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Timeline: Cultural Revolution

Timeline: Cultural Revolution






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    Timeline: Cultural Revolution Timeline: Cultural Revolution Presentation Transcript

    • 1959 – 1976Cultural Revolution
      Howard Liu and Isabel Chun
    • 1958 – 59 Great Leap Forward fails
      Only months after the Great Leap Forward started,
      Machines fell apart
      Factory workers fell asleep at work
      The ‘backyard steel’ campaign failed
      People were taken away from fields, food shortage
      Not enough railway trains
      Major famine
      More than 20 million Chinese died of starvation and other diseases
    • 1959 – 61 : Three Bitter Years
      Famine years of 1959 -1961
      Party leaders blamed Mao for the failure and told him to resign
      Lost post of Head of State, now only Party Chairman
      The moderates, controlling the government, had more realistic economic policies
      Propaganda poster – misleading info about famine
    • Late 1960s – Abandonment of Great Leap Forward
      Communes were reduced in size to make more manageable
      Peasants were sent back to fields
      Peasants were given their private plots
      Wages were increased
      Moderates ran the economy but Mao still was regarded as a revolutionary hero
    • 1965 : Little Red Book
      People’s Liberation Army ranks were all equal
      Every soldier was given a book of ‘Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong’
      All ordered to study it
      Mao had the support of 4 million PLA soldiers
    • 1966 – Cultural Revolution
      Mao used his great influence to,
      Start the cultural revolution
      Formed the Red Guards
      Made of schoolchildren
      Used violence to abolish
      Old ideas
      Old culture
      Old customs
      Old habits
    • 1967 – Red Guards go Wild
      1967 - Red Guards ran wild
      Country was in a state of virtual civil war
      Red Guards fought against ‘reactionaries’ and among themselves
      More than 400,000 people were killed and many more were tortured, humiliated, imprisoned
    • 1967 : Restoring Order
      Mao attempted to restore order
      Schools and colleges reopened
      Red Guards sent to country side to be re-educated
      Many young people lost out on their education and were illiterate
      1969 – Mao announces cultural revolution is over.
    • 1969 : Project 571
      Mao’s second-in-command, Lin Biao was beginning to doubt Mao
      The two men mistrusted each other
      Lin thought Mao was power-mad and called him ‘the greatest dictator and tyrant in China’s history…”
      Plotted to assassinate Mao and to take power as chairman
      Plot discovered and Lin and his fellow plotters fled. Escaped by air but were shot down in Mongolia
    • 1973: Right and Left
      Zhou Enlai
      Elections to the Politburo
      Right-wing moderates –
      Prime minister, Zhou Enlai
      Deputy prime minister, Deng Xiaoping
      Wanted to build a strong and wealthy China
      Left-wing radicals –
      Gang of Four
      Mao’s wife- Jiang Qing
      Three radical politicians from Shanghai
      Wanted to continue class struggle
    • 1974 – 1976: HuaGuofeng
      9 September 1976: Mao dies
      Gang of Four prepared to take power
      Politburo gave power to HuaGuofeng, new prime minister
      Gang of Four arrested
      Hua believed in following Mao’s footsteps
      Hua and his followers were called the ‘Whateverists’
      Public opinion began to favour Moderates