Being deaf in a ‘hearing school’THE EDUCATIONAL WELLBEING OF DEAF PUPILS AS AN INDICATOR OF EDUCATIONAL QUALITY OF MAINSTREAMED EDUCATION Isabelle Smessaert Fevlado (Flemish Deaf AssociaDon)
BELGIUM? Iceland EUROPE BELGIUM Flanders Finland Norway Sweden Russia Walloon Ireland Region Denmark U.K. The NetherlandsBELGIUM Poland Belarus 10.5 million inhabitants Germany Lux. Czech Rep. Ukraine France Switzerland Austria Slovakia 40% French-speaking Hungary Walloon Sign Language Italy Romania 60% Dutch-speaking Spain Flemish Sign Language 0.5% German-speaking
What is good educaDon for deaf children? INTRODUCTION For many people: What = Where Previously: ‘deaf school’ In the past decade: ‘hearing school’ school school ‘deaf school’ for the deaf for the hearingWhat do we know about the quality of ‘hearing schools’ for deaf youngsters? In Flanders the quality of this setting had not been investigated until 2009!Nevertheless: a lot of debating on the pros and cons of inclusive education and mainstreamingAnd: a decreasing possibility to really choose between the two settings
EducaDonal inspectorate: guarantee of quality EDUCATIONAL INSPECTORATE: QUALITY MODEL ‘Hearing schools’ with the occasional deaf pupil = …? No informationDeaf pupils in secondary ‘hearing schools’: specific research population West Flanders: N = 20 response: 50% (in West Flanders) sample: N=12 (10 West Flanders + 2 East Flanders)HOW? Quality model of the educaDonal inspectorate CIPO model OUTPUT: educational results COGNITIVE NON-COGNITIVE academic educational achievement wellbeing
What determines educaDonal wellbeing? WHAT DETERMINES EDUCATIONAL WELLBEING? What do deaf pupils consider to be essential to feeling (more or less) good at a ‘hearing school’?
What determines educaDonal wellbeing? WHAT DETERMINES EDUCATIONAL WELLBEING? 1. Contact with other deaf pupils at school communication kinship2. The interpreter indirect influence: accessibility direct influence: social, emotional, statutory regulations3. Participation and accessibility 3 situations in class: a) there is an interpreter b) there is no interpreter, but the teacher uses ‘strategies’ c) there is no interpreter, the deaf pupil has to organize his own education4. To be excluded / bullied 11 of the 12 respondents have been bullied at their hearing school Why? being different being vulnerable How? fysically handicap-related exclusion / coldshouldering
What determines educaDonal wellbeing? WHAT DETERMINES EDUCATIONAL WELLBEING? 5. Contact with the hearing environment UNFAMILIARITY COMMUNICATION BARRIERS superficial profound BEING DIFFERENT hearing youngsters deaf youngsters hearing teachers other deaf youngsters investment investmentCrucial RECIPROCITY Crucial EQUALITY BALANCE Smessaert, I.
What determines educaDonal wellbeing? WHAT DETERMINES EDUCATIONAL WELLBEING? 6. Interest in the curriculum choice of subjects level of education7. Help and educational assistance itinerant teacher of the deaf classmates interpreter (regular) teachers8. Motivation effort + marks + presence of deaf peer group9. Expertise and adaptability of the school 1 hearing school stands out
WHAT IS THE DEGREE OF WELLBEING? What is the degree of wellbeing? Together the 9 factors paint a gloomy picture: (very) low degree of wellbeing, caused by - the loneliness, the lack of social contacts - the inaccessibility of the curriculum - the 3 barriers between the deaf pupils and the hearing surroundings - the vulnerable, dependant, incomplete and defective position in most cases there is no question of integration in most cases there is no question of ‘education’Conclusion: mismatch between deaf pupils & ‘hearing school’Fundamental are COMMUNICATION & KINSHIPA positive point: 1 ‘hearing school’ scores much better
Why do you go to a ‘hearing school’? WHY DO YOU GO TO A ‘HEARING SCHOOL’? 1. Diploma ‘Deaf schools’ cannot issue diplomas = there is no choice2. Educational level The level is higher than that of the ‘deaf schools’3. Subjects There is more choice in subjects than in the ‘deaf schools’4. Too few pupils at the deaf schools Classes cannot be formed: no choice: ‘hearing school’5. ‘Deaf schools’: signing ability and attitude towardsbeing-deaf is not as desired Teachers in ‘deaf schools’ can hardly sign Often their attitude is paternalistic and their expectations are low There is no real choice between a ‘deaf’ and a ‘hearing school’.
Your ideal school, what would it look like? THEIR IDEAL SCHOOL? “Imagine, I can work miracles, I have plenty of money andcan realize your ideal school. What would it look like?” They talk about - the pupils - deaf + hearing (n=7): for practical reasons, mostly - only deaf (n=5) - only hearing (n=0!) = COMMUNICATION - the teachers & KINSHIP They simply cannot imagine deaf teachers! Communication must be good. They dream about 1 big ‘deaf school’. They don’t talk about teaching-styles, regulations, curriculum, infrastructure
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