Unit of Salah All Muslims obliged to do this. Muslim children as young as seven are encouraged to pray.
Qiblah (Direction of Prayer) Wherever a person is in the world, he should face towards the Ka’abah when he is going to pray. The Ka’abah is in the sacred mosque of Makkah in Saudi Arabia. Facing towards Qiblah (Ka’abah) is a very important condition of performance of prayer.
Qiblah (Direction of Prayer) However, if the person is in a place such as a desert, jungle, unknown stranger place where he does not know the direction of the Qiblah, he should try his best to find out the direction of Qiblah from others. However, if it is not possible then he should use his judgment and face in a direction, which he thinks is that of Qiblah and Allah, will accept his prayer.
Qiblah It is important to start the prayer facing the direction of Qiblah and it does not matter if his direction changes while he is praying. e.g. in a ship, a train or an airplane et citera.
Interior of the Ka’abah The Holy Mosque in Makkah is the most valued place of worship for Muslims around the world. At the center of the Mosque is the Ka'abah, which literally means 'cube' in Arabic. All Muslims are required to face in the direction of the Ka'abah five times every day when offering their prayers. Muslims believe that the Ka'abah, constructed of stone blocks, was originally built by Prophet Abraham and his son Ismail.
Interior of Ka’abah According to Islamic belief , Allah ordained a place of worship on earth to reflect a house of worship in heaven. Adam, the first man, was the first to build such a place of worship. The Qur’an says that the Ka'abah, constructed of stone blocks, was rebuilt by Prophet Abraham and his son Ismail. Thus as generations passed they forgot their primitive faith adopted and embellished another religion for that of Abraham and Ishmael . Hence , the Arabs became paganized and each tribes had its god and total of 360. Yet they retained the tradition and practices of Abraham going around it, standing on Arafa and Musdalifa, sacrificing , throwing a stone at the devil at Mina, running at Safa and Marwa (Hagar) et citera… Interior of the Ka’abah
The Ka’abah Muslims believe it was erected on the original site of a sanctuary established by the first Prophet Adam. Embedded in the corner of the structure is the Black Stone, a meteorite used by Abraham as a foundation stone. However, the paganized Arabs tainted this monotheistic religion of worshipping Allah alone resorting to worship of idols as intercessors to worship Him. When Allah chosen Mohammad to cleanse all type of idolatry and cleared the misconception about Allah entered Mecca in victory and smashed all idols.
The Black Stone This stone, although valued as the only surviving object from the original building, has never been worshipped and has no special sanctity or power." (Makkah And The Holy Mosque, Prince Bandar Bin Sultan, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington DC, website)
Prayer sets the rhythm of the day In Islamic countries, the public call to prayer from the mosques sets the rhythm of the day for the entire population, including non-Muslims.
The Muezzin The Muezzin A person who calls people for the congregational prayer is called a Muezzin. Before saying the Adhan (call of Prayer) , he should stand facing Ka’abah in Makkah. He should raise his hands to his ears putting the tips of forefingers into his ears and call in a loud voice. When he says Hayya alas salah, he should turn his face to the right and when he says HayyaalalFalah he should turn his face to the left.
Salah Universal Muslim ritual The prayer ritual, which is over 1400 years old, is repeated five times a day by hundreds of millions of people all round the world. Carrying it out is not only highly spiritual, but connects each Muslim to all others around the world, and to all those who have uttered the same words and made the same movements at different times in Islamic history.
Ka’abah as center of worship The Ka’abah is a sanctuary that a Muslim should face when going to pray. Facing towards it is a very important condition of performance of prayer.
Worship Ritual The set prayers are not just phrases to be spoken. Prayer for a Muslim involves uniting the mind, soul, and body in worship; so a Muslim carrying out these prayers will perform a whole series of set movements that go with the words of the prayer.
Body, Soul and Mind Muslims make sure that they are in the right frame of mind before they pray; they put aside all everyday cares and thoughts so that they can concentrate exclusively on God. If a Muslim prays without the right attitude of mind, it as if they hadn't bothered to pray at all. The Qur’an said: “ Woe to those who pray, but are unmindful of their prayer, or who pray only to be seen by people” (Qur'an 107:4-6)
Allah does not need human prayers because he has no needs at all.
Muslims pray because God has told them that they are to do this, and because they believe that they obtain great benefit in doing so.
Muslims pray direct to God A Muslim prays as if standing in the presence of Allah. In the ritual prayers each individual Muslim is in direct contact with Allah. There is no need of a priest as an intermediary. (While there is a prayer leader in the mosque - the imam - they are not a priest, simply a person who knows a great deal about Islam.)
Muslims can pray anywhere, but it is especially good to pray with others in a mosque.
Praying together in a congregation helps Muslims to realize that all humanity is one, and all are equal in the sight of Allah.
Muslims worship in a building called a mosque. An alternative word for mosque, from the original Arabic, is masjid, meaning place of prostration.
Outside every mosque, or just inside the entrance, is a place where worshippers can remove and leave their shoes.
There is also a place where they can carry out the ritual washing required before prayer.
The Call of Prayer or Adhan Allahu Akbar ( 4 x) “ Allah is the Greatest” Ashhadu an la ilahaillallah (2 x ) “ I bear witness that there is no other deity except Allah.” Ash haduannaMuhammadar (PBUH) rasullullah (2) “ I bear witness that Muhammad (PBUH) is the Messenger ofAllah.” Hayya alas salah ( 2x) “ Come to prayer” Hayyaalalfalah (2) “ Come to success “ Allahu Akbar ( 2 x) “ Allah is the Greatest” La ilahaillallah “ There is no deity except Allah “ Adhan for Fajr An additional phrases is included in the Adhan for the Fajr prayer after the second Hayya ‘alalFalah “ As salatukhayrumminannawn (2x) Prayer is better than sleep.”
Listening to the Adhan When the Muslims hear the Adhan, they should listen to it in silence and repeat each phrase of the Adhan in silence immediately after the Muazin has finished saying the phrase. When the Muazzin says: “ Hayya alas salah and Hayayaalalfalah, the listener should say in reply: “ la hawlawalaquwataillabillah.” When the Adhan has been completed, the listener and the Muazzin recite Darud unto Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) followed by the Du’a
“Allahummasal-li ala Muhammadin (PBUH) wa ala aliMuhammadin (PBUH) kamasal-layta ala Ibraheemawa ala aliIbraheemainnakahameedonmajeed.” ( The meaning : “ Oh ! Allah let your peace come upon Muhammad (PBUH) and the family of Muhammad (PBUH) as you have sent peace upon Ibrahem and his family. Truly you are praiseworthy and glorious.”
Du’a after Adhan (Supplication) “Allah hummarabbaHazhi hid da’wa tit tam mati was salatilQaimatiati Muhammad(PBUH)a nil waseelatawalFadeelatawabath-humaqamammahmuda nil lazeewa ad tahu.” (Meaning: O Allah! Lord of this complete prayer of ours. By the blessing of it, give Muhammad (PBUH) his eternal rights of intercession, distinction and highest class ( in paradise). And raise him to the promised rank you have promised him.”
Iqamat or Start of Prayer Iqamat is the second call to prayer and is uttering immediately before the beginning of the obligatory prayer with congregation.
Content of the Iqamat Allahu akbar(2x) “ Allah is the Greatest” Ash hadu an la ilahaillallah “ I bear witness that there is no deity except Allah.” Ash haduannaMuhammadar (PBUH) rasullullah“ I bear witness that Muhammad (PBUH) is the Messenger of Allah.” Hayya alas Salah “ Come to prayer” Hayyaalalfalah “ Come to success.” Qadqamatissalah (2x)“ The congregation id ready “ Allahu Akbar (2x) “ Allah is the Greatest.” La ilahaillallah“ There is no deity except Allah”
Requirements of the Prayer( Niyat ) Each prayer is made up of a specified number of ra’kats *, proceeded by the intention made in the heart to perform that particular prayer.
units consisting of standing,
bowing and prostration)
The Sequence of Prayer ( Salah ) Takbir Although Muslims can pray to God at any time or place, and in any language, there are five prayers they are obligated to perform throughout the day. They follow the same pattern so everyone can follow in congregation, and set prayers are always recited in Arabic. Takbir is entering into the state of prayer by glorifying God. Muslims face towards Kaaba in Makkah and make the intention to pray. To begin the act of prayer, they say 'Allahu Akbar' meaning God is great, raising the hands to the ears or shoulder
Takbir Tahrimah Standing upright (unless one is unable), enter the state of prayer by facing the qiblah, lowering the eyes to the ground, raising open hands up to the level of the ears and saying, “ Allahu Akbar “ is it called Takbir Tahrimah Place the right hand over the left on the chest. In this position recite Surah al-Fatihah, followed by another surah or some verses from the Qur’an. ( Al-Fatihah is recited alone in the 3rd and 4thra’kahs.) Recitation Before Al-Fatihah: “ Sobhanakallahwabihamdikawatabarakasmukawata ‘ala jad-dukawalailahaghayruk.” Glory be to you, O Allah, and all praises are due unto you, and blessed is your name and high is your majesty and none is worthy of worship but you.” Ta’awwuz : The person who is praying should say:” A’ usdhubil-lahiminashshaytannir-rajeem.” ( I seek Allah’s protection from Satan who is accursed ) Tasmiah: The person who is praying should say: “ Bismillahhir-rahmanir-raheem.” ( In the Name of Allah, the most kind and the most Merciful.”
Surah al-Fatihah: The person praying should recite Surah al-Fatihah Alhamdu lil-lahi rab-bilalameen. (Praise is only for Allah, the Lord of the whole universe) Ar-rahmanir raheem (The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful) Malikiyawmid- deen (The Master of the Day of Judgment) Iyyakanabuduwaiyyakanasta’een.(You alone we worship and to you alone we pray for help.) Ihdinassiratalmustaqeem (Show us the straight way) Siratallazeena an’ amtaalayhim. (The way of those whom you have blessed) Ghayrilmaghdubialayhim (Who have not deserved you anger) Wa lad dal-leen. Ameen (Nor gone astray) Amen
(Praying Behind an Imam) (Praying Behind an Imam) Read Surah al-Fatihah while praying in congregation, read it in silence.
It is Sunnah to person who is praying that he should read a Surah from the Qur’an after Fatihah in the first Two (2) rakats of the fard prayer. He can recite one or more Surahs Prayer in Congregation
Surak Al-Iklas (The Unity) Qulhuwallahuahad (Say He is Allah, the One and only” Allah hus- samad (Allah is the Eternal Absolute) Lam yalidwalamyulad (He beget not nor He is begotten) Walamyakul-lahukufuwanahad(There is none like unto Him)”
Surah Al-Falaq Qulaudhubirab-bilfalaq (Say I seek refuge in the Lord of the Dawn) Min shar-rimakhalaq(From the evil of all that he created) Wa min shar-ringhasiqinidhawaqab (and from the evil of the darkness of night when it falls,) Wa min shar-rinnaf-fathatifiluqad (and from the evil of those (charmers) who blow into knots) Wa min shar-rihasidinidahhasad(and from the evil of the envier when he envies.)
Surah An-Nas Qula’udhubirab-bin nas ( Say : I seek refuge in the Sustainer of mankind) Malikinnas. Ilahin –nas (The Owner of mankind. Lord of Mankind Min shar-ril was wasil khan-nas(From the evil of the sneaking whisperer) Alladhiyuwaswisu fee sudurin-nas (Who whispers in the heart of mankind ) Minaljin-nati wan-nas (from among jinns or mankind.)
Ruku (Bowing) Say, “ Allahu Akbar,” raising both his hands to shoulder level with the palms facing outwards and fingers stretching to earlobes. He should then bend in ruku or bow, so that his trunk (i.e., from head to hips) is perpendicular to the rest of the body and recite three times (5,7,9,11 et citera), “ Sobhanarabbil al-atheem.” (It means Glory be to my Lord who is the very greatest) During prayer, it is forbidden to fidget or look around. Muslims must pray as though they are in the presence of God, and therefore must be in a state of concentration Bowing Position
Brief qiyaam or Qawmah(Standing after Ruku) Return to the standing position: While moving into the upright position, Muslims recite 'God listens to the one who praises Him' and while in the standing position,, saying,Sami’a Allahu li man hamidah,” (Verily Allah listens to one who praises him.) and then recite, “ Rabbanawalaklhamd.” (Oh , Our Lord, all praises be to you ) Each movement is always preceded by the phrase 'God is Great‘(Allahu Akbar) . This indicates to followers of the prayer that the leader is about to make the next movement. Standing Position
SujudSujud means to prostrate. Sujud / First Sajdah (Prostration). After the qawmah the person praying should move to perform sajdah and Say,” Allahu akbar,” prostrate by placing the forehead and nose on the ground, and recite three times, Sobhana rabbi al- ala.” (Oh , Allah, Glory be to you, the Most High.) In this position, the forehead, hands, knees, and toes should be touching the ground. This is called Sujud.
Prostration to the Ground
Jalsah (Sitting Between Two Sajdah ) Brief sitting ‘( Allahu Akbar ) Allah is Great' is recited while moving to the sitting position. Muslims pause here for a few seconds, either staying silent, or reciting a shorter prayer. (Allahu Akbar) 'Allah is Great' is recited once more as the sujud position is taken again. The Prophet recommended that each movement must last at least the time that it takes for the bones to settle. He compared some people's ruku' and sujud to the way that a crow pecks on the ground, because of the speed at which they perform it. (IbnKhuzaymah)
Say “Allahu Akbar”
The Jalsah Say, “ Allahu Akbar,” and take the sitting position. Say,” Allahu Akbar” and place the forehead on the ground a second time. Recite “Sobhana rabbi al-ala,” three times. Say, “ Allahu Akbar,” and if you have prayed the first or third ra’kah, return to the standing position and repeat the above steps, from the start.
In the second ra’ kah but not final ra’kah, ( Magreb) return to the standing position, saying, “ Allahu akbar,” and repeat steps number 3-8.
Upon reaching the sitting position and recite at- Tahiyyat
and at-Tashahhud (lift the right index finger during the tashahhud ). If you have prayed the second or the last ra’kah (in Magrib prayer, the 3rd ra’kah is the last).
Tashahhud (Explanation ) After saying God is Great, Muslims return to the sitting position. Recite a set number of short prayers in Arabic, praising God, and sending peace on the Prophet. Repeat the declaration of faith, raising the forefinger of their right hand, in order to act as a witness. Then ask God to bestow blessings and peace upon Prophet Abraham and his family, and ask for the same for Prophet Muhammad. Finally, Muslims ask for forgiveness and mercy, and ask God to bless them and their children until the Day of Judgment.
Tashahhud (The recitation in Arabic Transliteration ) The content of Tashahhud for the second Rakat:
“At-tahiy-yatulil-lahi was salawatuwat-tayyibat (All compliments, all physical prayer, and all monetary worship are for Allah) “As-salamualayka ay-yuhan-nabiy-yuwarahmatullahiwabarakatuhu” (Peace be upon you, Oh Prophet (PBUH), and Allah’s mercy and blessing) “ As-salamualaynawa ala ibadil-la his-saliheen.”(Peace be upon us and on all righteous slaves of Allah.) “as-haduanlailahaillallahu” ( I bear witness that no one is worthy of worship except Allah.) “Wa as-ash hadu an-na Muhammad (PBUH) an abduhuwarasuluh.” (And I bear witness that Muhammad (PBUH) is his servant and Messenger.”
(Note: While reciting the “ As hadu … abduhuwarasuluh, a person should raise the index finger of his right hand slightly and return it to its previous position after he has finished saying it.) Tashahhud
A person praying TWO (2 ) rakats only should continue to the next stage which is Salat Alan-Nabi (Darud) After the completion of the last rakat ( Magreb 3 rakat; Duhr , Asr and Isha 4 karat ) He should sit for Tashahhud and Salat Alan-Nabi ( Darud) Salat Al-an Nabi Allah hummasal-li ala Muhammadin (pbuh) wa ala aliMuhammadin (pbuh) (Oh Allah, send grace and honor on Muhammad (pbuh) and on the family and true followers of Muhammad (pbuh) Kama sal-layta ala Ibraheemawa ala aliIbraheema (Just as you sent Grace and Honor on Ibrahim (AS) and on the family and true followers of Ibrahem(SA)) Innakahameedummajeed. (Surely, you are praiseworthy, the Great.)
If a person is praying three or four rakats, then he should stand up after Tashahhud saying “ Allahu Akbar” and raising his hands as he did in Takbir Tahrimah (step no.1), start the recitation with Bismillah … and then SurahFatihah. In the third and fourth Rakat of Fard Prayer, recitation of Fatihah is sufficient. There is no need to say another Surah. However, if praying sunnat or Nafl prayer can read a Surah after Fatihah. Say : Allahu Akbar Recite Al-Fatihah only
After the completion of the last rakat he should sit for Tashahhud and Salat Alan-Nabi ( Darud)) : Salat Alan Nabi ( Darud) Allah hummasal-li ala Muhammadin (PBUH) wa ala aliMuhammadin (PBUH) (Oh Allah, send grace and honor on Muhammad (PBUH) and on the family and true followers of Muhammad (PBUH) Kama sal-layta ala Ibraheemawa ala aliIbraheema (Just as you sent Grace and Honor on Ibrahim (AS) and on the family and true followers of Ibrahem(SA)) Innakahameedummajeed. (Surely, you are praiseworthy, the Great.) Tashahhud and Alan –Nabi ( Darud)
Ending the prayer Peace to the right. To end the prayer, Muslims first turn their face to the right ‘ While turning the head to the extreme right, say,“As-Salamualaykomwarahmatullah.”(Peace be on you and the mercy of Allah.” Peace to the Left Then turn the head to the extreme left and repeat, As-assalamualaykomwarahmatullah.” This releases one from the state of prayer. This is said to the Angels which Muslims believe accompany each human being to record their actions.
It is Sunnah after the completion of any prayer to ask Allah’s forgiveness, to praise Him and to make any supplication (du’a) to Him. Du’as After Salutations There are so many Du’a, which Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) used to say after salutation. Memorized them and follow the practice of the Prophet (PBUH) Some of these Praises as follows: a). Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Greatest) b). Astaghfirul-lah ( I ask Allah to forgive me 3x) c). Allah hummaantassalamuWa minkassalamuTabaraktaya Zaljalaliwalikram (Oh Allah, you are the Peace and you are the source of Peace, You are blessed, O possessor of Glory and honor)
Du’ a ( Supplication ) Allahummaa’innee ala ZikrikaWashukrikawahunsniibadatika ( Oh Allah, help me to remember you all the time, And to thank you, and to worship you perfectly)
Allah humma la mani’a lima a’tayta Wa la mu’tiya lima mana’tawa laYanfa’uZaljad-diminkaljad (Nobody can prevent whatever you want, to give and nobody can give whatever you want to prevent and a person with high rank cannot benefit himself or another from his high rank against your will.”)
Dua ( Supplication ) a).la ilahaillallahuwahdahu la shareekalahu (There is no deity except Allah, He is the only one and has no partner ) lahulmulkuwalahulhamdu (Sovereignty and Praise are only for Him) wahuwa ala kul-li shay-in qadeer ( And He has full authority over everything.”
Wudhu or Ritual Washing Purification is maintained by observing Wudhu (Ablution) in the way prescribed by Allah. The Qur’an says: “ O you who believe ! when you intend to offer As-Salat wash your faces; and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads and wash your feet up to the ankles. “(5:6)
Niyah and Actions for performing Wudhu Sunnah of the Wudhu Intentions (Niyat- intentions is in the heart, not spoken out loud.) Saying Bismillahir rahmanir raheem
Wash the Hands Wash the hands up to the wrist.
The Prophet, peace be upon him, said 'cleanliness is half of faith'.
Wudhu is the ritual washing performed by Muslims before prayer. Muslims must be clean and wear good clothes before they present themselves before God.
Rinse the mouth taking up water with the right hand.
Clean the nose Clean the nose: sniff water up from the right palm and then eject water with the left hand. Wash the Face Washing the face, from ear to ear, and forehead to chin.
Wash the Forearms Washing the forearms, (right forearms first and then left ) including elbows, with water
Wiping the head Wiping over a portion of the head. Wet your fingers and then wipe the head with your fingers starting from the forehead, taking them to the nape of the neck, then bring them back to the forehead.
Clean the Ears Clean the ears by inserting the tips of the index fingers wetted with water into the ears, twist them around the folds of the ears then pass the thumb behind the ears from the button, upwards.
Wash the feet Washing the feet (rights first and then the second), including the ankles.
“ Ashahadu an laailahaillallahuwahdahulaashareekalahuwaashahadu an-na Muhammad (PBUH) an abduhuwarasuluhu.” ( I testify that there is no deity except Allah alone. And I testify that Muhammad (PBUH) is His servant and Messenger.)