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Referencing and bibliographies 2008
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Referencing and bibliographies 2008


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  • 1. Referencing at Gippsland Grammar
  • 2. What is Referencing?
    • It is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information you have used in your assignment or essay
  • 3. Why Use Referencing?
    • Acknowledges all the sources used in the task
    • Allows the reader to identify and consult the sources
    • It avoids plagiarism
  • 4. Referencing Styles
    • Harvard
    • APA
    • MLA
    • Chicago
  • 5. Harvard System of Referencing
    • A brief reference is made within the text
    • Full bibliographic details are provided in the Reference list or Bibliography
  • 6. Your Indispensable Reference
    • Referencing : a guide for students (2002), edited by Ann Sheldon, Collingwood College, Melbourne.
    Note that the second line of the referencing sentence is indented to the fourth character
  • 7. Compiling a Reference List or Bibliography
    • There is a very useful document entitled Compiling a Bibliography on the Intranet which can be accessed through:
    • Learning Portal
    • ISC
    • Research Assistance – Compiling a Bibliography
  • 8. Harvard Bibliography Generator
    • Does not include all sources. Refer to your booklet or handout for:
    • Online images
    • DVD – ROMS
    • Personal Communication – interviews, emails
  • 9. Preparation Needed for Referencing
    • Write down the full bibliographic details of your resources as you use them
    • Learning Point
    • ISC
    • Research Assistance
    • Bibliography Worksheet template
  • 10. Reference List /Bibliography
    • A full list of all resources referred to in your writing is created at the end and is called a
    • Reference List
    • A full list of all resources referred to in your writing and also the resources you consulted but did not refer to is created at the end and is called a Bibliography
  • 11. How To Structure A Bibliography
    • Examine the printed Sample Reference List
    • Note that it is in strict alphabetical order by author or title
    • Note the use of capital letters, punctuation and indentation
    • Note that “The”, “An” and “A” at the beginning of an entry are ignored
  • 12. Some Helpful Hints
    • More Than Three Authors
    • No Author
    • Editor
    • Translator
    • Title
    • Place Of Publication
    • Setting out
    • Punctuation
    • No Dates
  • 13. References Within The Text or In Text Referencing
    • References must be made within the text of your essay of any material which you either quote or summarize using your own words
    • When citing references within the text use only the name of the author, followed by the year of publication and page numbers if available
    • There are two types of quotes
    • Direct
    • Indirect
  • 15. Direct Quotations
    • In a direct quote the author’s actual words are repeated in the essay
    • There are two types of direct quotes
    • Short Direct Quotes
    • Long Direct Quotes
  • 16. The Short Quote
    • In a short quote enclose the quotation in quotation marks and then identify the page numbers the quotation is taken from after the author/date
    • The abbreviations are : page (p.)
    • pages (pp. )
  • 17. Examples
    • "The death penalty is no deterrent to crime." (Jones,2006,p11)
    • or
    • Jones (2006, p11) states: "The death penalty is no deterrent to crime."
  • 18. The Long Quote
    • For direct quotes that take up more than three lines, indent the quotation 2cm from the side and do not use quotation marks .
    • Example
    • A good reading environment that
    • includes comfort and quiet as well
    • as a large library collection will affect
    • literary development.
    • ( Haycock, 2004 p.4 )
  • 19. Indirect Quotations
    • An indirect quote is where the thoughts of the author are expressed in your own words
    • “ Quotation marks” are not necessary because the words are not directly the author’s words
  • 20. Indirect Quotations
    • For example:
    • Smith (1989,p.46) defines the state of the economy……..
    • OR
    • In his article on the economy, Smith (1989, p.46) defines the problem….