Note that it is in strict alphabetical order by author or title </li></ul><ul><li>Note the use of capital letters, punctuation and indentation </li></ul><ul><li>Note that “The”, “An” and “A” at the beginning of an entry are ignored </li></ul>
  12. 12. Some Helpful Hints <ul><li>More Than Three Authors </li></ul><ul><li>No Author </li></ul><ul><li>Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Translator </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Place Of Publication </li></ul><ul><li>Setting out </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>No Dates </li></ul>
  13. 13. References Within The Text or In Text Referencing <ul><li>References must be made within the text of your essay of any material which you either quote or summarize using your own words </li></ul><ul><li>When citing references within the text use only the name of the author, followed by the year of publication and page numbers if available </li></ul>
  14. 14. Quotes <ul><li>There are two types of quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect </li></ul>
  15. 15. Direct Quotations <ul><li>In a direct quote the author’s actual words are repeated in the essay </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of direct quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Short Direct Quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Long Direct Quotes </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Short Quote <ul><li>In a short quote enclose the quotation in quotation marks and then identify the page numbers the quotation is taken from after the author/date </li></ul><ul><li>The abbreviations are : page (p.) </li></ul><ul><li>pages (pp. ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Examples <ul><li>&quot;The death penalty is no deterrent to crime.&quot; (Jones,2006,p11) </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>Jones (2006, p11) states: &quot;The death penalty is no deterrent to crime.&quot; </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Long Quote <ul><li>For direct quotes that take up more than three lines, indent the quotation 2cm from the side and do not use quotation marks . </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>A good reading environment that </li></ul><ul><li>includes comfort and quiet as well </li></ul><ul><li>as a large library collection will affect </li></ul><ul><li>literary development. </li></ul><ul><li>( Haycock, 2004 p.4 ) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Indirect Quotations <ul><li>An indirect quote is where the thoughts of the author are expressed in your own words </li></ul><ul><li>“ Quotation marks” are not necessary because the words are not directly the author’s words </li></ul>
  20. 20. Indirect Quotations <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Smith (1989,p.46) defines the state of the economy…….. </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>In his article on the economy, Smith (1989, p.46) defines the problem…. </li></ul>