The Articulation Of Consonants
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The Articulation Of Consonants

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A brief description of the articulation of English consonants

A brief description of the articulation of English consonants

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The Articulation Of Consonants The Articulation Of Consonants Presentation Transcript

  • The articulation of consonants
  • In order to articulate a consonant we should consider the following:
    • In the human larynx there are two flaps of elastic, connective tissue know as vocal cords, which can open and close which produce the sound
    • Consonants can be voiced or unvoiced (voiceless) i.e. a sound is voiced when the vocal cords are open and unvoiced when the vocal cords are close and the air which passes makes them vibrate.
  • Consonants are formed by interrupting, restricting or diverting the airflow in a variety of ways. There three ways of describing the consonant sounds:
    • The manner of articulation
    • The place of articulation
    • The force of articulation
  • The manner of articulation
    • It refers to the interaction between the various articulators and the air stream; i.e. The air is temporally trapped and then released.
    • The manners of articulation are:
    NASAL PLOSIVE APPROXIMANT LATERAL FRICATIVE AFFRICATIVE
  • MANNER OF ARTICULATION Vocal organs come near to each other, but no so close as to cause audible friction , e.g. /r/- /w/ APPROXIMANT A partial closure is made by the blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge. Air is able to flow around the sides of the tongue, e.g. /l/ LATERAL A closure is made by the lips, or by the tongue against the palate, the soft palate is lowered, and air escapes through the nose, e.g. /m/- /n/ NASAL When two vocal organs come close enough together for the movement of air between them to be heard, e.g. /f/- /v/ FRICATIVE A complete closure is made in the mouth and the soft palate is raised. Air pressure increases behind the closure, and is released more slowly than the plosive, e.g. / tʃ/- /ʤ/ AFFRICATIVE A complete closure is made in the vocal tract and the soft palate is also raised. Air pressure increases behind the closure and is then released explosively, e.g. /p/ and /b/ PLOSIVE
  • The following table summarizes the main movements of the various articulators
  • PLACE OF ARTICULATION The gap between the vocal cords is used to make audible friction, e.g. /h/ Glottal The back of the tongue is used against the soft palate, e.g. /k/- / ŋ/ Velar The front of the tongue is raised close to the palate, e.g. /j/ Palatal The blade ( or tip) of the tongue is used just behind the alveolar ridge, e.g. / ʧ/-/ʤ/ Palato-alveolar The blade of the tongue is used close to the alveolar ridge, e.g. /t/- /s/. Alveolar The tongue tip is used either between the teeth or close to the upper teeth, e.g. / θ / ð/ Dental Using the lower lip and the upper teeth, e.g. /f/- /v/ Labio-dental Using closing movement of both lips, e.g. /p/ - /b/ Bilabial
  • FORCE OF ARTICULATION
    • Fortis or strong: it is related to unvoiced sounds , which require a more forcefully expelled airstream.
    • Lenis or weak: it is related to be voiced sounds .
    • The force of articulation is very difficult to define and measure
  • TABLE OF ENGLISH CONSONANTS Place of Articulation Front Back Manner of Articulation f p θ s ʧ ʃ k h t Unvoiced phonemes are on shaded background. Voiced phonemes are normal Glotal Velar Palatal Palato-alveolar Alveolar Dental Labio-dental Bilabial w j r ( w ) Approxi mant l Lateral ŋ n m Nasal Ʒ z ð v Fricative ʤ Affricative g d b Plosive