III Conferência CMMI Portugal, Keynote 1: Agile Methods and Capability Maturity: Addressing the Paradox, Professor Ian Allison, Robert Gordon University
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III Conferência CMMI Portugal, Keynote 1: Agile Methods and Capability Maturity: Addressing the Paradox, Professor Ian Allison, Robert Gordon University

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Keynote discussing how agile and CMMI can work together, the challenges each one has and how agile organisations move towards CMMI Level 5.

Keynote discussing how agile and CMMI can work together, the challenges each one has and how agile organisations move towards CMMI Level 5.

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III Conferência CMMI Portugal, Keynote 1: Agile Methods and Capability Maturity: Addressing the Paradox, Professor Ian Allison, Robert Gordon University Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Portugal Agile Methods and Capability Maturity: Addressing the Paradox Professor Ian Allison Head of School of Computing Science and Digital Media Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK 2013-10-18
  • 2. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Introduction 2
  • 3. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Introduction 3
  • 4. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Introduction 4
  • 5. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Introduction 5
  • 6. Key Themes © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. • Background • Agile – the maturity paradox? • Case study of a high maturity organisation • Good practices to be considered 6
  • 7. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Agile Development 7
  • 8. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Agile Processes 8
  • 9. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Current Status of Agile 84% of organisations using agile 50% started in the last 2 years 35% of companies had distributed agile projects Main Methodology: SCRUM [54%& 11% SCRUM/XP hybrid] Key benefits: • Manage change • Improve productivity • Improve project visibility • Enhanced quality of software VersionOne, 2013 9
  • 10. Key techniques Coding Standards © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Velocity Burndown/team estimation Release Planning Retrospectives Unit testing Iteration Planning Daily Standup 0 20 40 60 80 100 VersionOne, 2013 10
  • 11. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. The Problem With Agile 11
  • 12. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Leading Causes of Failure • • • • • Culture at odds with agile 12% External pressure to follow waterfall 11% Broader organisational communication problem 11% Lack of experience with agile 9% Lack of management support 6% (18% claimed no failed projects) VersionOne, 2013 12
  • 13. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Main Concerns with Agile • • • • • • • • Lack of upfront planning Loss of management control Management opposition Lack of documentation Lack of predictability Lack of engineering discipline Inability to scale Regulatory compliance VersionOne, 2013 13
  • 14. How Agile Addresses the CMMI Practices in 3 Case Studies © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. CMMI Goal Agile Practices Requirement management Stories; product & sprint backlog; sprint planning; sprint reviews; planning games; information radiator; Daily meetings; on-site customer; selforganising teams; planning days; release days; Estimates Sprint planning; product backlog; Sprint backlog; Planning games; tasks and effort estimations 1-2 weeks ahead; information radiator; planning days Project Planning Planning games; task on information radiator; product backlog Commitment to plan Planning games; self-organising teams; on-site customer; reflection workshops; planning days; task cards on information radiator; release days Project tracking Short planning cycles; Burn down charts; project velocity; visual control; daily meetings; Configuration Management Collective ownership; small releases; continuous integration; 14 Paulk, 2001 & Pikkarainen & Mantyniemi, 2006
  • 15. Specific Goals – Spanish Experience 12 © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. 10 8 6 4 2 0 Garzas & Paulk, 2013 15
  • 16. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. How Agile Companies Move Towards CMMI Level 5 DTE Energy (Baker, 2005) • Important role for SEPG • Create practice groups: Project Management; Core development; Process Management & Measurement • PMO; Information office • Education & Socialisation of the idea of CMMI 5 • Communication – messages to key audiences Pragmatics (Cohen & Glazer, 2009) - Metrics programme that adds value 16
  • 17. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Key Challenges for High Maturity • • • • • • Need for recorded evidence Need for project planning and control Self-Organizing vs Planned Organisational level of standardisation of process Project Metrics and performance prediction Organisational level data base-lining 17
  • 18. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. High Maturity Case Study • A CMMI level 5 Indian organisation working onshore & offshore development • Large enterprise with a revenue of $450m • Study over the last year included site visits that allowed interviews with 38 practitioners, observations and a review of confidential agile process documents 18
  • 19. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Agile History • Started using in 2002… ad hoc use… “so small projects here and small projects there, but since 2009 we have seen a huge uptake of agile …some [projects] because the customer says; some because there were a lot of problems so we recommended [agile]” (Corporate Lead Architect) • Then… “the size of agile projects really increased. So instead of having 20 or 10 members on projects, now suddenly we have 140, you know large offshore development programs being run in agile” (Corporate Lead Architect) • Now 600 people … 20% of workforce on agile projects 19
  • 20. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Need for Recorded Evidence • Records required in CMMI for: • Decision rationale • Project review and evaluation • It is possible to have evidence in many other forms… 20
  • 21. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Need for Recorded Evidence • Records required in CMMI for: • Decision rationale • Project review and evaluation • It is possible to have evidence in many other forms… 21
  • 22. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Need for Recorded Evidence – Case Study Practice Head stated that “Sufficient evidence is required so that “Senior Management Review and Risk Management can be performed [so] there is no contradiction with agile” Evidence is typically recorded on agile projects often takes the form of: • source code annotations (for lowest level decisions) • email discussions • Intranet project content management systems • Wiki information repositories that organically evolve over the project lifetime 22
  • 23. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Need for Project Planning and Control In CMMI it is important to have defined schedules, built from defined requirements, upfront design and known productivity rates In agile approaches, evolution and responding to change takes precedence over upfront planning. However, the project plan that is expected in CMMI need not be “what” but can focus on “how”. 23
  • 24. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Need for Project Planning and Control In CMMI it is important to have defined schedules, built from defined requirements, upfront design and known productivity rates In agile approaches, evolution and responding to change takes precedence over upfront planning. However, the project plan that is expected in CMMI need not be “what” but can focus on “how”. 24
  • 25. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Need for Project Planning and Control In CMMI it is important to have defined schedules, built from defined requirements, upfront design and known productivity rates In agile approaches, evolution and responding to change takes precedence over upfront planning. However, the project plan that is expected in CMMI need not be “what” but can focus on “how”. 25
  • 26. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Project Planning and Control – Case Study It was clear to the organisation that “every project needs to have a project goal and a defined process … so, preparing the initial project plan is not a problem” (Practice Head – SEPG). Partly this was because even in agile … “in a distributed environment involving large team size, [then] some form of upfront design is essential” (RK – Agile Coach, Feb. 2013) 26
  • 27. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Self-organising vs Planned In CMMI: • a consistent set of processes an organization is believed to be able to reduce the variability between projects • rigorous project management and control through a known set of software engineering activities is the way this is achieved. In Agile: • the emphasis is on self-organization and emergence • product features emerge as the development progresses. • release plan is flexible and expected to emerge based on perceived business value. 27
  • 28. Self-organising vs Planned © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. As the Practice Head – SEPG put it “there is nothing in CMMI which states that teams cannot be self-organizing.” So the balance between planned and self-organizing was struck by emphasizing the common elements of goal-setting and enabling some upfront design to support the distributed context. 28
  • 29. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Need for Organisational Level Standardisation of Processes In SCRUM: • it is commonplace to add engineering practices (e.g. XP) • set of roles, practices and ceremonies defined is rather small. In the CMMI: • large super-set of processes are defined; • project teams must select practices from this large set of process definitions. 29
  • 30. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Need for Organisational Level Standardisation of Processes – Case Study When a project starts “we generally assign a coach to that project” (Corporate Lead Architect) To assess process compliance SEPG “will do monthly reviews of the projects. And they also do audits to see if the practices are being followed; are they following continuous integration or are they making daily builds” (Corporate Lead Architect) 30
  • 31. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Project Metrics and Performance Prediction • Metrics used for decision making and software development process management to compare between projects, spot trends, and anticipate problems as well as for managing an individual project. • The data needs to be appropriate and part of the normal process to minimize the effort of capturing the data. • CMMI recommends the use of a quantities model to predict future performance. As long as the model is specific to the project there is no contradiction. 31
  • 32. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Project Metrics and Performance Prediction – Case Study • The company found “we faced problems in collecting data required for level 4 KPA’s. The team felt that it was an overhead.” (Delivery Head) • “[The] most important aspect of complying with the metrics needed for CMMI is to understand that traditional metrics like, productivity and time slippage [are] not applicable … instead we have been capturing metrics on defect, resource utilization and on improvement.” (Practice Head – SEPG) 32
  • 33. Organisation level data base-lining © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. The problem in Agile is the consistency of data between teams to enable comparisons and trends to be seen. Traditional data sets are not relevant for agile projects It takes time to develop a data set from which organisations can predict future activity 33
  • 34. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Organisation level data base-lining – Case Study The problem is that “some projects use story points and some projects do not use story points. They use function points” (Corporate Lead Architect) The “initial problem with organizational metrics was that we did not have sufficient data points … with more agile projects getting executed that is getting resolved.” (Practice Head – SEPG) SEPG defined an activity based estimation model. “So for example you are saying this is a four story point for this feature... Okay so we are trying to define some guidelines on the basis of what you will do with your story point estimation. But that is against your agile concept. It should be spontaneous [within any given team]” (Program Head) 34
  • 35. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Key Recommendations 35
  • 36. Key Recommendations © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. • Establish key forms of record keeping techniques and ensure they are auditable 36
  • 37. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Key Recommendations • Establish key forms of record keeping techniques and ensure they are auditable • Define a project planning and control process based on collaborative short-term planning and visual control 37
  • 38. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Key Recommendations • Establish key forms of record keeping techniques and ensure they are auditable • Define a project planning and control process based on collaborative short-term planning and visual control • In larger settings, use an architecturally-driven agile approach for goal setting in large distributed agile projects balanced with local self-organisation for devolved design 38
  • 39. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Key Recommendations • Establish key forms of record keeping techniques and ensure they are auditable • Define a project planning and control process based on collaborative short-term planning and visual control • In larger settings, use an architecturally-driven agile approach for goal setting in large distributed agile projects balanced with local self-organisation for devolved design • SEPG to use a team approach to define a process map for agile projects that allows local tailoring, but also to add elements such as risk management 39
  • 40. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Key Recommendations • Establish key forms of record keeping techniques and ensure they are auditable • Define a project planning and control process based on collaborative short-term planning and visual control • In larger settings, use an architecturally-driven agile approach for goal setting in large distributed agile projects balanced with local self-organisation for devolved design • SEPG to use a team approach to define a process map for agile projects that allows local tailoring, but also to add elements such as risk management • Develop a framework that enables the capture of data relevant to their agile projects with consistent use of terms 40
  • 41. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Summary • Challenges in aligning CMMI and Agile but no major contradictions • Agile environments can mature – and this can be achieved through using an SEPG team approach to agreeing practices, data, etc • Agile in an offshore, large-scale distributed context will naturally deviate from ‘pure’ agile – making CMMI links more natural • We have identified some embryonic guidelines • Just one major case – so need to extend the collection 41
  • 42. © 2013 CMMI Portugal Conference Series – All Rights reserved. Questions 42