Japan-China War and The Civil War TimelinePresentation Transcript
The Japan-China War and The Civil War : 1937 - 49 Howard Liu and Isabel Chun
Japan – China War
1937 Japan Conquests November - After lots of heavy aerial bombing, Japan captured Shanghai. December – Capture of Nanking.
1938 – Further conquests Japan captured Wuhan, Guangzhou and Hainan The Japan did not make any more advances into China because they just did not have the manpower to occupy the whole of China.
1940 – Hunderd Regiments Battle Communists attacked Japan railway communications through north China. 1941 – Japanese Three All Campaign – kill all, burn all, destroy all. Aim to turn people against the Communists. Did not work, Peasants actually were persuaded to support the Communists 1945 – The Japanese withdrew from the south. Communists controlled 18 ‘liberation areas’, most of them in the country side.
1941 – American involvement The USA declared war on Japan after the Pearl Harbour attack. Bombed Japan’s sea trade to cut off imports.
1945 – End of Japan-China War 6 August – USA used atomic bomb on Hiroshima 8 August – Russian Red Army declared war on Japan and invaded Manchuria 9 August-USA drops bomb on Nagasaki Japan surrenders.
Civil war: Guomindang and Communists
Guomindang Life Chiang Kaishek governed as a military dictator, a Fascist. He had an army called ‘Blueshirts’ which specialised in killing Communists and in kidnapping, spying and torture. He aimed to modernize the country. He improved railways, postal services, and telecommunications. Foreign companies were asked to build factories. A new paper currency was introduced
Guomindang Life Second aim was the New Life Movement in 1934. The movement was based on four ancient ideas: Li, I, Lien, Chih, meaning courtesy, service, honesty and honour. Movement did not help China’s basic welfare. There was a lack of medical care, poor housing, and poverty. Chiang started the Rural Service, sending students to help peasants harvest crops. But the land taxes were still high and there was a famine. Did not gain support of the peasants.
Communist Life Rich landlords’s land was taken away and shared among the peasants. Small landlords kept their land. Interest-fee loans for peasants Rents and taxes were reduced ‘Saturday Brigades’ made up of children, soldiers and party officials helped peasants work their land on weekends. Abolished outdated and undesirable practices: foot binding, murder of unwanted babies, child slavery, prostitution, and sale of women
Communist Life Women’s Associations were set up to help women free themselves from violent husbands. Top leaders of the Communist party did not live in luxury Support for Communists came mostly from peasants
1945 – Race Communists and Guomindang raced for the areas Japan occupied Guomindang were inland while Guomindang already controlled 18 liberation areas Communists were closest to those areas
1945 – American Involvement USA did not want Communists to control China USA shared their Air Force and flew the Guomindang to Nanjing, Shanghai and Beijing. They then seized other major ports. December 1945 – General George C. Marshall, tried to bring the Communists and Guomindang together. The truce broke down in 1946.
1946 – 9 : Civil war Most people thought Guomindang would win. They had the support of the USA, money, and weapons. Commmunists were weak, they held areas in the countryside. They had no air force, few railways, no navy and a small army. From June 1946 – March 1947, The Guomindang troops won many battles against the communists and even took Yanan, their capitol. Red Army renamed People’s Liberation Army, fought back. Lead by Lin Biao. They avoided major battles and made guerilla attacks. They soon controlled central and northern China. Many peasants joined the Communists
1946 – 9: Civil War Problems Guomindang-held cities: Inflation – workers went on strike, people started robbing Riots broke out, public order collapsed Guomindang supports switched to Communist Party 1947 – USA cut off aid to Chiang Kaishek.
1948 : Communist Victory People’s Liberation Army was very large and began to fight major battles with the Guominang In the Battle of Huai-Hai, the Guomindang lost more than half a million men. Communists captured Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou Created the People’s Republic of China Chiang Kaishek retreated to Taiwan with his 200,000 Guomindang troops and China’s gold reserves.