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  • 1. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved. Ethernet I/O Brad S. Carlberg Jim McConahayStandardsCertificationEducation & TrainingPublishingConferences & Exhibits Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 2. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Co-Presenter: Brad S. Carlberg Brad S. Carlberg, P.E. is a Consulting Engineer in Richland, Washington. He is a Registered Professional Control Systems Engineer in the states of Alabama and Washington with over twenty- five years experience in industrial automation and Process Control Engineering. Specifically he has experience with Distributed Control Systems and Programmable Logic Controllers combining extensive experience with both Hardware and Software Design, Programming, Implementation and Startup. Brad received his Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Washington State University in Pullman, Washington in 1984. Brad is a Senior Member of ISA who has been a conference program committee member since 1997. BSC Engineering 2 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 3. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Co-Presenter: Jim McConahay Jim McConahay, P.E. is an ISA member and holds a BSEE and MBA from Cal Poly University, Pomona California. Has 30+ years design and installation experience in Production and Automation equipment. Jim is a Sr. Field Application Engineer for Moore Industries-International, Inc. concentrating on process control instruments, SCADA, SIS (Safety Instrumented Systems), fieldbus, data concentrators and communications links. 3 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 4. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Agenda Agenda Physical Layers of Ethernet Protocol Medley Migration From Cabinet to the Plant Floor Enhanced Features of Ethernet I/O Architecture Considerations Security Examples of Ethernet Communications 4 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 5. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.OSI Model OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) Model7 Application6 Presentation “Ethernet” IEEE 802.3x only applies here5 Session4 Transport3 Network2 Data Link Physical UTP, STP, Fiber, Coax, etc.1 10/100/1000/10G speeds 5 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 6. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.OSI Model Protocols run on top of Ethernet7 MODBUS, OPC, What “language” are you talking?? HTTP, Etc. Protocol6 Presentation5 Session Addressing and Handshaking Protocols4 TCP3 IP2 Ethernet UTP, STP, Fiber, Coax, etc. Ethernet1 6 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 7. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Open Standards Ensure that your Ethernet I/O supports open standards for connectivity: OPC, MODBUS/TCP, Ethernet/IP, HTTP, HSE etc. OPC HTTP MODBUS/TCP Ethernet/IP HMI, PC, FF HSE DCS, PLC CIP 7 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 8. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Communications Media Ethernet vs. Twisted Pair Speed Multiple Protocols over same cable Plant wiring infrastructure Non-Proprietary hardware available (lower cost) Switch advancements have improved determinism Power over Ethernet HMI, PC, DCS, PLC 8 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 9. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Protocol Gateway What if the protocols don’t match? Is there a solution? Gateway (Protocol Converter) HMI, PC, Ethernet to Ethernet DCS,PLC Ethernet to Serial Wireless to Serial/Ethernet 9 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 10. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Protocol GatewayProtocol Converters and Gateways• The term “gateway” has many meanings. One common definition is a protocol converter.• Sometimes host and legacy systems can only communicate via one particular protocol. Or, instruments may support one protocol but not the one that the host system supports. Gateways can be very effective solutions that connect these two devices. Since Ethernet is “open” gateways are becoming more and more common.• Sometimes people refer to “drivers” as gateways. A driver is essentially a protocol or language translator. 10 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 11. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Simplified Gateway Example Gateway HART Data Map MODBUS Data Map Gateway Internal Mem. MODBUSHART mapping SlaveMaster 68.6 68.6 MODBUS Master gets new data HART Device is polled MODBUS Data Map Internal Mapping Takes Place 11 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 12. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Moving from the Cabinet to the Field • Temperature Considerations 55C vs. 85C operating Temp’s. • Channel-to-channel, and input-to-output signal isolation eliminates unpredictable ground loops • RFI/EMI protection protects against plant noise • Accuracy, long term stability, and Input/output resolution of transmitters 12 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 13. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Isolated Channels Signal Inputs/Outputs A/D Converter Typical I/O Card Design mP -single point of failure -isolation Common I/O Multiplexer Signal Signal Signal Signal Input Input Input Input Transmitter Like Design A/D A/D A/D A/D -isolation -flexibility of input type mP mP mP mP Enhanced I/O Design 13 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 14. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Isolated Channels Power and Flexibility of PLC’s Resolution, Accuracy, (Cabinet Mounted) and Spec’s of Field Transmitters (Field Mounted) Plant Floor “Industrialized” Ethernet I/O 14 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 15. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.“Hardened” Plant Floor Switches •High Temp -40 to 85C vs. commercial ~45C •High Vibration Tolerance •RFI/EMI Rejection •Surge Protection •Dual Power Supply Options for UPS Systems 15 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 16. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Switch Features for the Plant Floor •QoS (Quality of Service) -Packet Prioritization •SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) •SMTP Client (Emails about network warnings/breaks) •MAC Layer Filtering •IP Layer Filtering 16 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 17. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Set-Ups Programming should be easy and intuitive; i.e. web based 17 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 18. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.More… Do you need more than I/O gathering? Ethernet I/O systems are smarter and more powerful than ever. Many times PLC’s are used to perform simple control, math and logic functions. Questions to ask your Ethernet I/O vendor 1. Does your Ethernet I/O have the ability to perform control and math? 2. Is the control programming language proprietary? 3. … 18 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 19. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Compliant Language Is the programming language 61131-3 compliant? Function Block Diagram (FBD) Example 19 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 20. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Topology Know your design needs before choosing your Ethernet I/O system 1. Peer-to-Host—Star Topology; Bus Topology 2. Peer-to-Peer 3. Hybrid—Peer-to-peer and Peer-to-Host 4. Wireless/Fiber/Copper 20 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 21. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Peer-to-Host System DCS, PLC or PC with HMI/SCADA (with NET Concentrator System OPC Server) Ethernet I/O System Ethernet I/O System Additional NET Concentrator System Stations or Uplink to Other Hubs or Ethernet I/O Ethernet Switch or Hub Switches Ethernet I/O System System Dispersed Monitoring & Control Devices Analog Direct Valve On/Off Transmitter Temperature Positioners Devices Sensors Temperature Pressure RTD On/Off Contact Closure Level Thermocouple Proportional Relay 21 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 22. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Peer-to-Peer System (cost savings with traditional I/O cards) Ethernet/Fiber Network PAIR 1 Ethernet I/O System Ethernet I/O System Ethernet I/O Ethernet I/O PAIR 2 System System Ethernet I/O System Ethernet I/O System PAIR 3 22 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 23. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Add Wireless… Wireless Peer-to-Peer/Host Systems 900Mhz or 2.4Ghz – License Free or Licensed Ethernet I/O Ethernet I/O PAIR 1 System System Ethernet I/O Ethernet I/O PAIR 2 System System 23 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 24. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Security Concerns Firewalls NAT Routers Virus Protection Physical Security (personnel and Internet Connection) “Line speed” packet encryption systems 24 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 25. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Networking Network Architecture Considerations- “Connected” VPN Outside Internet Front Office Network Connections TypicalMost Convenient Router/Firewallbut PotentiallyVulnerable Process Control Network 25 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 26. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Networking Network Architecture Considerations- “Disconnected” VPN Front Office Network Outside Internet Connections TypicalSafer butInconvenient No Physical Connection Process Control Network 26 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 27. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #1One communication loop, multiple busProblem:• PAC – Programmable Automation Controller • Ethernet card in PAC backplane – Ethernet TCP/IP• HMI • Ethernet IP and Ethernet TCP/IP• Flow, valves, level sensors / FF • FF FIM; H1 to HSE link – Ethernet IP (not TCP/IP)• Ethernet protocol conflict between FIM and PAC 27 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 28. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #1One communication loop, two bus Solution: • Add MODBUS TCP to Ethernet IP Protocol Converter – Two way FF protocol conversion with PAC Protocol Converter Converts Modbus TCP to Ethernet IP Foundation Fieldbus Managed FT Interface Ethernet Module Switch PT FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Modbus TCP Local FIM HMI LT Ethernet IP Display FOUNDATION Fieldbus Ethernet IP FT Transmitters PT LT Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) 28 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 29. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #1One communication loop, two bus• Optimized equipment for each part of the system• Used protocol converter to make compatible – Lowest cost item in the system – Far less cost than compromise performance of a single vendor solution 29 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 30. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #2Remote ESD for Oil Platform in GulfProblem:• Maintenance Boat and Oil Rig Platform pipeline repairs • Repairs involve heavy equipment above seafloor pipelines• If accident event, need system to shut down Production • ESD (Emergency Shutdown Device) • Automatic • Reliable • Two-way verification of link• Off shore • Portable, distance >100 km • Beyond radio links 30 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 31. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #2Remote ESD for Oil Platform in GulfConsiderations:• No hard line communication links• No ESD = No Drilling ($$$)• Is existing Emails, Internet and VoIP to shore facilities – Satellite link is reliable on platform – Satellite link is reliable on Maintenance ship• Maintenance ship is very mobile – Easy installation – Transferrable to new ship – Simple, intuitive to operate 31 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 32. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #2Remote ESD for Oil Platform in GulfSolution:• Data concentrator on Maintenance boat – Ethernet Communications module – Discrete input/output module – Packaging with switch plus display lamp tree• Data concentrator of Oil Platform – Ethernet Communications module – Discrete input/output module – Packaging with switch, klaxon, plus display lamp tree – Connection to control panel• Expansion – Add SCADA to ESD at negligible cost 32 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 33. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #2Remote ESD for Oil Platform in Gulf Things at the surface can drop onto sea floor pipelines 33 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 34. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #2Remote ESD for Oil Platform in Gulf• Success – Operational upon initial installation, continuous operation – Simple to operate, intuitive. – Reliable. Now hard-wired to control panel circuits. – Satellite signal limited by extreme weather.• Expansion – Can add I/O modules for telemetry on both ends of links; negligible cost. 34 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 35. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #3Expansion of 4-20mA loops• Problem: Expansion, low budget, needs more 4-20mA channels – Requires more 4-20mA channels now – No budget to replace existing 4-20mA lengthy cable run – Will require still more channels later – Discrete contact requirement arising• Ethernet cable upgrade – Available in the future, not now – Does not want to waste investment in temporary data concentrator when Ethernet cable becomes available in the future 35 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 36. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #3Expansion of 4-20 loops• Solution• Data Concentrator – MODBUS RTU communications at module each site – AIM each output; AOM each output – DIM each discrete input; ROM each discrete output – Increase number of I/O modules, as desired – Increase pairs of data concentrators• Use existing twisted pair cable – Use one twisted pair to carry ‘all’ channels between data concentrators 36 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 37. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #3Expansion of 4-20mA loops• Data Concentrator on a Peer-to-Peer network – Originally MODBUS Communications Link – Currently Ethernet Communications Link 37 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 38. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #3Expansion of 4-20mA loopsSuccess• Use data concentrators to collect all 4-20mA loops and convert to digital communications. – Increased number of analog channels, and also easily adds discrete channels – Only one twisted pair required – Recreate signal at distant site with no degrading of analog signal (since communication is digital)• Low cost Ethernet upgrade – Swap only the MIM for an EIM communications module – All other modules are same 38 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 39. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #4Wireless HART, MODBUS RTU & TCP/IPProblem:• Multiple tasks, need to optimize – Tank farm, Wireless HART; multiple sensors, cable expenses – Closed loop room; add sensors, valves plus data concentrator – Host control room—long distance communication link• Different communications media and protocol – Wireless Hart; radio – Data concentrator; analog/discrete I/O; programming – MODBUS• Need protocol converters – Wireless Hart to MODBUS RTU slave – MODBUS RTU master; control loop; MODBUS TCP slave 39 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 40. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Case Study #4Wireless HART, MODBUS RTU & TCP/IP 40 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 41. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Summary“Our View” - Market Trend with Ethernet 1. MODBUS/TCP - MODBUS packets encapsulated in TCP/IP frames Reason: Everyone knows MODBUS, open protocol, and already supported worldwide 2. Ethernet/IP - “Industrial Protocol”, Rockwell released to ODVA (Open DeviceNet Vendor Association) Reason: Open, supports common publisher/subscriber method of comm., section of protocol already supported in open DeviceNet. Uses CIP (Common Industrial Protocol) for real time control. 3. OPC -OLE for Process Control. Uses Microsoft’s COM/DCOM/ .NET standards for open comm. Reason: OPC can run over any physical medium and is an open, free of charge protocol that both hardware vendors and software vendors have access to. Many supported development tools. Strong backing by OPC Foundation. 41 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 42. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.SummaryMarket Trend with Ethernet Cont’d 4. HSE - High Speed Ethernet Foundation Fieldbus protocol over Ethernet. Reason: Open protocol, and large organized support base by Foundation Fieldbus vendors and FF org. 5. Profinet - Profibus Trade Organization’s answer to open communications. It is NOT Profibus over Ethernet!!! Reason: Strong backing by PTO. Can use 802.3 layer but not restricted to this layer. Can run over modems, WAN’s, VPN’s, as long as it uses TCP/IP addressing. 6. CIP - Common Industrial Protocol is being promoted by ODVA (Open Device Vendors Association). Uses a Producer consumer network philosophy for real time control applications. 42 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org
  • 43. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.Questions? BSC Engineering Thank You! 43 Distributed with permission of author(s) by ISA 2010 Presented at ISA Automation Week 2010; http://www.isa.org