10/16/2013

Expectations for the day

Portugal

Henrique Narciso
Consultant – PHD student
Engenhus – Robert Gordon Univers...
© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved.

A

Change

9

11

© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – ...
10/16/2013

Change : elements of change

13

© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved.

© 2013 CMMI Po...
10/16/2013

Reinforcement strategies

In any project of planned behaviour change a number of steps will
be required:
• Ste...
10/16/2013

Summary of cognitive approach
Summary of cognitive approach
Builds on the behaviourist approach by putting
beh...
10/16/2013

Useful for managers who want to understand the reactions of their
staff during a change process and deal with ...
10/16/2013

A

Exercise - examination

A

–
–
–
–
–
–

Repeat previous exercice, always in the same place.

Anger?
Pleasur...
10/16/2013

1. Direct the Rider
2. Motivate the Elephant
3. Shape the Path

43

© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – A...
10/16/2013

Change chairs with someone

Write down what happened at the following stages:
– Anouncement
– From anouncement...
10/16/2013

Staying on budget

55

© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved.

© 2013 CMMI Portugal Con...
© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved.

K
63

ADKAR© Model

Because it makes sense
Because it is ea...
10/16/2013

K

ADKAR Model

Awareness and Desire

Desire
Knowledge
Ability
Reinforcement

67

© 2013 CMMI Portugal Confere...
10/16/2013

73

© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved.

© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – Al...
10/16/2013

Knowledge

The individual who is making the change
ultimately begins doing things the new way.
It involves:

G...
10/16/2013

Reinforcement

Knowledge, Ability and
Reinforcement - Summary

© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Ri...
10/16/2013

Write down what happened at the following stages:
– Anouncement
– From anouncement to understandment
– From si...
10/16/2013

K

Exercise - Preparation

K

Exercise - Preparation

D

K

A

R

Example A
Example B
Example C
Example D

97
...
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ADKAR eye glasses

A

Everything becomes “seen” throught the eye glasses of
ADKAR
Planing: tasks become overal...
10/16/2013

Frequency

Without change
management

Project details, design details, status and progress
updates, milestones...
10/16/2013

Element

Execution plan vs telling plan

Objective

Examples


Objective

Examples


© 2013 CMMI Portugal Co...
© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved.

123

125
© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Right...
© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved.

129

131
© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Right...
© 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved.

10/16/2013

Obrigado!

Henrique Narciso
HNARCISO@GMAIL.COM
...
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III Conferência CMMI Portugal, Workshop 1: Introduction to change Management, Henrique Narciso, Robert Gordon University

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Workshop introducing change management techniques to do process improvements.

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III Conferência CMMI Portugal, Workshop 1: Introduction to change Management, Henrique Narciso, Robert Gordon University

  1. 1. 10/16/2013 Expectations for the day Portugal Henrique Narciso Consultant – PHD student Engenhus – Robert Gordon University 2013-10-17 What are they? © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Change Management Introduction to change Management 2 Something personal Some individual A group of people A tool An ability The way you teach/influence people Change Change Management History o change management – Four approaches to individual change Clauses of change management Change Management Models ADKAR Model – Individual ADKAR Model – Organizational – Comunication(with and without change management) 3 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Agenda © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Agenda A Planing with change Management Interaction of organizational and individual change management Three phase process to Organizational Change Management 5 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Exercise What do you want to change? 4 What is Change Brainstorm exercise Definitions What is change… 6 1
  2. 2. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. A Change 9 11 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 7 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. The river is always changing.. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 10/16/2013 You never step into the same river twice You never step into the same river twice Greek philosopher, Heraclitus Greek philosopher, Heraclitus A Change reaction phases The river is always changing.. The person is not the same, the second time around 8 Fear Piramid 10 Change : Stages of change 12 2
  3. 3. 10/16/2013 Change : elements of change 13 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Change : Stages of change Change vs Change management Effects of Missing Links Skills Incentives Resources Action Plan Change! Skills Vision Incentives Resources Action Plan Confusion Incentives Resources Action Plan Anxiety Resources Action Plan Gradual Change Action Plan Frustration Vision Vision Skills Vision Skills Incentives Vision Skills Incentives Resources False Starts 14 Four approaches to individual change Change Management – supporting individuals through their own personal transition 15 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Change – moving form a current state to a future state Rewards and punishments Change another individual’s behaviour using reward and punishment, to achieve intended results. Preferred behaviour of the individual must be encouraged to behave that way, and discouraged from behaving any other way. This approach has its advantages and disadvantages 17 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH TO CHANGE 16 18 3
  4. 4. 10/16/2013 Reinforcement strategies In any project of planned behaviour change a number of steps will be required: • Step 1: The identification of the behaviours that impact performance. • Step 2: The measurement of those behaviours. How much are these behaviours currently in use? • Step 3: A functional analysis of the behaviours – that is, the identification of the component parts that make up each behaviour. • Step 4: The generation of a strategy of intervention – what rewards and punishments should be linked to the behaviours that impact performance. • Step 5: An evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention strategy. Financial reinforcement Non-financial reinforcement – Feedback – Social reinforcement 19 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. So in what ways may behaviourism help us? Summary of behavioural approach 21 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Motivation and behaviour 20 McGregor’s Theory X: “the only way to motivate and align workers to the change effort is through a combination of rewards and punishments.” 22 Cognitive psychology developed out of a frustration with the behaviourist approach. The behaviourists focused solely on observable behaviour. Cognitive psychologists were much more interested in learning about developing the capacity for language and a person’s capacity for problem solving. Things that happen within a person’s brain. These are the internal processes which behavioural psychology did not focus on. 23 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. THE COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CHANGE • Self concept and values: what are my core values and how do they fit together with those of my organization? • Beliefs and attitudes: what are my limiting beliefs and attitudes and with what do I replace them? • Feelings: what is my most effective state of being to accomplish my goals and how do I access it? • Behaviour: what specifically do I need to be doing to achieve my goals and what is my first step? • Results: what specific outcomes do I want and what might get in the way? 24 People control their own destinies by believing in and acting on the values and beliefs that they hold. R Quackenbush, Central Michigan University 4
  5. 5. 10/16/2013 Summary of cognitive approach Summary of cognitive approach Builds on the behaviourist approach by putting behaviour into the context of beliefs, and focusing more firmly on outcomes. Positive listings Affirmations Visualizations Reframing Pattern breaking Detachment Anchoring and resource states Rational analysis 25 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Techniques for change Many cognitive techniques are used in the field of management today, particularly in the coaching arena. Approach : building a positive mental attitude and some stretching goals, backed up by a detailed look at what limiting beliefs produce behaviour that becomes self-defeating. A drawback is: lack of recognition of the inner emotional world of the individual, and the positive and negative impact that this can have when attempting to manage change. Some obstacles to change need to be worked through, and cannot be made ‘OK’ by reframing or positive talk. 26 Research published by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross (1969). The word ‘psychodynamic’ is based on the idea that when facing change in the external world, an individual can experience a variety of internal psychological states. As with the behavioural and cognitive approaches to change, research into the psychodynamic approach began not in the arena of organizations, but for Kubler-Ross in the area of terminally ill patients. Later research showed that individuals going through changes within organizations can have very similar experiences, though perhaps less dramatic and less traumatic. 27 29 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. The idea that humans go through a psychological process during change. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH TO CHANGE 28 30 5
  6. 6. 10/16/2013 Useful for managers who want to understand the reactions of their staff during a change process and deal with them. Allows managers to gain an understanding of why people react the way they do. It identifies what is going on in the inner world of their staff when they encounter change. The models presented simplify what can be quite a complex process. Individuals do not necessarily know that they are going through different phases. What they may experience is a range of different emotions (or lack of emotion), which may cluster together into different groupings which could be labelled one thing or another. Any observer, at the time, might see manifestations of these different emotions played out in the individual’s behaviour. 31 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Summary of psychodynamic approach 32 Combines some of the insights from the previous three approaches while at the same time developing its own. United States during the 1950s and 1960s. The American Association of Humanistic Psychology describes it as ‘concerned with topics having little place in existing theories and systems: e.g. love, creativity, self, growth… self-actualization, higher values, being, becoming, responsibility, meaning… transcendental experience, peak experience, courage and related concepts’. Lets look at how the humanistic approach differs from the behavioural and cognitive approaches, list some of the key assumptions of this approach, and look at three important models within humanistic psychology. 33 Maslow and the hierarchy of needs © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. THE HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY APPROACH TO CHANGE A 34 Exercise - Preparation 35 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. In pairs, both standing, one closes the eyes. The other touchs diferent places, never in the same place. From touch, transform to push and then to hiting lightly And change. 36 6
  7. 7. 10/16/2013 A Exercise - examination A – – – – – – Repeat previous exercice, always in the same place. Anger? Pleasure? Confusion? Confort? Disconfort? When did the same movement become “accepted” 37 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. What was felt? Exercise - Preparation From touch, transform to push and then to hiting lightly And change places. 38 Maslow and the hierarchy of needs Change affects what aspects of the pyramid? – – – – – – Anger? Pleasure? Confusion? Confort? Disconfort? When did the same movement become “accepted” 39 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Exercise - examination What was felt? A Elephant, the rider and the path 41 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Gestalt cycle 40 42 7
  8. 8. 10/16/2013 1. Direct the Rider 2. Motivate the Elephant 3. Shape the Path 43 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. A A 45 Exercise - Preparation What do I mean? – Show it Henrique! jumped!” © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Management interventions © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Summary of humanistic psychology approach A “When I bundgee 47 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Elephant, the rider and the path For the manager, the world of humanistic psychology opens up some interesting possibilities and challenges. For years we have been told that the world of organizations is one that is ruled by the rational mind. Daniel Goleman’s (1998) on emotional intelligence and management competence suggest that what makes for more effective managers is their degree of emotional self-awareness and ability to engage with others on an emotional level. Humanistic psychology would not only agree, but would go one step further in stating that without being fully present emotionally in the situation you cannot be fully effective, and you will not be able to maximize your learning or anyone else’s learning. 44 Exercise - Preparation Recall all and every feeling changes , they will be explained in a phase by phase diagram The detail is very important Start from where you are now The stages are: – very detailed and short so be very aware of your feelings It’s time do be sensitive Major – – – phases Exercise anouncement Every major step done till completion After completion of the exercice 46 Exercise - Preparation – Major phases • Exercise anouncement • Every major step done till completion • After completion of the exercice Ready? Any questions? Don’t wory if you are not sensitive  48 8
  9. 9. 10/16/2013 Change chairs with someone Write down what happened at the following stages: – Anouncement – From anouncement to understandment – From sitting to standing up – From the stand up position to the first step – From the first step to the location – The swap – The act of sitting down – After sitting down – When did you dicide with who to change chairs? 49 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Exercise breakdown © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Exercise Importance of change management 50 Clauses of the change management 51 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Brainstorm… Meeting objectives Change Management has only on goal: To improve project and organizational sucess Strong correlation betwee change management effectiveness and projects meeting objectives 53 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Clause 3 52 54 9
  10. 10. 10/16/2013 Staying on budget 55 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Staying on schedule 56 Clause 2 The correlations between change management effectiveness and schedule and budget adherence may seem counter-intuitive at first. The letters R & E help us understand why this correlation exists. When the people side of change is ignored and only comes to light when a go-live date is greeted with outrage and resistance, teams have to go back to the drawing board. REwork, REdesign, REevaluate, REvisit - these are the costly R & E consequences when the people side of change is neglected. Each of these R & E consequences - rework, redesign, reevaluate, revisit - add cost and time to a project. By proactively building employee support and commitment with change management, these R & E costs can be avoided and mitigated. This is why, despite how it might seem to a project leader, effective change management actually increases the likelihood of finishing on time and on budget. Organizacional change causes and depends on individual change: – A new process only delivers value if people follow it – A new technology only produces value if people use it 57 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Two costly letters - R & E The individual is the unit of change 58 Let’s debate on this No longer “ad hoc” – Or just communications – Or just trainning Growing set of tools, processes, skills and principles Change happens one person at a time 59 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Clause 1 The organizational future state comes from individual change © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Organizational change Structured, intentional, research-based, holistic approaches drive results 60 10
  11. 11. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. K 63 ADKAR© Model Because it makes sense Because it is easy to learn Because you start seeing change through ADKAR glasses Because it drives action 65 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 61 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. A © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 10/16/2013 Change Models Personal confession All Models were Bookshelf models K www.change-management.com K Until one … 62 ADKAR© Model Overview Awereness Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement 64 ADKAR© Model 66 11
  12. 12. 10/16/2013 K ADKAR Model Awareness and Desire Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement 67 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Awareness Awareness and Desire are the first two building blocks of Prosci's ADKAR Model. For a change to be successful, an individual must first understand why a change is necessary, followed by a personal decision to support and participate in the change. Yet achieving these seemingly simple building blocks is not as easy as it sounds. In fact, some of the greatest challenges for change management professionals lie within these first two elements of the ADKAR model. This tutorial begins to reveal why these two elements require a carefully architected change management strategy in order for your changes to be successful. 68 Awereness Any successful change begins with the answer to one of the most basic questions about change: Why? Building Awareness can be much more difficult than it sounds. It is human nature to want to understand the reasoning behind an action or a required change. "Awareness of the need for change" - and not simply "Awareness that a change is happening". It means: clearly explaining the business drivers or opportunities that have resulted in the need for change. addressing why a change is needed now, and explaining the risk of not changing. We have only succeeded at building Awareness when "I understand the nature of the change and why this change is needed" 69 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Awereness Awereness When you hear a proposed change: - Do you trust the "sender" of the change message? - Do you believe the reasons they are providing about why the change is needed. - Even in our everyday life, we encounter many ideas for change in which we do not agree with the messages being provided to us. As a change manager, you will need to understand the activities that drive awareness, and at the same time, take into account those "resisting factors" or restraining forces that prevent the awareness message from taking hold with your audiences. In some cases the resisting factors are so strong, that even the best communications plan will be insufficient. Effective change management plans are designed to surface and deal with these resisting factors. 70 Desire What builds Awareness of the need for change?  Communications from others Potential Resisting Factors:  Comfort with the status quo  Access to information  Credibility of the source or sender of the message  An event  Denial that the reasons for change are real  An observable condition  Debate over the reasons for change  Rumors or misinformation  General perception of the people closest to me (if different than the public message) Examples:  Sponsor messages  Managers’ conversations  General employee communications  Readily-available business information  Catastrophic disaster  Gradually weakening financial performance 71 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Awareness 72 12
  13. 13. 10/16/2013 73 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Desire Desire Fear of consequence (risk or penalty)  Willingness to follow a leader you trust  Alternative is worse  Fear of the unknown  Change not aligned with a person's self-interest or values  No answer to What's In It For Me? (WIIFM)  Negative history with change on a personal level (low confidence of success)  An individual’s personal situation - financial, career, family, health  An organization's track record with change Desire to be part of something (to belong)  Tactics for building Desire:  Active and visible primary sponsor  Strong sponsorship coalition  Personal engagement by coaches  Proactive management of resistance  Employees involved in the change process - help create the solution  While there are certainly ways to try and influence a person's decision to get "on board" with a change, in the end individuals must make this decision themselves. Desire is only achieved when the individual would say to us, "I'm in - I will be part of this change". 74 True Awareness can easily be overlooked. Potential Resisting factors:  Comfort or security with how things are now Incentive programs aligned with the change 75 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved.  Desire is difficult because it is ultimately a personal decision that is not under our direct control. Awareness and Desire Summary Desire What builds Desire to support and participate in a change?  Likelihood of gain or achievement (incentive) The next step in successful change is making a personal decision to support and participate in the change. Many practitioners say that Desire is the most difficult of the five building blocks to achieve. This is not their fault, in fact, it makes complete sense when you think about what these two groups are concerned with - what keeps them up at night. Senior leaders care about financial performance and strategic direction. Project teams are charged with designing an effective solution for a problem or opportunity facing the organization. It makes sense that these groups focus on the future (for senior leaders) and the transition (for project teams). Both of these groups have also had time to evaluate and internalize why the way things are done today needs to be changed. However, employees who will be impacted by a change are concerned with what they are doing each and every day, and why a change is required right now. There is a fundamental and understandable disconnect here - and as a result Awareness of the need for change can often be overlooked. 76 More and more and more Awareness does not result in Desire. jump to training Rather than investing the time and energy in campaigns to build Awareness and Desire. It is important to recognize when employees have moved through the Awareness phase and are now at Desire. Continuing to focus on the reasons for change and not translating those reasons into the personal and organizational motivating factors is a trap some change management practitioners face - and it can be very discouraging and annoying for employees. The result is easy to predict - employees show up for training but sit with their arms crossed wondering why they are sitting through yet another training program. Without the prerequisite Awareness and Desire, efforts to build Knowledge will not be successful and can actually create more resistance. Lack of awareness has been cited as the number one reason for employee. Study participants continue to report that employees were not opposed to the solution or to the new way of doing work, but rather they resisted change because no one made a clear and compelling case for why the change was needed in the first place. Creating Awareness when "times are good" can be difficult, but it is still essential. When an organization is in trouble, and it is readily visible to employees, However, building Awareness when an organization is succeeding is often a more difficult proposition. "If it isn't broken, then why fix it” 77 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Awareness and Desire Summary It is easy to jump straight to Knowledge. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Awareness and Desire Sumary Awareness and Desire can ebb and flow. Sometimes, change management professionals will conclude that once they have created Awareness and Desire, they no longer need to reinforce these elements. They quickly move on to training to help build Knowledge and Ability. However, in reality, Awareness and Desire can go away as quickly as they were created. It requires reinforcement and continued communication to maintain the levels of Awareness and Desire necessary to make changes successful. Change saturation sets in, and the result can be backward movement on other changes. 78 13
  14. 14. 10/16/2013 Knowledge The individual who is making the change ultimately begins doing things the new way. It involves: Give training! However, training is not the only way to develop knowledge. – knowing how to make the change, – making the change and ultimately – staying with the change. Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement cannot be attained without the pre-requisite Awareness and Desire 79 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement - overview Knowledge Two distinct types of Knowledge: on how to change (what to do during the transition), on how to perform effectively in the future state (knowledge on the ultimate skills and behaviors needed to support the change). In practice, both of these types of Knowledge may be integrated and addressed with a single plan, but as you are documenting and developing training requirements it is important to consider both of these aspects. Knowledge - Knowledge is only effective when the individual already has Awareness and Desire. Each of us has been to a training program where we were not sure why we were there in the first place. Think about 1) how you felt and 2) what you ultimately took away from the training event. The answers are probably: 1) confused and 2) very little. 80 Ability © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. What builds Knowledge on how to change?  Training and education  Experience  Access to information  Potential Challenges and Resisting Factors:  Gap between current knowledge levels and desired knowledge levels Mentoring    User groups and forums  Capacity to learn One-on-one coaching  Lack of access to the necessary information Job aides  Inadequate resources available for training  Examples:  Formal training programs Insufficient time (conflicting demands)  Troubleshooting guidance 81 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Knowledge Ability Time  Coaching or role modeling behavior  Access to right tools  Feedback  Lack of support resources  Existing habits contrary to the desired behavior  Psychological blocks  Limitations in physical abilities  Individual capabilities (personal limitations) Tactics for fostering Ability:  Direct involvement of coaches  Access to subject matter experts  Performance monitoring  Hands-on practice during training  An example that illustrates this gap is playing golf. 82 It is a natural tendency to resort to what we know. Potential Resisting Factors:  Inadequate time available to develop skills Availability of expert resources to help employees 83 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved.  While Knowledge and Ability can seem similar, there can be a very large gap between the two. Reinforcement Ability What fosters Ability to implement the required skills and behaviors?  Practice Change occurs! Demonstrated achievement of the change (such that the expected performance results are achieved). Emerging research about how the brain functions that suggests it is not just a natural tendency, but in fact physiological tendency. While making a change is difficult, sustaining a change can be even more difficult. Reinforcement encompasses the mechanisms and approaches so that the new way stays in place. Reinforcement can be difficult, once a change is finished, we move on to the next change. As the final building block of successful change, the focus on Reinforcement must be maintained so that changes are sustained and deliver results. 84 14
  15. 15. 10/16/2013 Reinforcement Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement - Summary © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. K Rewards and recognition  Feedback  Corrective actions  Visible performance measurement  Potential Resisting Factors:  Rewards not meaningful or not associated with achievement Accountability mechanisms in place  Absence of reinforcement for accomplishments  Negative consequences including peer pressure for desired behavior  Incentives that directly oppose the change Tactics for fostering Reinforcement:  Feedback from supervisors directly to employees saying "Thank you"  Visible recognition by senior level sponsors  Project-sponsored celebrations for employees  Compensation and appraisal systems designed to support the change 85 Exercise - Preparation K Recall all and every feeling changes , they will be explained in a phase by phase diagram The detail is very important Start from where you are now The stages are: – very detailed and short so be very aware of your feelings It’s time do be sensitive Major – – – Change does not begin with Knowledge. Do not assume that with Knowledge comes Ability. Keep a focus on Reinforcement, even when it is difficult. 86 Exercise - Preparation What do I mean? phases Exercise anouncement Every major step done till completion After completion of the exercice 87 Exercise - Preparation © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. K  K – Major phases • Exercise anouncement • Every major step done till completion • After completion of the exercice – Does Henrique need to explain anything? 88 Exercise When we return from the coffe break… Ready? Any questions? Don’t wory if you are not sensitive  89 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. What builds Reinforcement to sustain the change?  Celebrations © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Reinforcement Wait at the door, the exercise will be told there just before you come in. Just remember the exercise only stops when Henrique says , “It has ended!” 90 15
  16. 16. 10/16/2013 Write down what happened at the following stages: – Anouncement – From anouncement to understandment – From sitting to standing up – From the stand up position to the first step – From the first step to the location – The swap – The act of sitting down – After sitting down – When did you dicide with who to change chairs? – Lets lissen to what the person without the chair felt. 91 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Exercise breakdown © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Exercise Change places with someone K 92 Measuring progress Role playing – In pairs, sell “something” using the ADKAR model – One points to something – The other “sells”, and change “How do I measure if my change management approach is effective?" 93 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Module Awareness ADKAR describes the required elements of a successful change, if na element is missing … it has to be improved. 94 Barrier points Prosci's ADKAR Model is also an effective instrument for understanding why a change is not occurring. ADKAR assessment is used to identify the barrier point. The barrier point is defined as the building block in the ADKAR Model that is not sufficient for the change to take place. By using an ADKAR assessment, an ADKAR profile can be created showing which of the building blocks is the barrier point - the first element with a score below "3". 95 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Diagnosing Gaps You can certainly measure change management activities for example: how many times have we communicated, how many times have senior leaders shared why the change is happening, what percentage of employees have had small group meeting with their managers about the change, how many employees have been trained? Once you understand the root cause or source of the gap - the ADKAR missing element that is impeding change success - you can then develop the right corrective actions to help the individual make the change. 96 16
  17. 17. 10/16/2013 K Exercise - Preparation K Exercise - Preparation D K A R Example A Example B Example C Example D 97 K A © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. A D K A – Identify the levels of the 5 phases that are better and the ones that are worst – Use the Exercise sheet (1 to 5) Story A D K A R First Second Third Forth Fifth 98 Adquired ability to detect change R First Second Third Forth Fifth 99 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Story A © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. A Adquire ability to change Individuals 100 Developing Corrective Actions 101 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. – “Sell” to Henrique Trying to develop corrective actions without understanding the root cause for change failure is a problem. First, it is difficult to pick the right corrective actions if you do not understand why the change is not succeeding. The adage "it takes a heap of swings to hit a nail in the dark" is applicable here - unless we know why a change is not working, we don't know what to do to remedy the situation. Second, it can be discouraging to employees if you pick corrective actions that are not focused on the right ADKAR building block. If an employee is not making a change due to missing Reinforcement (for instance, they feel that there is no benefit to staying with the new way of doing their job) and the change management team simply provides more training (a Knowledge intervention), the employee will simply become discouraged. If an employee is concerned about whether or not they have the skills to be successful (Knowledge is the barrier point), but the team focuses on more communication about the need for change (an Awareness tactic), the employee will get frustrated and might become even more resistant. Since ADKAR describes the "ends" - it also helps us to select the correct "means" if a change is not working. ADKAR provides guidance on how to help an individual move forward in the change process once we understand which of the ADKAR elements is the gap. 102 17
  18. 18. 10/16/2013 ADKAR eye glasses A Everything becomes “seen” throught the eye glasses of ADKAR Planing: tasks become overall/global strategies Execution : day to day interaction – Talking becomes a structured message – Process adherence 103 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. A Exercise – “Sell” to Henrique, while detecting the barrier, work on the missing elements 104 Individual to Organizational change See: – Individual Coaching plan An individual change management model describes "the ends," while an organizational change management model describes "the means" 105 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. ADKAR work sheet Intent 107 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Comunication – with and without change management 106 Without change management Communications designed to tell you what "we" are doing With change management Communications designed to build awareness and engage employees in the process 108 18
  19. 19. 10/16/2013 Frequency Without change management Project details, design details, status and progress updates, milestones Without change management Dictated by project milestones With change management Answers to the questions that employees have - 1) why is this change happening, 2) what's in it for me, 3) risk of not changing, 4) organizational benefits With change management High frequency with repetition of key messages 109 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Focus and content Senders Without change management One-to-many, broadcast messages (typically one-way) With change management Face-to-face interactions, discussions, variety of media (always two-way) 111 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Methods 110 Checklist for ensuring communication efforts are governed by best practices in change management Without change management Project team members, communication specialist With change management Someone at the top (the sponsor of the change) and the person the employee reports to (my direct supervisor) 112 Planing with change Management The "why" for this change has been thoroughly developed including the risk of not changing The spokesperson for these messages is a "preferred sender" from the perspective of that particular audience The messages have been customized or adapted for each segmented group and are designed to meet their specific needs Communications are face-to-face whenever possible and always include two-way communications Employees are given the chance to provide feedback in a safe, nonthreatening environment throughout the change Employees hear from both "the person they view as in charge" as well as their immediate supervisor (and key messages are consistent from both individuals) Key messages about the change are repeated 5 - 7 times 113 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Impacted groups have been segmented - specific, unique audiences of communications are identified 114 19
  20. 20. 10/16/2013 Element Execution plan vs telling plan Objective Examples  Objective Examples  © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Project oversight Project reporting Readiness assessments Change portfolio management  Change saturation analysis  Employee engagement  Merger/Acquisition  OD interventions  New product offering  New service offering  Pilots and trials  Systems and tools deployment  New process implementation  Transition to new organization structure and job roles  Implementation of compensation, appraisal or incentive programs 116 Issue tracking  Restructuring  Budget development and control  New technology Resource management   Change management   To manage the tasks, resources, budget, time and scope of technical design and implementation Process design / BPR  Schedule development and tracking  Project management Vision and strategy development Telling Plan vs Project Plan Project planning  Strategic planning Change management strategy To encourage employees to  rapidly, completely and proficiently make the required  changes to their day-to-day work Change management planning Change sponsorship  Communications during change  Training new skills and abilities  Coaching employees through transitions  Resistance management  Performance measurement 117 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Element © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 115 Regulatory changes  Solution implementation New business opportunities  To install a solution that meets technical requirements and is adopted and utilized Financial results   To create a solution to improve the performance of the organization based on the recognition that a change is needed Competitive threats   Solution design and development Customer inputs   To identify the internal or external Recognizing that a change stimulus resulting in a need for is needed change Internal performance  118 119 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Interaction of organizational and individual change management 120 20
  21. 21. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 123 125 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 121 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 10/16/2013 122 124 126 21
  22. 22. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 129 131 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 127 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 10/16/2013 128 130 132 22
  23. 23. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 10/16/2013 Obrigado! Henrique Narciso HNARCISO@GMAIL.COM 133 23

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