Iced2014 bl-v2-What is blended in Blended Learning?

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What is blended in Blended Learning? European Perspectives. Exploring Themes.

What is blended in Blended Learning? European Perspectives. Exploring Themes.

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  • Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke (2014): “Are you Working in the Kitchen?”: European Perspectives on Blended Learning. In Anthony G. Picciano, Charles D. Dziuban, & Charles R. Graham (Eds.), Blended Learning  – Research Perspectives. Vol. 2. Routledge/Taylor & Francis, pp. 251-267.

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  • 1. Blended Learning – a one and only global discourse? Anders Norberg Education Strategist and PhD student Campus Skellefteå Isa Jahnke Professor Umeå University ICED2014 Stockholm
  • 2. Question from Charles Graham: What about Europe and ”Blended Learning”? BL - most cited papers & books (Halverson, L. R., Graham, C. R., Spring, K. J., & Drysdale, J. S. (2012, in press). An analysis of high impact scholarship and publication trends in blended learning. Distance Education, 33(3). Doi:10.1080/01587919.2012.723166 BL – Dissertations & theses (Drysdale, J. S., Graham, C. R., Halverson, L. R., & Spring, K. J. (2013, in press). Analysis of research trends in dissertations and theses studying blended learning. Internet and Higher Education. ) • …isn´t there more European BL research? • …is there BL at all at European universities? What is it called? ….and we found the questions interesting. Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 3. Chapter 17 ”Blended? Are you working in the kitchen? – European Perspectives on Blended Learning” Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke
  • 4. Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke (2014): “Are you Working in the Kitchen?”: European Perspectives on Blended Learning. In Anthony G. Picciano, Charles D. Dziuban, & Charles R. Graham (Eds.), Blended Learning – Research Perspectives. Vol. 2. Routledge/Taylor & Francis, pp. 251-267. A version of the paper (not the final version) on - Researchgate.net - Academia.edu Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 5. …a small mixed methods study • Email / expert survey (online) • Literature review • Universities’ websites analysis / frequency counts …for constructing a first understanding on 1. Use of term ”Blended Learning” in Europe? 2. European contributions to BL research? 3. Hypotheses about transatlantic differences regarding ”Blended Learning” in research Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 6. ”Europe”? ”Blended Learning”? • Good question! • ”Good luck with opening this can of vorms!” Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 7. ”Blended learning” translations Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 8. Difficulty 1: ”Europe”? • EU member states, 28? • Bologna declaration 49 signatory countries? …we have mostly looked on the UK, Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, Balticum, France, Spain. Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 9. Difficulty 2 BL = Maybe a descriptive/normative model? Research Practice Not called BL Called BL CSCL ”Blended” ”Hybrid” ICT integration Flipped classroom Using LMS in F2F class Using x in F2F class Using new combinations of tools, places, time modalities CSL Blending online and F2F Blend of media Blend of tools Any change = ”blend”? …40 models identified (Dziuban) CSLW TPACK X ”Mixed” Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 10. Blended Learning Practice when called BL • ”Blended learning” is a common expression at most European university web sites, used for… – Categorizing courses in information to students – Discussing future development and strategies Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 11. Web search, European university web sites: ”Blended Learning”: a) 10 highest ranked European universities (Times 2012): • Average 208 mentions • (0-1250, median 57). • Three university websites omitted BL b) Randomly chosen universities, one from each of 47 countries (using Wikipedia univ./country listings): • Average 186 mentions • (0-2490, median 11). • Six university websites omitted BL Comparison: Suny.edu 807; ucf.edu 207; byu.edu 119 Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 12. Survey: Three questions to experts 1) What is “blended” in blended learning for you? How do you use the term? …about the term ”Blended Learning”, the BL discourse Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 13. 1. Quotes (about the term ”BL”): • "In the strictest sense, blended learning is where an instructor combines two methods in the delivery of instruction.“ • "Simply put, at the nine universities I have worked for, blended learning has meant that you have some face-to-face teaching and you have resources available online. Nothing more complex than that. Consequently, almost every programme in the UK is like that these days.” • “...it….goes without saying that all learning is blended, but that does not get us anywhere.” Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 14. Quotes (about the term ”BL”) • “I never use the term – nor do I use the term e-learning any longer” • “I find ‘Blended learning’ to be a completely useless term.” • “I always emphasize that blended learning is NOT a didactical concept…” • “… many European researchers did not understand blended learning like I do. They mix many kinds of things in blended learning.” Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 15. Critique; Oliver & Trigwell (2005) • The term ”Blended” (in BL) should be abandoned or reconceived. It promotes dichotomies in learning. • The term ”Learning” (in BL) should be abandoned. The learner is not the subject of BL. It is about teaching. Give back the term ”learning” to its rightful owners! • There is no unblended learning. There is no ”blending” theory to build on – but there is a possibility to draw on variation theory instead. • MARTIN OLIVER, KEITH TRIGWELL (2005) Can 'Blended Learning' Be Redeemed?, E-Learning and Digital Media, 2(1), 17-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/elea.2005.2.1.17 …but are they hostile to blended learning practices / developments? No?! Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 16. Sharpe et al.; The term ”Blended Learning” is a success factor! 2006 “Use the term blended learning. Although difficult to define, the term ‘blended learning’ is finding acceptance among higher education staff. We suggest that the advantages of the term include its poor definition - which allows staff to negotiate their own meaning - the implication of the protection of face to face teaching, and the implication of designing for active learning.” p. 4 http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/researc h/literature_reviews/blended_elearning_exec_summary _1.pdf Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 17. Sharpe et al.; 3 UK meanings for ”Blended learning” 1. The provision of supplementary resources 2. Transformative course designs 3. A student-centered holistic view of technology and learning, including the use of the learners’ own technologies From a student interview: “To me its just learning, the fact that it’s online as opposed to in a classroom is irrelevant. It’s just another way of accessing it. It’s all just learning …. for me I just think of it as learning and I don’t use the term [e-learning].” (Creanor et al., 2006a, p.5) Creanor, L., Gowan, D., Howalls, C. & Trinder, K. (2006a) The learner's voice: A focus on the learner experience [online]. Networked Learning Conference. Lancaster, UK. Available from http://networkedlearningconference.org.uk/abstracts/pdfs/P24%20Creanor.pdf [25 August 2006]. Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 18. Special European BL terms? • ”Blended e-Learning” • ”Overblended Learning” • ”B-Learning” • ”Blended learning scenarios” • ”Blended learning situations” • ”Blended learning arrangements”…etc Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 19. Survey: Three questions to experts 2) Could you possibly recommend a favourite paper on blended learning, or an author, conference or other favourite resource? …about the European contribution to BL research …whether it is called BL or not Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 20. European contributions to BL research & theory • Mandl & Kopp 2006 Mandl, Heinz and Kopp, Birgitta (2006): Blended Learning: Forschungsfragen und Perspektiven. (Research report No. 182). LMU Munich: Chair of Education and Educational Psychology, Internet, ISSN 1614-6336 • Kudrik, Lahn & Morch 2009 Kudrik, Y., Lahn, L., & Morch, A. (2009) A Case Study of Blended Learning in a Nordic Insurance Company: Three Issues for E- learning. Conference paper at The International Conference on E-Learning in the Workplace 2009, June 10th-12th, New York, NY, USA • Littlejohn & Pegler 2007 Littlejohn, A., Pegler, C. (2007). Preparing for blended e-learning. Routledge, London. • Derntl & Motschnig-Pitrik 2005 Derntl, M., & Motschnig-Pitrik, R. (2005). The role of structure, patterns, and people in blended learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 8, 111–130. Doi:10.1016/j.ihe-duc.2005.03.002 • Kerres & de Witt 2010 Kerres, M. & De Witt, C. (2003). A didactical framework for the design of blended learning arrangements. Journal of Educational Media, 28, 101–114. …all use the ”BL” term …all search for a deeper theoretical understanding …all try to formulate applicable models Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 21. Heinze & Procter ...point out 4 contributors to BL theory that don´t use/used the ”BL term themselves: • Vygotsky & ”Zone of Proximal Development” • Vygotsky, L. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge: MIT Press. • Lave & Wenger & ”Community of Practice” Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity: Cambridge University Press.Lonchamp, J. (2010): CS in CSCL, Conference paper at ICL 2010m Hasselt Belgium, Sept 15-17 • Laudraillard & ”Conversational Framework” Laudrillard, D. (2002). Rethinking university teaching: A framework for the effective use of educational technology(2nd ed.). London: Routledge/Falmer. • Salmon & ”E-moderating model” Salmon, G., (2000) E-Moderating: The key to Teaching and Learning online. Kogan Page Limited: London Heinze, A., & Procter, C. (2006) Online Communication and Information Technology Education, Journal of Information Technology Education, Vol. 5, 2006 ..all concentrate on quality in the learning process Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 22. Survey: Three questions to experts 3) Do you have any feeling or hypothesis about the differences between North American and European research on blended learning? …explicit question about differences US/Canada – Europe? Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 23. 3. Hypotheses concerning differences ”Blended Learning” N America - Europe • “Since in Europe as well as in N. America people share the same technology to support the learning process, I suppose that there are no significant differences in this research.” • “No. I consider the diversity in blended learning is already very important among universities in the same country, and the main factor is the fact that blended learning is developed as a top-down learning methodology or as a complementary model that has developed after the f2f model in the organisation.” Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 24. Hypotheses concerning differences ”Blended Learning” N America - Europe • “The hypotheses on both sides of the Atlantic seem ill defined, and largely unhelpful in bringing about any meaningful change in education or learning. This could be because the area has become largely development- focused, lacking analytical rigour.” • “I always emphasize that Blended Learning is NOT a didactical concept” Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 25. Hypotheses concerning differences ”Blended Learning” N America - Europe • “I have not looked specifically at differences between European and North American research on blended learning. However, everything comes to the same point: How do academics understand the term "Pedagogy"” • “A major obstacle in the German research is firstly the gap between pedagogues in schools and researchers from the field of E-learning/Blended learning and the lack of reference between Higher education didactics and the area of E-learning/Blended learning. This seems to be different in the USA.” Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 26. Clue; Who is doing the research? A. ”Educational researchers” (Education as a science) B. ”Researchers on education” (Education as a study object for discipline specialists) C. ”Researchers on educational practice and change” (Teachers making research on change in own courses) D. ”Research by educational developers and technologists”(various backgrounds; studying ICT integration in educational practices) Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 27. A. ”Educational researchers” • Education as a science in its own right • Research in support of teacher education • Fighting with low scientific status • Europe, except the UK • Little interest in technology in education at all • …and even less in ”blended learning” • …often background in German ”Didaktik” Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 28. B. ”Researchers on education” • Sociologists, historians, psychologists, philosophers, computer scientists, etc • Education is a study object for the methods used in the expert science • …are safe in their own science • …don´t hesitate about ”blended learning”, that is what this new thing to study is called • Depends sometimes more on US research and discourse than on European concerning BL Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 29. C. ”Researchers on educational practice and change” • ”Science of teaching and learning” • Teachers make research on own practices and implementations • Typical research: Case study • Uses ”Blended Learning” discourse frequently, relies often on N American literature / research Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 30. D. ”Research by educational developers and technologists” • In the US: Instructional technology / Instructional design, as science in its own right. (=B. Researchers on education?) • In Europe: Missing!? Some of this is done by computer science / Informatics researchers Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 31. Other clues to differences • ”Education” on a scale between.. • Different theoretical backgrounds/traditions? (Didaktik / Instructional technology/design?) Education as a product on a market Education as a society ”good” Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 32. In short • European practitioners use BL terminology and rest on US research • European researchers on education are differently interested in BL (discourse/phenomenon), often following which kind of researchers they are • Researchers and teachers may have different relations in N America and in Europe • Some critique to ”BL” discourse and some additions to BL research comes from Europe • Critique concerns the ”too pragmatic” and ”not theory-connected” sides of BL. • Theoretical backgrounds can be important for understanding differences – and assets in further development of both research and practice? Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014
  • 33. We need for this a simple and broader work definition of BL: • Ongoing integration of new technology- enhanced teaching/learning with traditional and mainstream education practices ? Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke Umeå University 18 June 2014, ICED2014