1919 - 1935


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1919 - 1935

  1. 1. 1919 - 1935 <br />Important events <br />Timeline by Howard Liu and Isabel Chun<br />
  2. 2. 1919 - The May Fourth movement<br />A protest movement against the decisions made in the Paris Peace Conference.<br />China joined WW1 in 1917 on the Western Allies side.<br />They expected to withdraw the twenty-one demands, end the ‘unequal treaties’ and get the port of Kiaochow back.<br />In the end, China gained none of these.<br />10,000 Beijing students organized a protest<br />
  3. 3. 1921 - Chinese Communist Party<br />Librarian at Beijing University named Mao Zedong set up a society that studied Communism<br />Members then set up the Chinese Communist Party<br />
  4. 4. 1922 – Help from USSR for Guomindang<br />Sun Yatsen needed foreign help to defeat the warlords.<br />Sun turned to the USSR which recently became communist.<br />Abram Joffe came to help to Guomindang<br />Sun allowed members of Chinese Communist Party to join the Guomindang because they both wanted revolution<br />In 1923, USSR also sent General Galen which helped set up a military academy. Sun’s brother-in-law was in charge of the academy.<br />Chiang Kai-shek<br />
  5. 5. 1926-Northern Expedition<br />Sun Yatsen died of cancer in 1925, left Chiang Kaishek as commander-in-chief.<br />They wanted to unify China<br />There was little fighting because:<br /> Armies mutinied and joined the Guomindang. <br />Poor peasants and workers welcomed the Guomindang<br />Chiang also used cash to win support from warlords<br />
  6. 6. 1927 Communist – Guomindang split<br />Now Communists and Guomindanghad conquered much of China<br />The alliance between the two broker<br />Guomindang armies arrived Shanghai to attack. In Shanghai, a rebellion against the ruling warlord was led by the Communists. <br />Chiang Kaishek killed all the Communists they could find in Shanghai.<br />The Communists retreated to Jiangxi and Hunan provinces. <br />Shanghai Massacre<br />
  7. 7. 1928- Second Northern Campaign<br />Chiang Kaishek made an alliance with two powerful warlords, FengYuxiang and Yan Xishan.<br />They wanted to capture the area of Zhang Zuolin, the greatest warlord. He had Beijing in his control.<br />Zhang Zuolin was killed in a train with a bomb as Chiang entered Beijing. <br />Zhang’s successor surrendered to Chiang.<br />Set up a National Government in Nanjing.<br />Chiang became Chairman of the Council of State, making him the ruler of China.<br />
  8. 8. 1930 - The Jiangxi Soviet<br />Communists retreated to the countryside<br />Communists in the Jiangxi province set up the Jiangxi Soviet to govern the place<br />Mao Zedong was their leader <br />They gained support of the peasants by:<br />The Land Law –which gave peasants their own land<br />Reduced taxes<br />Created Peasant Councils to allow communities to govern their own affairs<br />
  9. 9. 1930-4 The Extermination Campaigns<br />Campaigns Chiang Kaishek organized to wipe out Communists<br />There were 5 campaigns<br />The first 4 were failures even though Chiang’s armies outnumbered Mao’s armies. This was because of Mao’s tactics. Mao lured them into Communist territories and attacked each unit separately.<br />
  10. 10. 1933 - The fifth campaign<br />The fifth and biggest campaign of the extermination campaigns<br />General Hans von Seekt from Germany gave the Guomindang a new method of attack.<br />They surrounded the Jiangxi Soviet with half a million troops. They made blockhouses and put up barbed wire as they advanced<br />They blocked the Communists from food, fuel, weapons and ammunition. <br />
  11. 11. 1933 - New Communist Tactics<br />Advisor from Russia, Otto Braun<br />Otto’s tactics replaced Mao’s<br />Mao got expelled from the Party’s Central Committee<br />His tactics were that the Communist army should not retreat but instead should fight with the Guomindang<br />
  12. 12. 1934 - Otto Braun’s retreat, Long March<br />Otto Braun planned a retreat. The Communists would go through the blockhouse lines and head for a Communist base.<br />The Red Army took a lot of equipment as they broke out of the blockhouse rings. It slowed them down. The army walked in a straight line and made it easy to attack them.<br />They lost many men as they retreated<br />In 1935, Mao Zedong and Zhu De was given back control due to Otto Braun’s poor tactics.<br />
  13. 13. 1935 - The Long March<br />Communist March from Zunyi to Shaanxi province<br />They faced many obstacles along the way<br />The Long March took the Red Army over mountains and through deep marshes. <br />Many men died on the way due to hunger, sickness, attacks, accidents and desertion.<br />The march was 368 days long.<br />Second front and Fourth Front army met them at Yanan and created a good fighting force.<br />