Reading fluency-model-summary
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Reading fluency-model-summary

on

  • 666 views

Have a look if on wish to improve reading skills....=)

Have a look if on wish to improve reading skills....=)

Statistics

Views

Total Views
666
Views on SlideShare
666
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Reading fluency-model-summary Document Transcript

  • 1. Toward  an  Interactive  –  Compensatory  Model  of  Reading  Fluency    The  Interactive  Compensatory  Model      The  University  of  Toronto’s  Keith  Stanovich,  Professor  of  Human  Development  and  Applied  Psychology  is  an  education  researcher  whose  primary  field  of  inquiry  is  understanding  the  processes  through  which  we  learn  and  understand  text.  His  investigation  of  reading  and  fluency  began  with  his  review  of  Frank  Smith’s  1971  book,  Understanding  Reading.  He  posited  that  reading  fluency  is  measurable,  quantifiable  and  can  be  predicted  and  explained.  Stanovich  reviewed  the  research  surrounding  reading  fluency  and  discovered  gaps  in  the  scholarship.  His  later  work  more  clearly  explained  the  process  through  which  readers  arrive  at  fluency.    Stanovich’s  seminal  research  into  language,  learning  and  reading  fluency  has  proven  its  staying  power.  He  examined  the  cognitive  processes  underpinning  reading  fluency.  In  the  article  Toward  an  Interactive  –  Compensatory  Model  of  Individual  Differences  in  the  Development  of  Reading  Fluency,  Stanovich  and  his  colleagues,  LaBerge  and  Samuels,  agree  that  the  mind  cannot  focus  on  two  demanding  cognitive  processes  like  decoding  and  comprehending  at  the  same  time;  therefore,  the  reader  has  to  have  mastered  the  decoding  skill  in  order  for  comprehension  to  be  successful.            Stanovich’s  Interactive  Compensatory  Model  claims  poor  readers  rely  on  other  reading  cognitions  to  help  them  interpret  orthographic  and  lexical  knowledge.  The  model’s  interactive  portion  indicates  the  reader  is  simultaneously  engaging  the  lower  and  higher  cognitive  processes  to  make  sense  of  text.  These  lower  (smaller  units  of  information  including  letters  and  words)  and  higher  (predictive  reading,  word  identification)  cognitive  processes  aid  the  reader  with  predicting  meaning  and  identifying  words.    Stanovich  defines  reading  fluency  as  the  efficient,  effective  use  of  word  recognition  skills  permitting  a  reader  to  construct  a  text’s  meaning.    Fluency  is  manifested  in  accurate,  rapid,  expressive  oral  reading  applied  while  reading  aloud  and  making  comprehension  possible.      Reading  aloud  allowed  for  the  transmission  of  important  information  in  and  among  social  groups.  The  recitation,  memorization  and  regurgitation  of  knowledge  were,  for  many  years,  a  bedrock  principle  of  American  education.  Compulsory  education  is  a  recent  phenomenon.  Instruction  focused  on  elocution  and  correct  pronunciation.      Stanovich  asserts  that  differences  in  reading  fluency  not  only  distinguish  good  readers  from  poor,  but  a  lack  of  reading  fluency  is  also  a  reliable  predictor  of  reading  comprehension  problems.    Torgesen  further  argues  once  struggling  readers  learn  sound–symbol  relationships  through  intervention  and  become  accurate  decoders,  their  lack  of  fluency  emerges  as  the  next  hurdle  they  face  on  their  way  to  reading  proficiency    Additionally,  Stanovich  argues  that  being  able  to  quickly  and  accurately  decode  words  influences  a  reader’s  ability  to  read  with  fluency.  If  a  reader  is  taking  too  much  time  decoding  
  • 2. and  heavily  relying  upon  contextual  clues  to  “figure  out”  words  and  word  meaning,  comprehension  begins  to  break  down  or  the  reader  never  achieves  understanding  of  text.      Ehri  (1995,  1998)  posited  that  readers  progress  in  stages  to  achieve  fluency,  in  line  with  a  “deep,”  developmental  concept  of  fluency.  The  development  occurs  in  four  stages:     • Pre-­‐Alphabetic  Stage  Readers  have  no  appreciation  of  the  alphabetic  principle  –  the   idea  that,  in  languages  like  English,  there  is  a  systematic  relationship  between  the   limited  number  of  sounds  in  the  language  and  the  language’s  letters   • Partial  Alphabetic  Stage  Readers  have  learned  that  letters  and  sounds  are  related  and   begin  to  use  that  insight   • Fully  Alphabetic  Stage  Readers  think  about  letter  sounds  and  blend  them  together  to   arrive  at  pronunciations  (sight  words)   • Consolidated  Alphabetic  Stage  Readers  recognize  whole  words  instantly      Fawcett  and  Nicholson  speculate  that  the  eye’s  inability  to  see  a  word  or  a  few  words  in  a  single  eye  fixation  helps  explain  automaticity  deficits.  Struggling  readers  and  students  with  dyslexia  often  have  to  re-­‐read  a  word  or  passage  to  self-­‐correct  insertions  and  omissions.    In  contrast,  fluent  readers’  placement  and  overlap  of  eye  fixations  are  more  efficient  than  less  skilled  readers,  and  fluent  readers  make  shorter  fixations,  longer  jumps  between  fixations  and  fewer  regressions  (Hudson  F.,  Lane  H.,  Pullen  P,  2005).        Furthermore  Hudson,  Lane,  and  Pullen  assert  that  if  a  reader  fails  to  read  words  accurately  the  reader  loses  the  author’s  intended  message.  The  ability  to  decode  words  quickly  and  accurately  is  important  to  achieve  fluency  and  comprehension.          The  article  goes  on  to  discuss  readers’  reading  rate  and  prosody.    Readers  move  through  connected  text  with  fluidity  and  at  a  fairly  decent  speed,  with  proficiency.  Educators  measure  reading  rate  either  by  counting  the  number  of  words  read  correctly  or  the  length  of  time  it  takes  for  the  reader  to  read  the  passage.      A  slow  reading  rate  can  result  in  weakened  comprehension.    On  the  other  hand,  research  has  shown  a  correlation  between  reading  rate  and  comprehension.  Students  who  read  at  a  decent  rate  comprehend  text  better.  The  objective  is  not  just  to  read  fast  but  read  with  accuracy  and  expression.    Reading  with  prosody  is  another  component  to  fluency  and  comprehension.    Prosody  refers  to  reading  rhythm  and  tone  of  speech—the  music  of  oral  language.  Prosody  has  various  pitches  (intonation),  stress  patterns  (syllable  prominence)  and  duration  (length  of  time)  that  contribute  to  expressive  reading  of  text  (Hudson  R.,  Lane  H,  and  Pullen  P.,  2005).    Reading  with  expression  involves  signaling  questions,  surprises,  exclamations  and  meanings  beyond  semantics.    Reading  with  expression  also  aids  in  keeping  the  reader  engaged  in  the  reading.    There  is  no  evidence  that  reading  with  prosody  (expression)  helps  with  comprehension  as  reading  rate  does.        
  • 3. The  article  also  asserts  that  regular  assessment  is  necessary  for  readers  to  improve  reading  expression  and  reading  rate.    Teachers  should  listen  to  students  read  aloud  to  judge  their  progress  in  reading  fluency.  Assessment  should  be  systematic  and  consider  word  reading  accuracy,  rate  and  prosody.    Reading  accuracy  should  also  be  assessed  and  can  be  accomplished  by  listening  to  reading  and  counting  errors  per  100  words,  for  example.    A  running  record  is  also  helpful  in  assessing  accuracy.    A  careful  examination  of  error  patterns  can  determine  which  strategies  a  reader  is  failing  to  use  and  could  be  useful  for  comprehending  passage.    To  further  explain  this  concept,  Stanovich  believes  struggling  readers  depend  upon  context  clues  to  decode  unfamiliar  words  and  to  “figure  out”  word  meaning.  This  strategy  slows  down  the  reading  process  (the  ability  to  read  words  automatically)  leaving  limited  cognitive  space  for  comprehension.  “The  conscious-­‐expectancy  process  uses  attention  capacity  and  thus  leaves  fewer  cognitive  resources  left  over  for  comprehension  (Stanovich  1980).  ”    Moreover,  while  good  readers  have  superior  strategies  for  comprehending  and  remembering  large  units  of  text,  poor  readers  lack  similarly  sophisticated  comprehension  strategies.      Though  Stanovich  doesn’t  explicitly  call  out  these  superior  strategies  he  infers  their  importance  in  helping  poor  readers  become  better,  more  fluent  readers.  Some  of  the  strategies  under  discussion  include  background,  or  preexisting  knowledge,  contextual  connections,  mental  imaging  and  the  reader’s  questioning  the  text  as  a  means  to  make  sense  of  the  literature.      Overall,  Stanovich  believes  that  phonological  and  phonemic  awareness  and  orthographic  and  lexical  knowledge  form  the  foundation  for  reading  acquisition.  These  skills  help  readers  read  with  fluency.  The  focus  of  his  study  was  to  look  at  what  poor  readers  do  to  compensate  when  there  is  a  deficit.  As  mentioned  earlier  in  the  report  struggling  reader  resort  to  using  other  cognitive  process  to  help  read  words  and  make  meaning.      My  student  did  not  read  with  fluency  (accurately  and  reasonably  quickly).  I  noticed  her  struggling  to  navigate  the  text.  She  seemed  both  unable  to  discern  the  meaning  of  words  and  to  form  the  larger  associations  necessary  to  understand,  interpret  and  explicate  the  text  as  a  unified  document.  I  feared  for  her  ability  to  sustain  any  appreciable  gains  in  fluency  while  simultaneously  deriving  a  clearer  understanding  of  the  strategies  necessary  to  ensure  the  gains  held.  How,  then,  to  make  the  lesson  self-­‐reinforcing,  as  in  the  Matthew  ideology  of  learning?    The  Matthew  model  says  the  more  one  practices  and  is  engaged  with  a  task,  the  better  one  becomes  at  a  task.    The  converse,  however,  is  also  true:  the  less  one  practices  a  skill  and  the  less  one  engages  with  a  task,  the  less  likely  one  is  to  pursue  and  become  skilled  at  said  task,  like  reading.    Ultimately,  how  did  Stanovich’s  Interactive  Compensatory  Model  impact  my  ability  to  tutor  more  effectively  and  ensure  my  student  sustained  the  gains  she  made?          Stanovich’s  Toward  an  Interactive-­‐-­‐Compensatory  Model  of  Individual  Differences  in  the  Development  of  Reading  Fluency  does  not  provide  teachers  with  instructions  on  how  to  aid  
  • 4. students  in  becoming  fluent  readers;  however,  his  study  explains  how  the  mind  understands  language  and  narrative  and  how  readers  compensate  for  their  reading  deficiencies.      Guided  reading  allows  educators  to  see  and  assess  the  strategies  readers  use  to  compensate  for  their  weaknesses  as  described  in  Stanovich’s  Interactive  Compensatory  Model.  Guided  reading  is  an  excellent  assessment  tool  in  an  educator’s  tool  belt.        I  consulted  Stanovich’s  colleagues  including  Ehri,  McCormick,  LaBerge  and  Samuels  to  address  Rachael’s  fluency  issues.    Stanovich  and  his  colleagues  point  out  that  fluency  is  not  just  the  ability  to  read  with  prosody  and  elocution  but  also  involves  comprehending  what  one  is  reading.    Struggling  readers  will  often  use  other  strategies  to  help  them  understand  passages  such  as  context  clues  to  figure  out  word  meaning;  young  readers  looking  for  picture  clues;  and  readers  using  punctuation  to  gage  characters’  feelings  such  as  exclamation  points,  quotation  marks  and  bold  words  to  discern  what  happens  in  the  story.          Decoding  is  a  prerequisite  to  reading  with  fluency  and  fluency  aids  with  comprehending  text.  According  to  the  research,  the  mind  cannot  process  decoding  and  comprehending  at  the  same  time.  Rachael’s  decoding  skills  within  text  and  out  of  text  were  fair    According  to  the  research  the  following  strategies  can  aid  with  correcting  fluency  and  comprehension  difficulties:     • Timed  Repeated  Reading  Consists  of  (a)  selecting  a  short  passage  at  a  student’s   instructional  level;  (b)  setting  a  rate  criterion;  and  (c)  having  the  student  read  and   reread  until  the  time  rate  criterion  is  reached   • Repeated  Reading  with  Recorded  Models  Using  audiotaped  text  to  support  repeated   readings   • Poetry  Reading  Reading  poetry  to  teach  meter  and  word  groupings   • Listening  to  Literature  on  Tape  Aural  repetitive  listening  accustoms  readers  to  the   rhythms  and  cadences  of  the  spoken  word.    These  strategies  can  help  the  student  improve  her  fluency  and  develop  and  sustain  a  love  for  reading.