Informal Learning via Social Media - Does it Affect Teaching and Science? - cosci2012-isajahnke-v2


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TITLE. Informal Learning via Social Media - Does it Affect Teaching and Science?
ABSTRACT. The paper (COSCI12 conference) argues that didactical designers, teachers and researchers can learn from informal learning situations to build a meaningful learning experience for students in universities and schools. By illustrating three research projects, (a) InPUD, an informal learning community in higher education, (b) CSCL@Work, informal work-based learning and (c) iPad-Didactics, didactical designs by teachers in K9 schools using iPads, five theses will be described which show the shift from traditional teaching and prepare a new understanding of learning called ‘learning to be creative’.

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  • Good morning dear researchers, and dear all , who are interested in the topic of Informal Learning via Social Media. In the next 30-40 minutes , I present some examples of “how” social media have already affected teaching in formal education and science.
  • Before I go into details, I would like to show you some insights from Umeå in Sweden. Umeå is about 2000 km away from Düsseldorf.
  • Here you see 2 photos from Umeå University build in 1965 according to an American university Campus role model. It is a relax atmosphere , nice location outside, in the summer .
  • When I moved in 2011 to Umeå , one year ago, I started with a project called “taking a photo whenever I see something special what is different from “my” old cultures in Germany” Here I give you 2 examples This photo shows a chair in Umeå Downtown near by the opera house where 2 people have a seat. The special thing is that FIRST it is heated in the winter, so you also can sit there when there is snow around you. SECOND, you have free wireless access to the internet. This kind of “social installation” has been made in 2002 by Mikael Richter, 10 years ago!
  • This is my favorite photo. My best argument for eLearning ? Without using any new technologies you don’t have access to public toilettes or restrooms. On this picture, you see how to use your cell phone: You call an operator, s/he sends an “text message” with a code to your cellphone and with that code you enter the door. This service costs 5 swedish krones, around 50 cents.
  • Social Media or in other words “ Web 2.0” started around 2001.
  • Facebook, Twitter, Forum, Discussion Boards, …
  • … .and the question is: To what extent can we connect the Homo Interneticus and the Homo Didacticus ?
  • Chapman 2003
  • Coming back to the questions: “how to design a combination of formal teaching and informal learning”
  • The thesis is it depends on the design, and the question is how to design. This slide gives an selected overview of what we already know from the socio-technical paradigm that is well-known in knowledge management and CSCW. Lucy Suchman studied how people use ICT in social interactions and found that they create an own understanding just-in-time they use the ICT. Her approach is called „situated action “ . Social and technical systems are not two seperately things BUT they create a new relationships with emergent properties. Herrmann, Loser and also me, we illustrated in several cases studies how human communication generates new structures and regulations which A) form the technical elements and B) which are also partially determinedby the technical system.
  • Because of the anonymity, some students use the forum to show their anger or to reveal aspects they do not agree with. In case it would be not anonymous, students expect negative sanctions or difficulties (e.g., bad grade). On the other hand, some other members use the iForum to gain more attention and getting out of the anonymity of large groups by saying something and by creating a voice. By participating online, some members expect that other people would perceive their individual voices better than usual and better than without the iForum. Additional data supports this: Almost 55 percent (n=133) agreed “ the iForum (digital life) has a positive impact on my offline life ” .
  • CSCL at work in 2010, 1 st workshop at ACM Group confernence
  • All the successful cases show ….
  • Grotesk paintings
  • *** we know that there is a positive relation between ACTIVE and LEARNING , Chapman 2003
  • Not only Social media differ! The ipad brings a new level of quality towards “being ONLINE”, and and a new level of the “omnipresent online presence”
  • The final thesis is about SCIENCE. Coming from “Big data analytics” , the learning analytics has been invented to study technology enhanced teaching and learning. BIG DATA means ….
  • Not predictable
  • Informal Learning via Social Media - Does it Affect Teaching and Science? - cosci2012-isajahnke-v2

    1. 1. Informal Learning via Social MediaDoes it Affect Teaching and Science? Isa Jahnke COSCI 2 Aug 2012
    2. 2. EuropeanCapital of UmeåCulture2014 Datum Sidfot 2
    3. 3.
    4. 4. WiFi chairs (free Internet access) heated in the winterSocia l instaby Mi ll kael R ation ic 2002 hter 4
    5. 5.
    6. 6. Web (90s) Web 2.0 (starting ca. 2001)Encyclopædia Britannica (2001)Personal Websites Blogging (first blogs around 1999)Publishing Partizipation (Social Bookmarking, 2003, YouTube 2005, Twitter 2006)Content Management WikisSystems (in firms, universities)Mailing lists, Social Networking / CommunitiesNewsgroups (Xing, LinkedIn, Facebook 2004,…)Information Download Communication about the information Tim OReilly, 2005 6
    7. 7. Informal Learning in a Social Media World... You hav e que a probl an u sti em , nsol on, or a ve d issu e? et and the I n t er n and blem ! Go to line forums; No pro Post it to on orks in . it. l netwgoogle our persona witter or etc ask y o k, T In, Facebo Linked iscussion a change in d We observe y-life group s: when dail ne person cultures of d at least o cusse oogles’ facts are dis one and ‘g martph takes her s tion the informa 7
    8. 8. …Homo Interneticus 8
    9. 9. The problem…. We don’t live any longer in a social constructed reality Hom BUT o Int erne ticus we live in a ? socio-technically cus D idacti constructed society Homo (hidden sociotechnical mechanisms)Social construction of realityBerger & Luckmann, 1966Homo InterneticusAleks Krotoski, 2011 9
    10. 10. Why is it important to discuss informal learning?Research studies show: Informallearning can lead to a deeperunderstanding and a different qualityof a learning outcome;it enables the learner to expand herthinking beyond a receptive behaviorat formal schooling and beyondtraditional reproduction of existingknowledge. 10
    11. 11. Challenges for Teaching(Higher Education and Schools) RQ 1. To what extent is informal learning in formal education designable? RQ 2. Can we create didactical designs to support Technology-Embraced Informal-in-Formal-Learning; meaningful learning? how?Th. Herrmann, 2009: collaborative creativityG. Fischer, 2010: learning when the answer is not knownLund & Hauge, 2011: designs for teaching; designs for learning 11
    12. 12. What is informal learning? • Formal learning is triggered by instructors/teachers, organized by an educational institution, the learner gets credits, a formal degree; • Non-formal learning is also a form of planned learning, organized by an external person, but takes place outside of educational institutions; • Informal learning is a self-directed learning situation, in planned situations or not-organized at all, triggered by the learner (no external teacher; no degree). Related concepts: “learning en passant”, incidental learning, experiential learning Attention please: informal learningD. Kolb, 1984 can also happen inReischmann, 1986Watkins & Marsick, 1992 formal situations 12
    13. 13. Theoretical framework:Designing the interdependencies Didactical ap (e.g. crea p r o a c he s tivity, challen ge-bas ed learning) Trans-formations Inter-actions Inter- dependencie s Us e o f Technology (Social Media Teaching an , iPads) d Learning Cultures (different disc different subje iplines, cts)Jahnke, Terkowsky,Pleul, Tekkaya 2010:PeTEX project 13
    14. 14. What we already know (socio-technical approaches)• Mediatization (e.g., Hjarvard 2008; Krotz 2007)• Medialitätsbewusstsein (awareness on social construction by media)• Objective facticity (Berger & Luckmann 1966)• Socio-technical approach (e.g., Coakes 2002; G. Fischer 2005).• Complexity theory (e.g., Dugdale 2000)New media affects society (“media is integrated into the operations of social institutions”,) but on the other hand society designs new forms of communication.Media is formed by society but also became an active agent which influences human interactions.People live in a media-constructed world where we have a difference between “reality” and “reality given by different media”. To know this and to handle this in the classroom is one aspect of media competency. 14
    15. 15. Socio-technical paradigm what we already know from IS, CSCW CSCL, knowledge management Suchman (1987) workplace studies=how people use ICTSuchman (1987) Situated action = focusing on concrete situations where people useworkplace studies=how people use ICT technology (technology development without regarding social context tend to fail)Situated action = focusing on concrete situations where people usetechnology (technology development without regarding social context tend to fail) Orlikowski (1996) Metamorphoses of technology usage over time (duality of technology)Orlikowski (1996)Metamorphoses of technology usage over time (duality of technology) Herrmann, Loser, Jahnke (2007) duality of structuresHerrmann, Loser, Jahnke (2007) action) generates Communication (in situated Giddens 1984 new structures & regulations...Communication (in situated action) generates − which form (coin) the technicalnew structures & regulations... system/structures − which are partially technical system/structures − which form (coin) the determined by the technical system − which are partially determined by the technical system 15
    16. 16. 5 examples from HE
    17. 17. 3 Cases 17
    18. 18. InPUD – informal learning in HE • Community; Computer Science Study Program; German university • n=1,500 users (a total of approx. 2000 students) • launched in 2001/2002 • Communication mainly via discussion boards • Informal learning => topics triggered by students (what they want to discuss) Published Jahnke (2006; 2012) 18
    19. 19. Discussion boards (Forum)Study service Courses (examples) 20
    20. 20. InPUD• Research from 2001 to 2009 (interviews, log files, online surveys,…)InPUD is• “useful for my studies” (90% percent agree; on a Likert scale 1-5)• high recommendation (94%)• 8% say they don’t like itDegree of participation• Core group : 18%• Regular users: 60%• Registered lurkers: 22%PublishedJahnke (2006; 2012) 21
    21. 21. InPUD – participation, contribution1. Most of the answers are “I ask unclear and unsolved questions”, and “I need answers or solutions”.1. Some interviewees also mentioned that they like to help other students: “I help other students since I hope they will help me later, when I need help”, “That’s the sense of a community, we help each other”, and “Only active members affect active, vivid forums”.1. Other members like the opportunity to get in contact with others at unusual time slots, “direct contact possibilities at unusual time in the night”, and stress the anonymity: “because of the anonymity, I can ask ‘stupid’ questions”. 22
    22. 22. InPUD – anonymity: use it; get out of it(1) criticizing deficiencies“I want to show my opinion”, “I can show my anger byusing anonymity“, „I can scarify deficiencies”, and “WhenI’m annoyed about something or somebody, I can say it inthe forum“.(2) gaining attention; creating a voice in huge groups“I post because I have to say something“, and “Sometimes,I even want to say something“. Some users stressedespecially the factor of awareness: “I think the professor willbe better aware of me when I’m active in the iForum. So,I’m not just a pure number for him but become anindividual”. Published Jahnke, 2012 23
    23. 23. Thesis 1 The addition of informal learning by social media expands formal education and leads to an all-embracing learning experience that activate learners on all levels such as the cognitive, affective and on the conative level as well. Conation = the learner is willing to do sth. and really does; often neglected in the designs of formal teaching 24
    24. 24. CSCL@Workinformal work-based learning Sean Goggins, Isa Jahnke, Volker Wulf, 2012; meta analysis of 13 cases; edited book (2nd Workshop in Oct 2012, P.S. Join us, our keynote speaker is John Seely Brown 2 out of 13 cases: •Study by E. King 2010: World of Warcraft users develop skills which they use at the workplace •Study by Gurzick & White, 2010; Facebook – policies of firms users use Facebook to solve problems at the workplace 25
    25. 25. Thesis 2 Social media triggers informal learning at the workplace but in unexpected unusual places across established boundaries. 26
    26. 26. iPad-DidacticsOdder/DK: 180 teachers, 2000 pupils5 (of 7) schools•13 Classroom observations (45-90 mins. each)•10 Interviews (ca. 60 mins. each)Range of teaching subjects:Danish, Math, English, Art, Physics, …Range of classes (14-25 pupils):•preschool classes (grade 0)•1st grade, Math•1st grade, Natural science•2nd grade, Math•1st-3rd grade, Danish•1st-3rd grade, History, Math, Nature•6th grade English•6th grade, Music•7th grade, Danish•8th grade, Danish/Arts•9th grade, Physics 27
    27. 27. Digital Didactical Designs Teaching objectives/aims (problem) so ns ci ti o al la r el re supported at al by ICT/ io ci ns so iPads Learning social relations Process based activities Assessment/F (constructing eedback knowledge) (self-, peer-, teacher-)Klafki (1963, 1997)Fink (2003)Lund & Hauge (2011)Jahnke & Kumar (2012) 28
    28. 28. Transformative learningTransformation of existing “math stories”: students get the taskto create “comics” using the iPad to create the stories (App: Strip Designer) 29
    29. 29. Complex learningStudents read a traditional book and write a book review; usingthe App Bookcreator to create a reviewComplex = writing, recording the own voice, painting, … 30
    30. 30. Peer-ReflectiveLearning FacebookStudents write somethingfrom their childhood andreflect in peer-reviews theirwriting skills usingFacebook;iPads deliver Internet-Access 31
    31. 31. Collaborative learning(not cooperative learning)A group of 3 students collect ‘provocative’ paintings, get the taskto analyze what the audience could say (discussions & report) 32
    32. 32. Personalized Learning(iPad as differentiator for the individual needs!)• students design experiments in physics (sound/light);• other students create a mindmap first to collect their (non-)knowledge 33
    33. 33. Thesis 3. Shift in teaching practices fromlearning as consumption to ‘learning tobe creative’• Focus on Action• Focus on “to produce something”• Process-oriented (not only focused on exams/test)⇒Activating student engagement and student motivation through DOING (student produce sth.) *** 34
    34. 34. ad 4. The iP e.Thesis nc “There is no a differemakes technology in there” “An iPad is the little baby for pupils” “Finally! Someone got the vision to think differently” 35
    35. 35. Thesis 5. “Towards a Theory andPractice of Teaching Analytics”* Teaching analytics becomes the most important research methodology, to complement traditional methods for studying teaching and learning. Challenge: Is the purpose to improve learning or to control learners?*Vatrapu, Halb, & Bull, 2012EC-TEL2012 Workshop 36
    36. 36. Conclusion – does it affect what? Yes, informal learning has already affected science and teaching. The new approaches, we studied, include •the design of Technology-embraced informal-in-formal- learning that supports the conative level of learning, •the design for learning in a way that learning at unexpected unusual (online) places across established boundaries is fostered, and •the usage of social media as a “booster” to intensify learning as a process strengthened through designing social relations. We call this approach ‘learning to be creative’ which stress a shift to a ‘focus on action’, where the social relations among the peers as well as the teacher-student relation is integrated in the didactical designs for a situation that is unknown. 37
    37. 37. How to Get in ContactProfessor Dr. Isa JahnkeICT, media and learningUmeå UniversityDep of Applied Educational Scienceisa.jahnke@edusci.umu.sehttp://isajahnke.webnode.com 38