1. Barradas Caudle 1Isabel Barradas CaudleProfessor: Lynn Grow. Ph. D.ENC 1101: 8:00 A.M – 9:15 A.M TR1 December 2011Gustav Klimt:The controversial significance of the Feminine Form in theFin-de Siècle Viennese Art Nouveau.1.-INTRODUCTIONGustav Klimt‟s worksare remembered for eliciting extreme admiration as well as intensecontroversy and criticism (Partsch 7). “The name of Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) is intimatelyassociated in the art-lover‟s mind with sensuous lines, erotic and beautiful women, anddecorative golden detail. His paintings are instantly recognizable and have been exhibited inmajor art galleries worldwide, ensuring Klimt an international reputation as one of the mostforemost artists of his era” (Payne 6). His artistic paintings and drawings of the feminine formthat refer to the theme of feminine sexuality have assured him a place in the history of erotic art.In his later paintings, sexual subject matter is often concealed beneath an elaborated grid ofcolorful and predominantly golden ornaments, but in his drawings, the explicitly erotic isrepetitivelymanifested. Over and over again the themes of sexual coupling and femalemasturbation have never occurred more frequently or more exquisitely portrayed than in anumber of Klimts most famous works of art.
2. Barradas Caudle 2Many of his works were considered too sensual for the fin-de-siècle and early 20th CenturyVienna, and even his more historical, or mythical works featuring feminine nudes were oftencriticized for being too erotic. Fortunately, the strong critiques only served to heighten Klimtsinternational recognition, if not his notoriety as well.(Partsch 7).Contemporary critics, as well as earlier commentators, have observed that explicitly sexualsubjects impelled Klimt to produce some of his finest paintings.One of the most important artcritics of that time Hermann Bahr wrote in his “Speech on Klimt” of 1901: “Just as only a lovercan reveal to a man what life means to him and develop its innermost significance, I feel thesame about these paintings”. Bahr‟s words compared the connection between Klimt‟s paintingsand the observer to the relationship between lovers; this reflects a strong metaphor of the intenseemotions that they evoked. (Payne 6).Klimt lived in Vienna, the city where Sigmund Freud lived too. There is no official recordindicating whether Klimt and Freud knew each other, it is quite clear from Klimt‟s artisticprogress that Klimt welcomed Freud‟s ideas and adopted them in the paintings. It is unknownwhat exactly Klimt thought of himself and the “simple robe style” and it seems that he liked toassociate himself with loose unconsciousness and sexuality being decanted onto his canvases. Klimt‟s highly decorative, erotic feminine figures were influenced by an enormous range ofsources, some being classical Greek art, Egyptian and Minoan art, Byzantine mosaics, late-medieval painting, the woodcuts of Albrecht Durer, and the Symbolist art of Max Klinger. As afounder of the Vienna Secession, a group of artists and architects who formed their ownexhibition society and denounced the classical academic training of the time, Klimts workexemplified the erotic, psychological and aesthetic mannerisms of fin-de-siècle Viennese
3. Barradas Caudle 3intellectuals. Thus, the primal forces of sexuality, regeneration, love and death constituted thedominant themes of Klimt‟s paintings concerning the feminineform. “The drawings of aroused,naked women give a straightforward picture of Klimt‟s attitude to sexuality” (Whitford 166). “Insuch allegorical works as The Three Ages of Women, Hope and Death and Life females appear atthe center of a world constantly in change and decay” (Whitford 166-67).Because of his obsession with such taboo subjects as the female form and eroticism he receivedmuch criticism for his deviation from the traditional art.He is considered one of the mostimportant exponents of what was called The Vienna Art Nouveau movement. He was known as aSymbolist painter, which means that he painted with the intention of conveying a deepersignificance than objects alone would suggest. In the symbolism, subjects were chosen for theconcept that they represented, rather than as mere objects. Symbolist painters believed that artshould reflect an emotion or an idea rather than represent natural world in objective or quasi-scientific way express in the previous movements as Realism and Impressionism. Though itbegan as a literary concept in the 1880s, Symbolism was soon spread to the artwork of a youngergeneration of painters who were rejecting the conventions of Naturalism. In painting, Symbolismrepresents a synthesis of form and feeling of reality and the artist‟s inner subjectivity. Each artist has an inspiration that drives them, for Klimt this inspiration was the Feminineform, more specifically: the Femme Fatale. Many of the Klimt‟s paintings are symbolic of thequalities of the Femme Fatale. While some critics and historians believe that Klimt‟s works should not be included in theCanon of modern art, his paintings and drawings remain striking for its unique visualcombination of the old and the modern, the real and the abstract, which maybe a possible
4. Barradas Caudle 4explanation for the phenomena that Klimt produced his greatest work during a time of changeand radical ideas with certain features that are clearly perceived in his paintings. He expressed:“if anyone wants to know anything about me, as a painter – and that is the only question worthyof consideration- let him carefully study my works and try to read in them what I am and what Iwish for”.(Frodl 12).2.-LIFE AND WORKS Gustav Klimt would possibly be forgotten in history as many other successful and temporarilypraised artists, but instead he contributed to the world of art with a number of paintings thatobsessively represented the women‟s nature. What does it mean to be a woman in apsychological sense? How does a woman feel in a way that men don‟t? , maybe those were someof the questions in the Klimt‟s mind that possibly drove his inimitable work. Klimt did not live a modest, conventionalor monogamous life, it was quite the opposite. Henever was the conservative serious or formal artist wearing a nice black suit and white shirtunderneath the painter robe but he used to wear sandals and a loose robe usually with noundergarments, and he spent most of his life in this type of clothing, endlessly painting womenand thinking of women.Moreover, a common image of Klimt was always open to support youngpromising artists, an example of this was his mentorship with Egon Schiele (1890-1918) whowas regarded by many of his contemporaries as the predestined successor to Gustav Klimt, butdied before he could fulfill his promise. Another detail concerning Klimt is that he neverparticipated in any sorts of scandals relating to his personal life and tended to keep his affairs
5. Barradas Caudle 5with society ladies in secret.(Kransel 88).Although he was never married, after his death a lot ofwomen claimed that he had fathered their children.In the early 1890s, Klimt met Emilie Flöge(1874-1952), a successful couturier and designer, whoran a fashionable dressmaking shop:La Casa Piccola, in the MariahilferStraße, Viennas pre-eminent shopping street.In 1902, he painted herlast portrait (Partsch 112) and she became hislover and lifelong companion (Frodl 82).For 27 years Klimt maintained a steadfast relationshipwith her, but his affairs with prominent married society women were notorious, his conquestsincluding the leading femme fatale of the age, Alma Mahler, and the wealthy Adele Bloch-Bauer. These women often appear in various guises in Klimt‟s paintings. Little else of Klimt‟spersonal life is known. Whether his relationship with Flöge was a sexual one or not is arguable,but during that period it is believed that Klimt fathered at least 14 illegitimate children withvarious partners.(Partsch 58).A noteworthy possible Freudian intervention includes the idea that the more Klimt progressedwith his artwork, the more intensely he seemed to want his models to demonstrate sexualaffection. This may be only a reasonable assumption based that in those times, the beginning ofthe 20th century, a peak of one of the waves of secular beliefs in society with many peopleclaiming how everything and anything is based on matter, not on spirit. Here, Freud is present asa significant figure in Vienna who thoughtthat people are primarily driven by their sexualdesires.Eroticism was in the air at that time: Freud saw no upright object without interpreting itas erectile, no orifice without potential penetration. Even Adolf Loos (1870-1933) architect andtheorist, who became more famous for his ideas than for his buildings, he believed that reasonshould determine the way we build, and he opposed the decorative Art Nouveau movement withhis right-angled art and his hostility towards ornamentation, but even he associated horizontal
6. Barradas Caudle 6lines with woman and vertical lines with man.Nevertheless, Klimt never exposed his mostprovocative and erotic collection of about 100 drawings in his public final works but used themto study women‟s nature. This maybe something that differentiates Klimt from a merewomanizer, and as a result of his lifestyle he produced exceptional and unique paintings with themost feminine images of women. “Art historians additionally claimed that Klimt was persecutedfor his erotic convictions, although he had led a rather discreet life, unlike most of his famouscontemporaries in fin-de-siècle Vienna.” (Bitsori 1507).Julie Johnson in her article about the Austrian impressionist Tina Blau wrote: “The mostmemorable histories of Vienna 1900 have centered on the Secession and its role as a heroicavant-garde in the battle with moribund art institutions. The early reception of Vienna 1900 (itsfirst scholarly revival occurred in the 1960s) stressed a dichotomy between sexual repression andthe freedom of modernist artists and thinkers like Freud. In the images that have become mostcanonical, the sexual freedoms of artists heroes Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele are apparent.The emphasis on Freud and Klimt as revealers of sexual truths in one image of Vienna 1900 thatpersist today, but it is incomplete” (1).3.-THE CRITICISMGustav Klimts erotic and sensual paintings were constantly criticized by jealous artists and artcritics. Ludwig Hevesi (Hungarian journalist and art critic, well-regarded figure on the Vienneseart scene) compared Klimt to Hans Makart (19th century Austrian academic history painter,designer and decorator), making him look as the Vienna‟s new prince of painters. „The Kiss‟ didnot present society with a scandal, as so many of Klimt‟s previous pictures had. On the contrary,
7. Barradas Caudle 7the picture was received with enthusiasm from the beginning, as is shown by how quickly it sold.It has remained one of Klimt‟s most famous pieces of work, and has also become a symbol of theVienna Artistic Style (Jugendstil or style of the youth). It can be admired at The BelvedereMuseum in Vienna. Peter Selzdescribed Klimt‟s style in the following terms: “…moved from elaborate decorativepaintings toward evocative symbolist murals and sumptuous portraits of Viennese ladies. Hebecame the most sought-after portraitist for depictions of women who were almost imprisoned intheir luxurious environment. His women relate to characters who in the plays of Schnitzler andHofmannsthal are part of an illusory stage world without a power of their own. These womenseem to live of luxuriant futility, part of an overripe civilization far gone towards decline.” (79). Despite all the criticism, Klimt‟s skill did not go unrecognized. In 1917, he was named anhonorary member of the Academies of Fine Art in Munich and Vienna. (Price. 2007. 421) During several exhibitions, Klimts painting annoyed virtually every ideological faction inVienna. The academics found the symbolism too vague, and the Catholics took exception to thenudity.In 1893 Gustav Klimt was commissioned to create three paintings to decorate the ceiling of theGreat Hall in the University of Vienna (Bitsori 1506), though not completed until the turn of thecentury, the three University paintings: Philosophy, Medicine, and Jurisprudence were criticizedfor their radical themes and material, even addressed as an “Art Scandal and LiteraryControversy”. Klimt spent ten years of his life working on these paintings. “The Universitypaintings were undoubtedly Klimt‟s masterpiece. Of those of his works that perished – among
8. Barradas Caudle 8them some of his finest paintings and fifty of his sketchbooks – these constitute the greatest lossto posterity.” (Nebehay 61-64).One of Klimts paintings, Philosophy, caused widespread concern. Within days of the exhibitionopening, eighty-seven members of the University of Vienna had publicly protested about Klimtspicture and petitioned the Ministry of Education to cancel the commission given to Klimt in1893 for the decoration of a hall. They accused Klimt of presenting unclear ideas throughunclear forms (Bitsori 1506); instead of making an unambiguous statement about the virtues ofphilosophy he had produced a puzzle which seemed to suggest that the mysteries of life wereultimately impenetrable and that human existence consisted of nothing more than the infinitelyrepeated cycle of birth, copulation and death.The painting also revealed a fissure betweenrationalists and aesthetes: to the rationalists, Philosophy seemed to be attacking the positivistinterpretation of the world in which reality consisted exclusively of demonstrable facts.“HisPhilosophyindicates an inspiration provided by the ideas of composer Richard Wagner andphilosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.” (Bitsori 1507).The next painting, Medicine, was met with accusations of “pornography and perverted excess”(Nèret 24) (Bitsori 1507), and again, unclear ideas through unclear forms. It seemed as if almostevery academic perspective had problems with the paintings (Partsch 112). The last of the seriesof three paintings, Jurisprudence, required to express notions of Justice, Truth and the Law, wasattacked for much the same reasons and in the same manner as the previous two.(Bitsori1507).All three paintings were eventually destroyed in May 1945 as retreating Nazi forces setfire to the castle in Lower Austria where the painting were moved in 1943 for protection.(Bitsori1508).
9. Barradas Caudle 9His NudaVeritas in 1899 as part of the illustrations of the third edition of the periodical VerSacrumalso quivered the establishment. Klimt boldly painted Eve, the prototype of woman. It isnot the apple that is seductive, but her body; she is displayed as she really is in her entirety, withno detail concealed.A naked red-headed woman holds the mirror of truth and above it is a quoteby the German dramatist Schiller: "if you cannot please everyone with your deeds and your art,please a few. To please many is bad." (Whitford 52), “…- announced that pleasing his clientswas not his priority anymore.” (Bitsori 1506).The second illustration of that edition is called DerNeid. The main theme in Klimts work: Women. (Kransel 88).This theme exists parallel to thecontrasts that surrounded Klimt, and is intertwined into Klimts idea of woman and femalesexuality. His search into the woman has led him to follow separate emotional and sexual lives.Sexuality is a part of his work, Klimts erotic drawings are of women as objects, voyeuristicnotions that exist for the spectator, a potential lover and voyeur; clothes not used to cover but todisclose and dramatize. This may be manifesting an underlying anxiety of the artist: fear of thedanger of sexual attraction, of the destructive femme fatale side of women, and ultimately, ofcastration in the Freudian sense. Klimts subject choice of women was apparent very early in life,his entrance exam for the Austrian Arts academy was a bust of a womans head.Klimt did not shy away from bluntly depicting the pregnant form, or the ravages of age, as seenin The Beethoven Frieze (1902), Hope I (1903), Three Ages of Woman (1905), Hope II (1907-08), and Death and Life (1908-11). These moving works of emotional sensitivity and faithfulrendering of the body au naturel were considered flagrantly offensive to the traditional moralstandards of those days. Particularly in The Beethoven Frieze (detail of the hostile forces),according to Zeri interpretation, Klimt underlines the component of female provocation and
10. Barradas Caudle 10domination, which is made grotesquely explicit by the insertion into the scene of a chimpanzee.(20).Ultimately, it is said that Klimt offendedthe public sentiment by not considering any part of thehuman anatomy ugly, shameful or ignoble, and was made to suffer repeatedly for not playing thenational game of falsehood mounted in a traditional sense of Art.Klimts Golden Phase was marked by positive critical reaction and success. Many of Klimtspaintings from this period utilized gold leaf (his use of gold can first be traced back to PallasAthena in 1898 and Judith I in 1901) and the works most popularly associated with this periodare the Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I in 1907 and The Kiss 1907-08 (widely considered to bethe greatest painting ever, better than even the Mona Lisa).In Klimts best known work: The Kiss, the beautifully rendered figures float dreamlike in space,wrapped in an abstracted mosaic robe that veils graceful contours. The rhythmic flowing line andorganic forms of this particular painting greatly influenced what was to become known as the ArtNouveau movement. The background of The Kiss consists of gold swirls; golden discs andcolored, geometrical patterns covering the couples robes. The realistic treatment of their partlyvisible heads and the womans right hand balances the abstract patterns which dominate thecomposition. Frank Whitford wrote: "the most celebrated of all the artist‟s paintings, seems toembody Klimt‟s belief in the transforming power not only of sexual but also of art” (112).Zeriexplains The Kisssaying that the figures are joined in a decorative knot in which the verticalrectangle pattern represents the man‟s rationalism, while the repetition of circular forms isassigned to the woman, with an intentionally erotic allusion. (20).
11. Barradas Caudle 11Another very famous painting was Judith I, at the time of its creation in 1901,it was consideredthe incarnation of the femme fatale. In the Old Testament, Judith is a devout widow whocaptivated with her beauty the attention of the Assyrian leader who was a deadly menace to herpeople. At the meal in her honor, he drank so much wine that he fell asleep before he could touchher. In his sleep, Judith killed him with his own sword, escaped with the help of a maid andhelped the Israelites defeat the Assyrians who were now without a leader. In the Christiantradition, Judith was the allegory of the victory of chastity over vice and of humility overarrogance. In Sigmund Freuds interpretation of 1917, Judith had killed the Assyrian because hehad taken her virginity. Cutting off his head was, according to Freud, a symbol for Holofernescastration. Berta Zuckerkandl wrote: “Klimt created an ideal type in his Vienesse woman: themodern female, slender as an ephebe –he painted creatures of an enigmatic charm- the word“vamp” was not yet known but Klimt created the type of a Greta Garbo, a Marlene Dietrich longbefore they existed in reality.” (Frodl 77).For the artists working at the turn of the century, Salome and not Judith was the incarnation ofthe femme fatale. Judiths subversive ambivalence of the Renaissance in Klimts painting largelygave way to a sensual and erotic condition, being that Judith is an icon of femininity. Whateverinterpretation remains, it is clear that Judith I of 1901 is not only one of Klimts best paintings,but also one of the outstanding female portraits in art history.The erotic style of the femme fatale also reflects the contemporary changes in the role of womenwithin social and economic activities during the early years of the 20th century. This examplecan be seen in Klimts Judith II, 1909, a second representation of the myth of Judith inconjunction with Klimts first rendering of this female icon. In this painting, Klimt realized thedestructive image of the femme fatale, much like a vampire or the image of Salome as
12. Barradas Caudle 12representative of the rising social position of women. The issue of womens rights must also betaken into consideration when viewing this painting, for at the time of its creation, men werebecoming quite concerned with this social topic which Klimt adroitly symbolized in this workand many others. “In this second version, Judith II, Klimt further unites the roles of Salome andJudith in a hybrid heroine with a rapacious air, whose nudity is there explicit, in contrast to theveiled nudity of the first picture. Holofernes, more than a warrior, seems now to be the victim ofa merciless female power”. (Zeri 6).In both Judith I and Judith II, the artistic image of the femme fatale, the deadly woman who takesmatters into her own hands, shows Klimts tendency to render women as identification symbols.But at the same time, Klimt began to change the image of women from not only the eroticfemme fatale but also into the idealized society lady. Although during his lifetime he was simplyregarded as a purveyor of the decadent, these paintings are now considered as typicallyrepresentative of decay and decline in modern society. In this context, the erotic femme fataleimage could be regarded as a sociopolitical and culturally progressive force. Thus, Klimt can beviewed as an artist who contributed greatly to the liberation of women and the rediscovery of thelost power of the erotic element.A prime example of Klimts experimental adjustment of planar shapes and plastic forms is thepainting Death and Life (1908 and 1911). Although this rendering also contains the images ofmen, the woman in the top portion, nude and holding a naked male baby, illustrates Klimtsartistic openness to fresh inspiration, ready and competent to assimilate form from outside hisown tradition in order to express a modern mood. This painting is quite typically Symbolist inboth content and form. Bright colors, mosaic-like or enamel-like, stud the surfaces that enwrapthe voluptuously somber figures, where intertwined images of infancy, youth, maturity and old
13. Barradas Caudle 13age celebrate Life as bound up with love, especially through the nude woman holding the baby, asymbol of the sexual act and of motherhood. Outlined shapes are modeled to the extent neededtoshow the softness of the womans flesh and the firmness of her sinews. The cloak of thefleshless Death is appropriately dark as night and only dimly decked with funeral black crossesand mysterious symbols. While Life, sated with love as a direct result of motherhood, sleeps,Death, its eternal enemy, wakes. Therefore, the grim interval between Life and Death will soonbe crossed.In 1911 his painting Death and Life received first prize in the world exhibitions inRome.Metzger in his book refers toWater Snakes I also known as Friends I as“… perhaps Klimt‟smost outstanding contribution to the realm of the collector‟s piece, of small format, intimate andprivate objects for connoisseurs…” (122). The ethereal and underground qualities of the womenportrayed in this painting possibly influenced Metzger to write the following: “In this work,Klimt integrated all the autoerotic and homoerotic imagery that he had committed to paper in thestudio. In many ways, he captured his models not only in the self-referentiality of masturbation,but also in the self-referentiality of homosexual acts.” (122). These womenare young, theirbeauty is blooming, but their happy grins might be evil, and they may belong to the most wickedworlds. They are painted in water whichcould resemble the ancient Greek‟s Sirens who luredsailors by their beautiful voices. These are women who lure men with their beautifulbodies.These women may also turn even more manipulative and harmful, very similarto JudithIIwho turned out to be Salome, a character in contrast to Judith I, Salome requested the head ofJohn the Baptist and committed a moral crime.
14. Barradas Caudle 144.-CONCLUSIONKlimt wrote little about his vision or his methods. He wrote mostly postcards to Emilie Flögeand kept no diary. In a rare writing called "Commentary on a non-existent self-portrait", hestates: "No self-portrait of me is in existence. I am not interested in myself as the “subject of apainting”. I am interested rather in other people, women in particular, and even more in othersubjects. I am not particularly interesting. There is nothing extraordinary to be seen in me. I am apainter and I paint everyday from morning to evening. Human figures, landscapes more rarelyportraits. I am not at easewith the spoken word or the written word, even when it comes toexpressing something about my work or me. When I have to write even the simplest of letters, Ifeel a sense of fear that is like seasickness. This is why there can be no self-portrait in my caseeither artistic or literary. This there is no reason to regret. If anyone wants to know anythingabout me as a painter –and that is the only question worthy of consideration- let him carefullystudy my works and try to read in them what I am and what I wish for.”(Frodl 12).In spite of all the criticism and controversies created by his works, Klimt‟sstrong artisticpresence seems to be enduring today more than ever;evidence of his immortal art can beobserved during the upcomingcommemorative Klimts 150th birthday in Vienna 2012. Thepeople that visit Vienna willhave the pleasure to experience how this magnificent artist and hiscontemporaries have affectedthemodern art‟s perspectiveand will appreciate theallure oftheirrevolutionary epochover time.
15. Barradas Caudle 15 WORKS CONSULTEDBitsori, Maria and EmmanouilGalanakis. “Doctors Versus Artists: Gustav Klimt‟s „Medicine‟ “.BMJ:British Medical Journal. Vol. 325, No. 7378 (Dec. 21 – 28, 2002), pp. 1506-1508.Comini, Alessandra. “Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture by Carl E. Schorske”.The Art Bulletin, Vol. 63, No. 3 (Sep., 1981), pp. 521-523.Daviau, Donald G. “Hermann Bahr and Gustav Klimt: A Chapter in the Breakthrough ofModernity in Turn-of-the-Century Vienna”.German Studies Review, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Feb., 1980), pp. 27-49.Di Stefano, Eva. Gustav Klimt. Art Nouveau Visionary.NY. Sterling Publishing Co.,Inc. 2008.Fischer, Wolfgang. Gustav Klimt & Emilie Flöge.An Artist and his Muse.NY. The OverlookPress.1992.Florman, Lisa. “Gustav Klimt and the Precedent of Ancient Greece”.The Art Bulletin.Vol. 72, No. 2 (Jun., 1990), pp. 310-326.Frodl, Gerbert. Klimt. NY. Holt. 1992.Grimberg, Salomon. “Gustav Klimt and Emilie Floge: An Artist and His Museby Wolfgang G. Fischer; Dorotea H. Ewan: Significant Others: Creativity and Intimate Partnership by Whitney Chadwick; Isabell de Courtviron: Magnifying Mirrors: Women, Surrealim, &Partnership byRenèeRiese Hubert”. Woman’s Art Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Autumn, 1996 – Winter, 1997), pp. 42-45.
16. Barradas Caudle 16Johnson, Julie M. “Writing, Erasing, Silencing: Tina Blau and the (Woman) Artist‟sBiography”.Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide. Vol. 4, Issue 3. Autumn 2005.Johnson, Julle M. “Athena goes to the Prater: Parodying Ancients and Moderns atVienna Secession”.Oxford Art Journal. Vol. 26, No. 2 (2003), pp. 49-69.Kallir, Jane., and Alfred Weidinger, eds. Gustav Klimt. In search of the “Total Artwork”. UK. Prestel Publishing. 2009.Kransel, Nina. Gustav Klimt. NY. Prestel Verlag. 2007.Marlowe-Storkovich, Tina. “ „Medicine‟ by Gustav Klimt”. ArtibusetHistoriae.Vol. 24. No. 47 (2003), pp. 231-252.Metzger, Rainer. Gustav Klimt. Drawings & Watercolors.London. Thames & Hudson Ltd. 2005.Nebehay, Christian. Gustav Klimt: from drawing to painting. NY. Harry N. Abrams. 1994.Nèret, Gilles. Gustav Klimt 1862-1918. Cologne. Ger. BenediktTaschenVerlagGnbH.2000.Parstch,Susanna. Gustav Klimt. Painter of Women.NY. Prestel Verlag. 2008.Payne, Laura. Essential Klimt. UK. Parragon Publishing. 2003.Price, Renee, ed. New Worlds. German and Austrian Art, 1890-1940. NY. Museum forGerman and Austrian Art. 2001.---, ed. Gustav Klimt. The Ronald S. Lauder and Serge Sabarsky Collections. NY. Museum forGerman and Austrian Art. 2007.Sàrmàny-Parsons, Ilona.“The Art Criticism of Ludwig Hevesi in the Age of Historicism”.Austrian Studies, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Dec., 2008), pp. 87-104(18).
17. Barradas Caudle 17Selz, Peter., and Mildred Constantine, eds. Art Nouveau: Art and design at the Turn of theCentury. NY. The Museum of Modern Art. 1960.---, Art in a Turbulent Era. Ann Arbor, Michigan. UMI Research Press.1985.Thompson, Jan. “The role of Woman in the Iconography of Art Nouveau”. Art Journal, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Winter, 1971-1972), pp. 158-167.Topp, Leslie. “Gustav Klimt: Painting, Design and Modern Life by Tobias G. Natter; ChristophGruneberg”.Journal of Design History.Vol. 22, No. 2 (Jun., 2009), pp. 190-191.Varnedoe, Kirk. Vienna 1900: Art, Architecture & Design. NY. The Museum of Modern Art.1986.Vergo, Peter. “Egon Schiele and His Contemporaries. London. Royal Academy Review.”The Burlington Magazine.Vol. 33, No. 1055 (Feb., 1991), p. 130.Wagener, Mary L. “Gustav Klimt Women by Angelica Baumer”. Woman’s Art Journal. Vol. 10, No. 1 (Spring – Summer, 1989), pp. 53-54.Whitford, Frank. Klimt.NY. Thames and Hudson Inc.1998.Zeri, Federico, ed. Klimt: Judith I. Ontario. Can. NDE Publishing.2000.