Hinduism The Aryans laid the foundation of Hinduism At the beginning, they were mainly concerned with their life on earth, praying to gods with certain favors.
Hinduism Their religions was more nature worship Their gods and goddesses represents the sun, fire, storm, rivers, and other objects of nature. Gradually, as life became more complicated, they began to be interested in life after death. In 2000 B.C. the fair skinned Aryans invaded the Indus valley. These invaders belongs to the white race (Caucasian) and spoke sanskrit, Indo European Language.
Hinduism The Aryans drove the dark complexioned Dravidians, southward. The Aryans gave India the vedic literature, the Sanskrit epics, the Hindu religion and the Caste system.
The Hindu Mind Essentially spiritual as reflected in their literature. In India we see an ethos of a nation. Religion and Philosophy are inseparable Literature was practically confined to religion and philosophy Its earliest literature the vedas, may be considered both as religion and philosophy.
The Hindu Mind The Vedas are supposed to be sacred books of the ancient sanskrit, hymns with accompanying comments; * Believed by the Hindus to have been revealed by Brahma * where the Brahmanical system is based. * each vedas consist of Mantras (hymns) * Brahmanas (doctrinal and ceremonies) * Upanishads (an inspired set of commentaries on Vedanta Philosophy)
Vedas Rig Veda (the most literary), Yasjur Veda (rituals), Sama Veda (liturgies), and Atharva Veda (spells, magic, incantation etc.) - Belief gathered in Upanishads: The ultimate reality is Brahman, incomprehensible and surpasses all understanding. The individual soul or the self – Atman. – by discovering the real self, man achieves freedom and emancipation from illusion.
The Upanishads The Trinity – Brahman (the creator), Vishnu (preserver), Shiva (destroyer) Reincarnation and Nirvana – where the purified soul is absorbed into Brahma. The philosophy of Ethics must be by a divine revelation or realization. NO one can understand things human who does not understand the divine. Superconsciousness
Japan Ancient History of Japan is recorded in Kojiki –The records of ancient matters and Nihon Shoki or Nijongi (Chronicles of Japan). The early Japanese learned from the Chinese : their art, letters and philosophy.
Contributions of Japan to World civilization The Bushido ( code of chivalry) The Shinto religion Kana (alphabet) Literary forms such as 1. Kabuki (classical play) 2. The Noh (lyrical play) 3. the Tanka (31 syllables) 4. Haiku (17 syllables)
Cha-no-yu (tea drinking ceremony) And the Ikebana (flower arrangement) Lanscapegradening Many sports such as judo (art of self defense), kendo (fencing) and sumo (wrestling)
General view of literature In poetry and history Nara period was the greatest age of Japanese poetry. Manyoshu (collection of one thousand leaves) Kokinshu (poems of ancient and modern) Ablest woman writer Lady MurasakiShikibu- writer of GenjiMonotagari.