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L1 theory behind research methods
 

L1 theory behind research methods

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Presentación del doctor Miguel Ántonio Álvarez Cádiz en el curso de métodos del Doctorado en innovaciones educativas en la UNEFA 2012, Chuao

Presentación del doctor Miguel Ántonio Álvarez Cádiz en el curso de métodos del Doctorado en innovaciones educativas en la UNEFA 2012, Chuao

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  • Atomen en electronen als voorbeeld Sociaal constr: objectiviteit niet belangrijk
  • Despite of continued criticism, the definition of knowledge as ‘justified true belief’ has remained the prevailing definition, and Niedderer (2007) has shown that this understanding of propositional knowledge is implicit in the definition of research because of additional requirements such as the textual/written presentation of an intellectual position (proposition, thesis – ‘true belief’), because of the logic of verification and defence of this intellectual position through argument and evidence (justification), and the requirement for generalisability/transferability and explicit and unambiguous communication.
  • Therefore, I will try to bring structure, first to link the the relevant questions which have to be asked before we start the actual study.
  • Definitions associate the names of entities in the universe of discourse (e.g. classes, relations, functions or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names mean, and formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms.
  • Modelling is not a research method, it’s a tool. Testing the tool is about research
  • Reality. Ho do we know what we know?
  • Colombia: Oslo: research on design education, describing cases from different countries: emancipation: making people aware of design issues.
  • Surveys or interviews are not always the right techniques to answer our specific research questions.
  • Modelling is not a research method, it’s a tool. Testing the tool is about research
  • First resides in people, especially designers. So, it’s obvious to study design ability/expertise + how they learn. Second, it resides I the process: tactics and strategies, and the techniques they use: methodology. Third, design knowledge is in the product: in one system relating the three dimensions Man – Artefact – Ambiance. 
  • Difficulty in research with interpreting the results of a study. Even in ‘hard’ sciences. Example: Geologists have found fossiles in several layers of the surface of the earth. This is the pattern they find.
  • Three groups of geologists (b, c and d) come up with an explanatory model for the findings of the geologists (a). Different interpretations can be based on the same empirical data.
  • For qualitative data such as ‘thinking aloud’ protocol, the interpretation is even harder.

L1 theory behind research methods L1 theory behind research methods Presentation Transcript

  • Innovative Design & Manufacturing Research Centre University of Bath “World-leading research in engineering design and manufacture.”IdMRC Social Research Methods Autumn Lecture-Workshop Series
  • ESQUEMAS DE DISEÑO DE INVESTIGACIÒN• Enfoque cuantitativo• Enfoque cualitativo• Enfoque utilizando métodos mixtos • Elementos del esquema: • Supuestos filosóficos (Qué constituye el conocimiento) • Procedimientos de investigación (Estrategia de búsqueda) • Los métodos: • Procedimientos detallados de recolección de datos o información • Estrategia de análisis de la información • Reporte de los hallazgos
  • Esquemas: Para su propuesta de un diseño de investigación contéstese cuatro preguntas:• ¿Cuál posición epistemológica?. Teoría del conocimiento que subyace en la perspectiva teórica que Ud. ostente. (ej.: Objetivismo, subjetivismo)• ¿Cuál Perspectiva teórica? Sustento filosófico detrás de la metodología a utilizar.• ¿Qué metodología? Estrategia o plan de acción que conectará los métodos que utilizará y concatenará los hallazgos. (ej.: experimental, survey, etnografía, etc.)• ¿Cuáles métodos? Técnicas y procedimientos que se propone utilizar. (ej.: cuestionario, entrevista, grupo focal,)
  • Orden de las preguntas ¿Qué métodos utilizaré? ¿Cuál metodología define el uso de esos métodos? ¿Desde cuál perspectiva teórica empezamos para aplicar la metodología correcta o más adecuada? ¿ Qué posición epistemológica sustenta la perspectiva teórica seleccionada?  ¿Qué conocemos?  Lo ontológico. Sobre la naturaleza de la realidad.  ¿Cómo lo conocemos?.  Lo epistemológico. Sobre la naturaleza de la relación investigador-objeto.  ¿Con cuáles valores?. Lo axiológico. Sobre los valores  ¿Cómo lo escribimos?. Lo retórico. Sobre el análisis del discurso  ¿Con cuál proceso lo estudiamos?. Lo metodológico
  • Epistemology Theoretical Methodology Methods perspectiveobjectivism experimental scaling positivism questionnairessubjectivism Interpretativism descriptive observation symbolic survey interview interactionism ethnography focus group heuristic case study phenomenology narratives hermeneutics action research ethnographic feminism discourse anal. stat analysis evaluation data reduction (post)modernism cognitive mapping Social-constructivism interpretative meth document analysis content analysis conversation anal.
  • ESQUEMAS PARA LA PROPUESTA DE DISEÑO DE INVESTIGACIÓN CUALITATIVA, CONSTRUCTIVISTA PROPUESTA CUANTITATIVA• Introduction • Introduction – Statement of the problem (including – Statement of the problem existing literature about the problem) – Purpose of he study – Purpose of the study – Theoretical perspective – The research questions – Research question or hypotheses – Delimitations and limitations – Definition of terms• Procedures – Delimitations and limitations – Characteristics of qualitative research • Review of the literature (optional) • Methods – Qualitative research strategy – Type of research design – Role of the researcher – Sample, population and participants – Data collection procedures – Data collection instruments, variables, – Data analysis procedures and materials – Strategies for validating findings – Data analysis procedures – Narrative structure • Anticipated ethical issues in the study• Anticipated ethical issues • Preliminary studies or pilot tests• Significance of the study • Significance of the study• Preliminary pilot findings • Appendixes: Instruments, timeline, and• Expected outcomes proposed budget• Appendices: interview questions, observational forms, timeline, and proposed budget 6/24
  • PROPUESTA DE FORMATO MIXTO• Introduction • Statement of the problem • Purpose of the study (include both quantitative and quantitative • Statements and a relational for mixing methods) • Research questions(include both qualitative and quantitative) • Review of the literature (separate section, if quantitative)• Procedures or methods • Characteristics of mixed methods research • Type of mixed methods design (including decision involved in its choice) • Visual model and procedures of the design • Data collection procedures • Types of data • Sampling strategy • Data analysis and validity procedures • Report presentation structure• Role of the researcher• Potential ethical issue • Significance of the study • Preliminary pilot findings • Expected outcomes• Appendixes: instruments or protocols, outline for chapters, and proposed budge
  • Science• Aim?• When is knowledge scientific knowledge? • Criteria?• Knowledge sources?• When is research scientific research? Henri Christiaans
  • Science• Realism What we observe is real• Instrumentalism What we observe doesn’t need to be real• Social constructivism Theories only get meaning through social and political context
  • What is Knowledge?• Justified true belief (Plato’s Theaetetus)• The Greeks classify knowledge into 2 types: • Doxa (believed to be true) • Episteme (known to be true)• Doxa  Epistime • Through Scientific process of inquiry• How do we know what we know? • Define knowledge alternatively • Supported by evidence (usually empirical) • Conceive knowledge claims in a probabilistic sense • Knowledge is a matter of societal acceptance
  • How is Knowledge Acquired?• Role of science, where science is a convention, related to societal norms, expectations, values, etc.• Thus, is science equals any scholarly attempt at acquiring knowledge• Science requires conventions to be followed
  • How is Knowledge Acquired?• Role of science, where science is a convention, related to societal norms, expectations, values, etc.• Thus, is science equals any scholarly attempt at acquiring knowledge• Science requires conventions to be followed
  • Knowledge in design• Implicit prioritisation of the (language-based mode of) propositional knowledge (justified true beliefs) seems to exclude certain kinds or formats of knowledge associated with practice, which are often called practical, experiential, personal, or tacit knowledge and which evade verbal articulation.
  • Knowledge sources• Observation • Experiments/measurements• The Reason • Mathematics/logical reasoning• Intuition• Authority• (Divine) Revelation
  • Science based on empirismEmpirism:Knowledge derived from how the world is experienced.Scientific statements are controlled by and derived from ourexperiences and observations. enScientific theories developed and tested by experiments andobservations through empirical methods
  • Questions to be asked1. Which methods do we plan to use?2. Which methodology defines the use of methods?3. Which theoretical perspective do we start from in order to apply the right methodology?4. Which epistemology feeds this theoretical perspective?
  • Ontology1. A systematic account of Existence. Nature of the world around us.2. (From philosophy) An explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them.3. The hierarchical structuring of knowledge about things by subcategorising them according to their essential (or at least relevant and/or cognitive) qualities.
  • Epistemology and ontologyThe way of understanding and interpreting how weknow what we know.Particular methodologies tend to entail (subscribe to)particular epistemologies and, in their turn, particularforms of ontology
  • Ontology in Computing Terms• For AI systems, what "exists" is that which can be represented.• We can describe the ontology of a program by defining a set of representational terms. Definitions associate the names of entities in the universe of discourse (e.g. classes, relations, functions or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names mean, and formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms. Formally, an ontology is the statement of a logical theory.• A set of agents that share the same ontology will be able to communicate about a domain of discourse without necessarily operating on a globally shared theory. The idea of ontological commitment is based on the Knowledge-Level perspective.
  • Epistemology• From the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge.• Refers to our theory of knowledge, in particular, how we acquire knowledge (Hirschheim, 1992).
  • Research backgroundEpistemology Theoretical Methodology Methods perspectiveobjectivism experimental scaling positivism questionnairessubjectivism Interpretativism descriptive observation symbolic survey interview interactionism ethnography focus group heuristic case study phenomenology narratives hermeneutics action research ethnographic feminism discourse anal. stat analysis evaluation data reduction (post)modernism cognitive mapping Social- interpretative meth constructivism document analysis content analysis conversation anal. Crotty, 1998
  • Research backgroundEpistemology Theoretical Methodology Methods perspectiveobjectivism experimental scaling positivism questionnairessubjectivism Interpretativism descriptive observation symbolic survey interview interactionism ethnography focus group heuristic case study phenomenology narratives hermeneutics action research ethnographic feminism discourse anal. stat analysis evaluation data reduction (post)modernism cognitive mapping Social- interpretative meth constructivism document analysis content analysis conversation anal.
  • Theoretical perspectivePhilosophical point of view which feeds the methodology andoffers a context for the process and the logics, and gives ourcriteria a basis.Cultural differences play a role
  • Research backgroundEpistemology Theoretical Methodology Methods perspectiveobjectivism experimental scaling positivism questionnairessubjectivism Interpretivism descriptive observation symbolic survey interview interactionism ethnography focus group heuristic case study phenomenology narratives hermeneutics action research ethnographic feminism discourse anal. statistical analysis evaluation data reduction (post)modernism cognitive mapping Social- interpretative meth constructivism document analysis content analysis conversation anal. Crotty, 1998
  • Three Main Epistemologies Positivist Interpretivist Critical
  • InterpretivismInterpretivism rests upon idealism:•the world is interpreted through the mind; e.g., classificatoryschemes of species;•the social world cannot be described without investigating howpeople use language and symbols to construct what social practices;i.e., understand their experience;•the social world becomes the creation of the purposeful actions ofconscious agents; and•no social explanation was complete unless it could adequatelydescribe the role of meanings in human actions•Actions are not governed by discrete patterns of cause and effect(as in positivism), but by rules that social actors use to interpret theworld
  • Positivist Science• 5 Pillars • Unity of scientific method • Causal Relationships • Empiricism • Science and its process is Value-Free • Foundation of science is based on logic and maths
  • Ontology of Positivism• Realism• Universe comprised of objectively given, immutable objects and structures, existing as empirical entities, on their own, independent of the observer’s appreciation of them.• Contrasts with relativism or instrumentalism, where reality is a subjective construction of the mind, thus varying with different languages and cultures.• While hugely successful in physical sciences, it is not as successful for social science.
  • Anti-Positivism• Latter part of 19th century• Man as an actor could not be studied through the methods of natural sciences that focus on establishing general laws. In the cultural sphere man is free (Burrell and Morgan, 1979)
  • Post-Positivism• Based on the concept of critical realism, that there is a real world out there independent of our perception of it and that the objective of science is to try and understand it,• combined with triangulation, i.e., the recognition that observations and measurements are inherently imperfect and hence the need to measure phenomena in many ways.• The post-positivist epistemology regards the acquisition of knowledge as a process that is more than mere deduction. Knowledge is acquired through both deduction and induction.
  • Simon versus Schon Designer Designerobjective Analysis Objective Analysis subjective Interpretation design design Design Task design Problem Solution (= problem + Solution situation+ teime) 07-06-12 Rational Solving Problem Paradigm Reflection in Action Paradigm Rationalist Root Constructivist Root POSITIVISM PHENOMENOLOGY
  • MethodologyOur strategy and action plans, the design process whichdefines what specific methods we will choose
  • Research backgroundEpistemology Theoretical Methodology Methods perspectiveobjectivism experimental scaling positivism questionnairessubjectivism Interpretativism descriptive observation symbolic survey interview interactionism ethnography focus group heuristic case study phenomenology narratives hermeneutics action research ethnographic feminism discourse anal. statistical analysis evaluation data reduction (post)modernism cognitive mapping Social- interpretative meth constructivism document analysis content analysis conversation anal. Crotty, 1998
  • Types of ResearchAnalytical Historical Philosophical Literature study Meta-analysis-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Descriptive Survey (questionnaire, interview) Case study Task analysis Document analysis Correlation anal. Observation Etnographics-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Explorative Survey Correlational Case study Experimental-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Experimental Pre-experimental True-experimental Quasi-experimental-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • Ethnographics
  • Types of research methods empirical participatory quantitative inductive prescriptiveidiographic nomothetic descriptive deductive unbiased qualitative rational
  • Fundamental Research: the Empirical cycle induction describing/ hypotheses generalising interpreting modelling Explaining/ interpreting knowledge problem theory modelling specifying evaluation deduction prediction evaluating testing testing ‘t Hart c.s.
  • Practice oriented Research: The regulative cycle describing/ diagnosis generalising interpreting modelling designing planproblem from practice (problem solving) deciding evaluating intervention evaluation action-process supporting observing process evaluation ‘t Hart c.s.
  • MethodThe technique to gather data, related to the research question.
  • Research backgroundEpistemology Theoretical Methodology Methods perspectiveobjectivism experimental scaling positivism questionnairessubjectivism Interpretativism descriptive observation symbolic survey interview interactionism ethnography focus group heuristic case study phenomenology narratives hermeneutics action research ethnographic feminism discourse anal. stat analysis evaluation data reduction (post)modernism cognitive mapping interpretative meth document analysis content analysis conversation anal. Crotty, 1998
  • Qualitative Positivist Research versusNon-Qualitative Positivist Research QPR Methods Non-QPR Methods Field experiment Math Modeling (analytical modeling) Lab experiment Group feedback Free simulation experiment Participative research Experimental simulation Case study Adaptive experiment Philosophical research Field study Opinion research Archival research Table 1. QPR versus Non-QPR Methods (Click on the method for its definition) 41
  • Type of Research, General Research Approaches,Data Collection Techniques, & Data Analysis Techniques
  • Design-Led Design-Led Critical Design Probes generative tools Participatory mindset Design and EmotionExpert mindset User-centered Participatory Design Design contextual enquiry Lead-user inovation Dutch/Scandi Usability testing navian design applied ethnography Human factors and ergonomics Sanders, 2002 Research-Led Research-Led
  • Design-Led Design-Led Critical Design Probes generative tools Participatory mindset Design and EmotionExpert mindset User-centered Participatory Design Design contextual enquiry Lead-user inovation Dutch/Scandi Usability testing navian design applied ethnography Human factors and ergonomics Sanders, 2002 Research-Led Research-Led
  • Research backgroundEpistemology Theoretical Methodology Methods perspectiveobjectivism experimental scaling positivism questionnairessubjectivism Interpretativism descriptive observation symbolic survey interview interactionism ethnography focus group heuristic case study phenomenology narratives hermeneutics action research ethnographic feminism discourse anal. statistic. analysis evaluation data reduction (post)modernism cognitive mapping interpretative meth document analysis content analysis conversation anal. Crotty, 1998
  • Definitions Research’ = the systematic inquiry to the end of gaining new knowledge ‘researcher’ = a person who pursues research (e.g., in design). ractice’ = professional practice (e.g., in design) or to processes usually used in professional practice to produce professional work for any purpose other than the (deliberate) acquisition of knowledge. Practitioner’ = anyone who works in professional practice.
  • Design Knowledge Process (design methodology)product people designers
  • Design knowledge• Design knowledge resides firstly in people: in designers especially. Therefore, we study human ability - of how people design. This suggests, for example, empirical studies of design behaviour, but it also includes theoretical deliberation and reflection on the nature of design ability. It also relates strongly to considerations of how people learn to design
  • Design knowledge• Design knowledge resides firstly in people: in designers especially. Therefore, we study of human ability - of how people design. This suggests, for example, empirical studies of design behaviour, but it also includes theoretical deliberation and reflection on the nature of design ability. It also relates strongly to considerations of how people learn to design.• Design knowledge resides secondly in processes: in the tactics and strategies of designing. A major area of design research is methodology: the study of the processes of design, and the development and application of techniques which aid the designer.
  • Design knowledge• Design knowledge resides firstly in people: in designers especially. Therefore, we study of human ability - of how people design. This suggests, for example, empirical studies of design behaviour, but it also includes theoretical deliberation and reflection on the nature of design ability. It also relates strongly to considerations of how people learn to design• Design knowledge resides secondly in processes: in the tactics and strategies of designing. A major area of design research is methodology: the study of the processes of design, and the development and application of techniques which aid the designer.• The product dimension asks for forms and materials, and finishes with the embodiment of design attributes: both the intentional world (teleological and functional –wishes and needs–) in relation with the principal, partial and elementary function and the man’s connection with the systemic formal and material part (structure, organization, parts and connections).
  • Design ResearchTerry Love’s view:• Design Research is dominated by two contradicting incompatible approaches: • Scientific: design can be completely understood • Interpretive: design is an ‘intuitive’ activity, dependent on creativity, and scientifically inaccessible• The approaches are epistemologically and practically contradictory in that scientific empiricism and interpretivistic exploration regard each other’s central assumptions as invalid. • Empirical scientific research specifically excludes subjective reporting as reliable evidence. • Interpretive approaches deny that the scientific empirical approach addresses the central target of design research – the human internal creative design activities
  • Design Research Scientific InterpretiveTheoretical Scientific, usually based on physics Interpretive, focusing on individuals’ experiences, theirperspective construction of understanding, perceptions and interpretation of reality. Often centres on individual creativity and subjective perceptions relating to being creative.Focus Empirical realities of the design Experiences of designers and processes, design objects, design other design constituents. Tries brief and contexts. to identify form of internal The core concept of ‘design’ is creative design activities from defined in terms of these activities. observation of externalities. Typically defines design in terms of creativity, art, individual genius and socio-cultural influences
  • Design Research Scientific InterpretiveView of Design Design is a process. Intuitive, involving hidden aspects of May or may not include human subjective thinking and creativity. affective activity.View of ‘Something, or a Human internal activity that results in specification for something, ideas for new, unusual, highly valued,creativity is “created”’. never before created things, emerging ‘magically’ from the genius of designers. Creation can be achieved mechanically, by Focus on ‘individual creativity’ automation or intuitively. attributed to specific ‘designers’ and socio-cultural influences.
  • Design Research Scientific InterpretiveData collection Similar to physics and Drawn from various qualitative natural sciences. traditions, e.g. anthropology, ethnography, history, includes self reporting data collection.Analysis Similar to physics and Drawn from various qualitative natural sciences. traditions, e.g. anthropology,methods ethnography, history, includes reflective analysis of self reports and self perception.Knowledge Discipline specific empirical Tacit and embodied skills of designers information (along with) and users.focus elicited representations of Culturally-determined knowledge. tacit information and data Embedded meanings. that designers use.
  • Scientific InterpretiveStrengths 1. Techniques to investigate 1. Focus on human considerations, phenomena in ways that are such as the human creative aspects of transparent, repeatable, testable, design, and how users and other and verifiable. interpret designed outcomes. 2. Research methods are 2. Interpretive methods give space for expressed in a formal language designers and users to explain, in their that enables precise critique of own words, and from their own the data collection techniques, perspectives, how they design and use methods of analysis, processes designed outcomes and how they that lead to abstractions, and the communicate with others about theory abstractions and designs. conclusions. 3. Interpretive methods also allow 3. Correspondence between exploration of opinions of users about characteristics of phenomena cultural aspects of particular designs. and the formal defined symbolic 4. The interpretive approach can be language of concepts and extended to draw strength from the operations in which use of large data sets by which mathematically theories and correlations and measures of representations of the confidence in them can be established phenomena are expressed. between individuals’ ‘stories’ and the phenomena being studied.
  • Scientific InterpretiveWeaknesses Scientific empirical method does Main weakness is lack of reliability of not adequately address human individuals’ evidence, perceptions and subjective, interpretive and interpretations i.e. lack of correlation experiential phenomena except between what people say and reality. via physiological substrates. Evidence of this problem in studies of e.g. witness testimony, reliability of memory, relationships between reported thoughts and physiological evidence, influence of subconscious ‘thinking’, mental illusions and delusions in normal people. ‘False consciousness’: people’s representations of themselves are inaccurate or simply wrong. Extends to individuals descriptions of processes, and the social activities that they undertake.
  • Scientific InterpretiveContradictions There is an incompatibility There is tension between interpretive between scientific modelling of approaches that focus on experiential design process and inclusion of subjective phenomenological aspects a process element ‘create a of human creative design activity and new solution’ as a subjective the frequent shift of emphasis onto human activity. aspects of design and creative activity that are more accessible empirically using a physical science approach. Claims that all sub-fields of design are incommensurate as they use different knowledge There is an epistemological (and that the broader field of inconsistency in claims that Design design is fundamentally exists of itself as a phenomena fragmented) is at odds with capable of creative agency and action. scientific representation of designers working across disciplines and in multi-cross- and trans-disciplinary teams.
  • Design ResearchLove’s proposal:a unified basis for design theory bridging these two incompatible approaches.Advantages• It provides a coherent epistemological basis for new theories• It recasts prior research and theory within a justified integrated framework with a clear epistemology and ontology.• This in turn provides the basis for developing a design field.
  • Foundations for a unified basis• Designs (i.e. the specification for creating or doing something)• Designed outcomes (after they are manufactured/actualised)• Design activity• Design processes• The skills of designers• The role of design activity• Cognitive design processes• Behaviour of designers as individuals and in social groups• Combinations of the above
  • Epistemologies Assumptions forQualitative and Quantitative Research
  • Deductive logic of quantitative research Researcher tests or verifies a theory Researcher tests hypotheses or research questions Researcher defines and operationalizes variables derived from the theory Researcher measures or observes variables using an instrument to obtain scores Creswell, 2003
  • Inductive logic of qualitative research Generalizations or theories to past experiences and literature Researcher looks for broad patterns. Generalizations or Theories from Themes or Categories Researcher analyze data to form themes or categories Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants or records field-notes Researcher gathers information e.g. interviews, observations Creswell, 2003
  • Qualitative vs Quantitative Quantitative Qualitative Purpose General Laws Unique/Individual case Test Hypotheses Understanding Predict behavior Meanings/IntentionsPerspective Outsider-Objective Insider-SubjectiveProcedures Structured Unstructured formal measures open ended measures probability samples judgement samples statistical analysis interpretation of data
  • Qualitative Research Triangulation By using several data collecting methods – field notes, interviews, narratives – a complete picture of the phenomenon can be provided
  • Interpretation: observation of speciesa• - -
  • Interpretation a• - b - c d
  • Interpretation: observation of discourse J (reading) pack is firmly attached to the bike positioning of the backpack was alright fact that the centre of gravity of the backpack is placed rather far to the back of the bike (inaudible) I do we have any … em... J theres a problem with potholes .. the backpack tends to slide up and down which adversely influences stability I guess when you hit bumps I isnt that in the negative? J mm yeah well the product was considered ugly well thats solvable (laughter) we can fix that one if nothing else ... it takes a while to get used to cycling with this weight; mistakes are made attaching the fastening device to the bike so it has to be easy to attach K with only one yeah gotta be fool proof so thats part of our J yeah that should be in our spec K functional spec
  • The role of interpretation Gap between objects and our representations, in 3 forms (methodological horrors, Woolgar 88): 1. Indexicality 2. Inconcludability 3. Reflexivity
  • THANK YOU!