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U4.+iberian+peninsula+8 11+centuries

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This is a presentation from the teacher Rocío Bautista from IES Camilo Jose Cela. I uploaded it so that my students and everyone interested in this topic can find it. Really good for bilingual …

This is a presentation from the teacher Rocío Bautista from IES Camilo Jose Cela. I uploaded it so that my students and everyone interested in this topic can find it. Really good for bilingual history 2nd ESO when learning about the Iberian Peninsula during 8th to 11th centuries and Al- Andalus.

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  • 1. 2º ESO IES Camilo José Cela Teacher: Rocío Bautista
  • 2. 1st Millenium BC PRE-ROMAN PEOPLE: - Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Tartessians. - Iberians, Celts. 3rd Century BC – 476 AD ROMAN HISPANIA 476 – 711 711 – 1492 VISIGOTH KINGDOM COEXITANCE OF: - AL-ANDALUS (south) - CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS (north)
  • 3.  8th - 15th centuries: some parts of the Iberian Peninsula were ruled by the Moors and other parts by the Christians. The territories ruled by each of them varied along history:  711-722: The moors conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula. The territory under their control is known as AlAndalus.  722-1492: Christian kingdoms of the north of the Iberian Peninsula In this unit we’re going to fought to regain control over the study Al-Andalus & the territories ruled by the Moors. Christian kingdoms from the beginning of their This historical process which lasted over 7 centuries is known as coexistance (711) until the moment when Al-Andalus lost the “Reconquista”. th th its unity (1031)  8 -11 centuries.
  • 4. 8th Century 800 9th Century 756 INDEPENDENT EMIRATE 10th Century 1000 929 CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA 11th Century IBERIAN.PEN. 1031 1100 814 900 751 768 TREATY OF VERDUN. UNITY LOSS CHARLEMAGNE DIES CHARLEMAGNE CAROLINGIANS DESINTEGRATION OF THE CALIPHATE. TAIFA KINGDOMS (Al-Andalus area) 711 START CAROLINGIAN DINASTY (Pippin the Short) (Muslims VS Franks, with Charles Martel as Mayor of Palace. BATTLE OF POITIERS MEROVINGIANS CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA 700 732 ABDERRAMAN I. BEINNING OF INDEPENDENT EMIRATE DEPENDENT EMIRATE OF DAMASCUS MOORS BEGIN CONQUEST  What was happening in Europe at the same time…?? FEUDALISM EUROPE 843
  • 5.   Muslims conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula in the early 8th century. They called this territory Al-Andalus. While the Muslims in Al-Andalus remained politically united (711-1031) we can distinguish 3 periods: The conquest. The dependent emirate of Damascus (711-756)  The independent emirate (756-929)  The caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031) 
  • 6.  711: the Muslim army leaded by Tarik (lieutenant of Musa, the Muslim governor in N. Africa) crossed the Strait of Gibraltar to plunder the area.  Tarik’s army, formed by Arabs but mostly Berbers soldiers, defeated and killed the Visigoth king Don Rodrigo at the battle of Guadalete (711).  This easy victory encouraged them to advance further, and within 4 years they conquered most of the Peninsula. This rapid conquest was possible due to the following factors:      Superior power of the Muslim army Visigoth's political internal conflicts (Don Rodrigo VS Witiza’s followers) Support that Muslims received from some Jews and Visigoth nobles that agreed to surrender in exchange for being allowed to keep their properties. After the conquest, Al-Andalus became an emirate (province) depending politically & religiously on the Umayyad caliphate in Damascus. The capital of the emirate was Córdoba. 722: Don Pelayo (Visigoth noble) led a revolt in Asturias and defeated the Muslims in the battle of Covadonga (722). It was the beginning of the “Reconquista”. After this battle only some territories in the north remained Christian.
  • 7. Don Rodrigo, the last Visigoth king, died in the Battle of Guadalete (711)
  • 8. 711 712 Umayyads Umayyads 715 722 Umayyads Asturias Umayyads
  • 9. Don Pelayo and the Battle of Covadonga (722), beginning of the Reconquista. Monument to Don Pelayo in Covadonga ( )
  • 10.    DO YOU REMEMBER…?? In Arabia, in 750, the Abbasid dynasty deposed the Umayyads, killing all of them. But one of them achieved to escape: Abderraman I !!! 756: escaping from the Abbasids, the Umayyad prince Abderraman I arrived in the Iberian Peninsula. Taking advantage of the local tensions between Arabs & Berbers, he deposed the emir (Yusuf), and he proclaimed himself an independent emir. The emirate was politically independent, but it still recognized the religious authority of the Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad. During this period Al-Andalus had to confront several conflicts: Against the Christian Kingdoms  advancing from the North.  Against the Franks  since Charlemagne conquered Girona and Barcelona, establishing the Spanish March.  Against the Muladi rebellion  Iberians converted to Islam, who felt discriminated. 
  • 11.  929: Abderraman III (emir since 912) proclaimed himself Caliph, leading to a political and religious independence from the Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad. His reign was the period of greatest splendour of Al-Andalus: He ended internal rebellions.  Controlled the expansion of the Christians in the north, which had to pay tributes to the Muslims so they wouldn't be attacked.  Cordoba became the most prosperous capital in the West.   The prosperity continued under other caliphs like Hisham II: Hisham II was only 10 years old when he became caliph, so the real power was in hands of his regent and vizier (prime minister) Almanzor.  With Almanzor the Caliphate achieved its greatest successes over the Christian Kingdoms (eg: plunders of Santiago, Barcelona…).   1031: after Almanzor's death the caliphate fell into crisis, due to a civil war between followers of Almanzor’s son & Hisham II. In 1031 the governors of the provinces (koras) declared their independence, so the Caliphate of Cordoba was disintegrated into 28 independent kingdoms called “Taifas”.
  • 12. Open your notebook, and in a new page write the title “Al-Andalus: historical periods” and copy the chart Al-Andalus: historical periods PERIOD DEPENDENT EMIRATE INDEPENDENT EMIRATE CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA CHRON OLOGY MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS WHO HAD THE WHO HAD THE AL-ANDALUS IS POLITICAL RELIGIOUS GOVERNED BY A… POWER? POWER?
  • 13. 1) Fill in the column “Chronology” by looking for the corresponding dates in your book. 2) Fill in the column “Most important events” by placing each of these statements in the corresponding box!! You have to put 2 in each box. • Abderraman III declares religious independence of Baghdad. Golden age: end internal rebellions, control of Christian Kingdoms, prosperity... • Visigoths defeated at the battle of Guadalete (711). Al-Andalus becomes a dependent emirate of the Caliphate of Damascus. • Abderraman I, only survivor of the Umayyads, arrives in Al-Andalus and declares himself an independent emir. • Beginning of the Reconquista at the battle of Covadonga (722). • Conflicts against: Christians of the North, Franks and Muladi rebellion. • Almanzor (vizier of Hishan II) achieves greatest successes over the Christian Kingdoms. After his death: disintegration of Caliphate into 28 independent kingdoms or Taifas.
  • 14. 3) Fill in the columns “WHO HAD THE POLITICAL POWER?” & “WHO HAD THE RELIGIOUS POWER?” by… thinking about what I’ve explained in class & using your book!! Say who had the political/religious power, and to which family did he belong!!! Example: 4) Fill in the column “Al-Andalus is governed by a…” using the following options: • Emir (with political power, but recognizes the religious authority of the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad) • Caliph (with political and religious power) • Emir (without political or religious power)
  • 15. PERIOD DEPENDENT EMIRATE INDEPENDENT EMIRATE CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA WHO HAD THE POLITICAL POWER? WHO HAD THE RELIGIOUS POWER? AL-ANDALUS IS GOVERNED BY A… 711 756 •Visigoths defeated at the battle of Guadalete (711). Al-Andalus The Caliph of becomes a dependent emirate of Damascus the Caliphate of Damascus. (Umayyad) •Beginning of the Reconquista at the battle of Covadonga (722). The Caliph of Damascus (Umayyad) Emir (without political or religious power) 756 929 •Abderraman I, only survivor of the Umayyads, arrives in AlAndalus and declares himself an independent emir. • Conflicts against: Christians of the North, Franks and Muladi rebellion. The emir (Umayyad) Emir (with political power, The Caliph of but recognizes Baghdad the religious (Abbasid) authority of the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad) 929 1031 •Abderraman III declares religious independence of Baghdad. Golden age: end internal rebellions, control of Christian Kingdoms, prosperity... •Almanzor (vizier of Hishan II) achieves greatest successes over the Christian Kingdoms. After his death: disintegration of Caliphate into 28 independent kingdoms or Taifas. The Caliph of Cordoba (Umayyad) CHRONO LOGY MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS The Caliph of Cordoba (Umayyad) Caliph (with political and religious power)
  • 16.   CULTURE:  Al-Andalus was one of the great cultural centres during the Middle Ages in Europe, specially during the Caliphate of Cordoba (10th-11th century).  Important scholars of the time were:  Ibn Hazm (historian, philosopher and poet)  Abulcasis (medicine)  Maslama al-Majriti (astronomer) ART: most important artistic achievements:   Great Mosque of Cordoba Palace of Medina Azahara
  • 17. He also wrote “The Ring of the Dove”, a treatise on the art and practice of arab love in Al-Andalus (in English; in Spanish)
  • 18. Page from a 1531 Latin translation of El Zahrawi's treatise on surgical and medical instruments He is consider the “father” of modern surgery. Eg: he was the 1st to use silk thread to sew up surgical cuts.
  • 19. Our current numerical system was brought to Europe by the Muslims!!!!
  • 20. The first building was built in 785 (Independent Emirate) under Abderraman I.  Due to population growth, new additions were added later:  1st extension: Abderraman II  2nd extension: Alhaken II  3rd extension: Almanzor (Hishan II caliphate)  In the 13th Century (1236), Cordoba was conquered by the Christians and the mosque was made a Catholic church. During the following centuries, several Christian features were added.  ANIMATION OF THE ADDITIONS OF THE MOSQUE: http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2001/graficos/mayo/semana3/mezquita/presentacion.html EXPLORE THE MOSQUE!! http://www.catedraldecordoba.es/index.asp
  • 21.  The mosque includes  A hall of prayer separated by double arches:  Lower  horseshoe arch  Higher  semicircular arch  The kiblah (wall facing Mecca)  The mihrab (where the Koran was kept). Decorated with:  Inscriptions of the Koran (epigraphy)  Vegetable designs (arabesque)  A courtyard with a fountain to make the ablutions.  A minaret from where the muezzin called people to prayer.
  • 22. PRAYER HALL Double arches (horseshoe & semicircular)
  • 23. MIHRAB
  • 24. MINARET
  • 25. ORANGETREE COURTYARD
  • 26.     Huge Muslim palace-city built by Abderraman III in the 10th Century. Located in the outskirts of Córdoba. It was built to be the capital of the Caliphate of Cordoba: royal residence & and seat of the government. Today only ruins remain.
  • 27. 3D Reconstruction of the Palace of Medina Azahara: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?feature=player_e mbedded&v=RDXCSEyg Udo
  • 28.   Christian groups in the mountains located at the north of the peninsula resisted the Muslim conquest. Over time, these areas developed into independent kingdoms. We can distinguish two areas where independent Christian Kingdoms appeared:  CANTABRIAN AREA:    Kingdom of Asturias (later called Kingdom of Leon) County of Castilla PYRENEAN AREA:    Kingdom of Pamplona Kingdom of Aragón Catalan Counties 1037: unified  Kingdom of Castilla y León
  • 29. KINGDOM OF ASTURIAS:  It’s origin dates back to the battle of Covadonga (722), when Don Pelayo and the local inhabitants (Astures) defeated the Muslims.  In 808, Pelayo’s successors established the capital in Oviedo.  By the early 10th Century, under Alfonso III (866-909), the kingdom extended to the Duero River.  To have a better control over the territory, the capital was moved to León (914): from then on it was known as the Kingdom of León.  At the end of the century the expansion was stopped due to Almanzor’s plunder campaigns. Asturias
  • 30. (Don Pelayo & Alfonso I)
  • 31. COUNTY OF CASTILLA:  Muslim troops attacked the Kingdom of Asturias through its eastern border (today: north of Burgos, Álava…). For that reason, several counties were established in this territory to defend the kingdom. They were ruled by counts, and several castles where built in the area. Can you guess why is it called “Castilla”!!?!?!     In the 10th Century (951) these counties where unified by one of them: Fernán Gonzalez. In 1030 Castilla was unified with the Kingdom of Pamplona. (Sancho III el Mayor married Fernan Gonzalez’s great-granddaughter) In 1035 Castilla was inherited by Fernando I* (son of Sancho III el Mayor), who made it an independent kingdom. In 1037 Fernando I defeated the king of León (Bermudo III) and formed the Kingdom of Castilla y León.
  • 32. Territories of the Kingdom of Pamplona divided by Sancho III el Mayor between his sons when he died in 1035. The county of Castilla was inherited by Fernando I, who in 1037 unified Castilla & León (Kingdom of Castilla & León) by defeating Bermudo III.
  • 33. REMEMBER:  732: Charles Martel defeated the Muslims at the battle of Poitiers.  During the reign of Charlemagne, they conquered Girona (785) and Barcelona (801), so by the beginning of the 9th Century they established the Spanish March all along the Pyrenees. The Spanish March was formed by several counties, which were the origin of 3 Christian Kingdoms:    Kingdom of Pamplona Kingdom of Aragón Catalan Counties
  • 34. KINGDOM OF PAMPLONA:  9th Century: a Vascon family (the Aristas), gained independence both from the Muslims (711-799) and the Franks (799-810), and established the Kingdom of Pamplona.  11th Century: the kingdom was at its peak under Sancho III el Mayor, who died in 1035 and divided it between his sons:    Pamplona  for García I Castilla  for Fernando I Aragón  for Ramiro I Now they become independent kingdoms
  • 35. KINGDOM OF ARAGÓN:  9th Century: it was an area under control of the Franks (counties of Aragón, Sobrarbe & Ribagorza).  10th Century: it was made part of the Kingdom of Pamplona (marriage of the daughter of the count of Aragón with the king of Pamplona García Sánchez I)  In 1035 Sancho III el Mayor died and his son Ramiro I inherited the territories of Aragon and made it an independent kingdom.
  • 36. CATALAN COUNTIES:  End of the 8th Century: the area was conquered by the Franks (785, Girona - 801, BCN) and became part of the Spanish March.  End of the 9th Century (878): Wilfredo el Velloso unified all the Catalan Counties, and made the title of count hereditary.  End 10th Century (988): they become independent from the Franks, since they didn’t helped the Count of Barcelona (Borrell II) when the city was plundered by Almanzor’s troops (985).
  • 37. Iberian peninsula (8th-11th century) AL-ANDALUS (SOUTH) Dependent Emirate of Damascus (711-756) Independen t Emirate (756-929) Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031) CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS (NORTH) KINGDOM OF ASTURIAS Origin: battle of Covadonga (722), Don Pelayo & the Astures defeated the Muslims. 808: capital established in Oviedo. Early 10th Century: under Alfonso III the kingdom extended to the Duero River. 914: capital moved to Leon to control the territory better  Kingdom of León. End 10th Century: expansion stopped due to Almanzor’s plunder campaigns. KINGDOM OF PAMPLONA KINGDOM OF ARAGÓN Century: a Vascon family (the Aristas), gained independence both from the Muslims and the Franks, and established the Kingdom of Pamplona. 11th Century: the kingdom was at its peak under Sancho III el Mayor, who ruled over Pamplona, Aragón (since 10th Century) & Castilla (since 1030). He died in 1035 and divided the kingdom between his sons: - Pamplona - Castilla  Fernando I - Aragón  Ramiro I 9th Century: it’s a county under control of the Franks. 10th Century: it was made part of the Kingdom of Pamplona (marriage). 1035: Aragon was inherited by Ramiro I (son of Sancho III el Mayor of Pamplona); it becomes an independent kingdom. COUNTY OF CASTILLA Origin: as a county in the Eastern border of the Kingdom of Asturias to stop Muslim’s attacks. Ruled by counts; many castles. 10th Century: these counties where unified by the count Fernán Gonzalez. 1030: it was made part of the Kingdom of Pamplona (marriage). 1035: Castilla was inherited by Fernando I (son of Sancho III el Mayor of Pamplona); it becomes an independent kingdom. 1037: Fernando I defeated the king of León  formed Kingdom of Castilla y León. 9th CATALAN COUNTIES End of the 8th Century: conquered by the Franks (785, Girona - 801, BCN) and became part of the Spanish March. End of the 9th Century: Wilfredo el Velloso unified all the Catalan Counties, and made the title of count hereditary. End 10th Century: they become independent from the Franks, since they didn’t helped the Count of Barcelona when the city was plundered by Almanzor’s troops.
  • 38.  While Muslims were building mosques & palaces in Al-Andalus, in the area occupied by the Christian Kingdoms different artistic styles appeared:  PRE-ROMANESQUE ART    Asturian art (8-9th Century) Mozarabic art (10th Century) ROMANESQUE ART (11-12th Centuries) 8th – 9th Century 10th Century 11th – 12th Century ASTURIAN ART MOZARABIC ART ROMANESQUE ART PRE-ROMANESQUE ART
  • 39. Copy and fill in this chart STYLE P R E R O M A N E S Q U E CHRONOLOGY LOCATION CHARACTERISTICS ASTURIAN MOZARABIC Catalonian area: ROMANESQUE Way of St.James: EXAMPLES
  • 40.  ASTURIAN ART: Chronology: 8th – 9th Century  Location: Kingdom of Asturias  Characteristics:  Semicircular arches  Barrel vaults  Buttresses  Examples:  Santa María del Naranco.  San Miguel de Lillo. 
  • 41. Santa María del Naranco (9th Century; Oviedo)
  • 42. Barrel vault in the interior of Santa María del Naranco (9th Century; Oviedo)
  • 43. San Miguel de Lillo (9th Century; Oviedo)
  • 44.  MOZARABIC ART: Chronology: 10th Century  Location: mostly in the Kingdom of León (capital since 914).  Characteristics:  Influence of Arab art due to the Mozarabs that emigrated from Al-Andalus to the new territories under Christian control.  Horseshoe arches  Wooden roofs  Examples:  San Miguel de la Escalada (León)  San Cebrián de Mazote (Valladolid) 
  • 45. San Miguel de la Escalada (10th Century; León)
  • 46. Interior of San Miguel de la Escalada (10th Century; León)
  • 47. San Cebrián de Mazote (10th Century; Valladolid)
  • 48. Interior of San Cebrián de Mazote (10th Century; Valladolid)
  • 49. Santiago de Peñalba (10th Century; León) Can you find any similarity with this door of the Mosque of Cordoba???!
  • 50.  ROMANESQUE ART:    Chronology: 11th – 12TH Centuries Location: all the Christian Kingdoms. Characteristics:  Catalonian area: • Blind arches • High bell towers  Along the Way of St.James: French Romanesque influence; spread due to the pilgrimage route known as “Camino de Santiago” that ends in Galicia: • Thick walls, few windows & dark interiors. • Semicircular arches, and barrel & groin vaults. • Latin cross plan. • Ambulatory behind the altar where pilgrims could walk around. • Decoration: sculptures in the entrances & columns; fresco mural paintings.  Examples:  Catalonian area: • Sant Climent de Taüll (Lleida) • Santa María de Taüll (Lleida)  Along the Way of St.James: • San Martín de Fromista (Palencia) • Cathedral of Santiago (A Coruña)
  • 51. Blind arches
  • 52. Bell tower of Sant Climent de Taüll (12th Century; Lleida)
  • 53. Frescos in the main chapel of Santa María de Taüll (12th Century; Lleida)
  • 54. Way of St. James (Camino de Santiago)
  • 55. Entrance to San Martín de Frómista (11th Century; Palencia)
  • 56. Barrel vault inside San Martín de Frómista (11th Century; Palencia)
  • 57. Cathedral of Santiago (11th Century; Santiago de Compostela)
  • 58. Portal of Glory. Cathedral of Santiago (11th Century; Santiago de Compostela)
  • 59. Sculpture decoration in the side entrance (“Platerías door”) to the Cathedral of Santiago (11th Century; Santiago de Compostela)
  • 60. Ambulatory around the altar of the Cathedral of Santiago (11th Century; Santiago de Compostela)
  • 61. Interior of the Cathedral of Santiago (11th Century; Santiago de Compostela)