Open Access: Improving scholarly communication
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Presented at the workshop “Open Access: How to improve accessibility, visibility and impact of your research outputs”, December 22, 2008, ...

Presented at the workshop “Open Access: How to improve accessibility, visibility and impact of your research outputs”, December 22, 2008,
Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

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  • 1. Open Access: Improving scholarly communication Iryna Kuchma, eIFL Open Access Program Manager, eIFL.net Presented at t he workshop “ Open Access: How to improve accessibility, visibility and impact of your research outputs”, December 22, 2008, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
  • 2. About
    • Open repositories
    • and
    • Open Access journals
    • Citation Impact
    • and
    • Progress of Science and Research
    • Research Evaluation
  • 3. eIFL.net – 4200 libraries in 48 countries
  • 4.  
  • 5. eIFL.net programs
    • Open access publishing and the building of open repositories of local content
    • Advocacy for access to knowledge: copyright and libraries
    • Promoting free and open source software for libraries
    • 1+1=More and better. The benefits of library consortia
    • Promoting a culture of cooperation: knowledge and information sharing
    • Advocating for affordable and fair access to commercially produced scholarly resources
  • 6. eIFL Open Access
    • eIFL-OA seeks to enhance access to research , thereby accelerating innovation and economic development in the countries
    • eIFL-OA Program
    • - builds networks of Open repositories, Open Access journals and Open education materials;
    • - provides training and advice on Open Access policies and practices;
    • - empowers library professionals, scientists and scholars, educators and students to become open access advocates
  • 7. CC BY-NC-SA by mashon http :// www . flickr . com / photos / mushon /197192450/ ; http :// www . flickr . com / photos / mushon /197192003/
  • 8. CC BY-NC by A eioux http :// www . flickr . com / photos / aeioux /270434765/
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15. Scientific Publication Packages - Jane Hunter - Autumn 2006 From “ Enhanced publications (what are they, why are they important)” by Dr.Leo Waaijers , http://www. eifl .net/cps/sections/services/ eifl - oa /training/2008- chisinau /12
  • 16. Scientific Publication Packages - Jane Hunter - Autumn 2006 From “ Enhanced publications (what are they, why are they important)” by Dr.Leo Waaijers , http://www. eifl .net/cps/sections/services/ eifl - oa /training/2008- chisinau /12
  • 17. Scientific Publication Packages - Jane Hunter - Autumn 2006 From “ Enhanced publications (what are they, why are they important)” by Dr.Leo Waaijers , http://www. eifl .net/cps/sections/services/ eifl - oa /training/2008- chisinau /12
  • 18. UN MDG
    • The UN Millennium Development Goals emphasise the urgent need to address problems such as poverty and hunger eradication, child mortality, maternal health, environmental sustainability and combating diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
  • 19. UN MDG
    • It is very clear that without strong scientific platforms built on the widest possible access to research information, these goals will not be met.
    • If sustainable development is dependent on a strong national science base, then permanent access to the widest possible range of publications from the international library of research is a pre-requisite.
  • 20. the no-wall door CC BY-NC by monkeyca t http :// www . flickr . com / photos / ghirson /13481774/
  • 21. CC BY-NC by mollyali : http :// www . flickr . com / photos / mollyali /2924209043/
  • 22. Open Access
    • Open Access
    • is the free online availability of peer reviewed literature permitting any user to read , download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles
    • 2 complementary strategies:
    • the development of institutional repositories
    • and Open Access journals
    • From the Budapest Open Access Initiative: http://www. soros .org/ openaccess /read. shtml
  • 23. Open Access
    • “ It is important to stress here that publishing is a fundamental part of the process of doing science . Moreover, as a scientist I am not writing for money — like my wife, who was a professional writer at one time — but I am writing for fame: I want everyone to read what I write… Everybody who writes a scientific paper is writing to be read, not to make money. For that reason we volunteer our services, and we don’t get paid. That is what makes Open Access a powerful concept for scientists. It means, for instance, that anyone anywhere in the world who searches for oncogenes, mouse models, or any other search term that applies to my own work, will find it, and will be able to have immediate access to it. That is the goal we are hoping to achieve.”
    • The Basement Interviews Freeing the scientific literature Harold Varmus, Nobel laureate, former director of the US National Institutes of Health, and co-founder of open access publisher Public Library of Science, talks to Richard Poynder. Published on June 5th 2006 http:// poynder . blogspot .com/2006/06/interview-with- harold - varmus .html
  • 24. Open Access in numbers
  • 25. Open Access in numbers
  • 26. Open Access in numbers
  • 27. Open Access in numbers
  • 28.  
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  • 33. Hindawi Publishing Corporation
    • On February 21, 2007 the Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Egypt, converted the last of its subscription-based journals to an open access model.
    • Hindawi Publishing Corporation is a commercial publisher of STM (Science, Technology, and Medicine) literature. Founded in 1997, Hindawi currently employs more than 250 people, and publishes more than 100 peer-reviewed journals.
  • 34. Hindawi Publishing Corporation
    • Over the past several years, Hindawi has seen an increase of more than 40% per year in the number of submitted manuscripts it receives.
    • Since its full conversion to Open Access in February 2007, Hindawi's growth has continued to accelerate, with monthly submission levels growing by more than 100% during 2007.
    • Annual impact factor growth more than 14%
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41. Open repositories
    • A digital repository is defined as
    • containing research output,
    • institutional or thematic
    • and OAI compliant ( http://www. openarchives .org/OAI/ openarchivesprotocol .html )
      • (From The European Repository Landscape Inventory Study into the Present Type and Level of OAI-Compliant Digital Repository Activities in the EU by Maurits van der Graaf and Kwame van Eijndhoven
  • 42.  
  • 43. Content
    • Peer-reviewed articles
    • Conference presentations
    • Books
    • Course packs
    • Annotated images
    • Audio and video clips
    • Research data
  • 44. Content
    • Gray literature :
    • Preprints / working materials / theses and dissertations / reports / conference materials / bulletins / grant applications / reports to the donors / memorandums / statistical reports / technical documentation / questionnaires…
  • 45. ~66% of publishers, 90 - 95% of journals allow self-archiving
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49. Theses and dissertations
    • John Hagen, West Virginia University :
    • Moving from print to electronic – usage growth 145%
    • The most popular theses and dissertations were downloaded 37,501 times (history ) and 33,752 times (engineering); history one was published and was a long seller
    • 69% of students from the creative writing department had more successful careers if they went OA with their dissertations – a good marketing tool for them
  • 50.  
  • 51. Sudan
  • 52.  
  • 53. Open Access Impact
    • The advantages of Open Access are shown in the figures, especially when it comes to
    • increased citation rates :
    • For 72% of papers published in the Astrophysical Journal, free versions of the paper are available (mainly through ArXiv). These 72% of papers are, on average, cited more than twice as often as the remaining 28% that do not have free versions.
    • Schwarz, G. and Kennicutt Jr., R. C. (2004): Demographic and Citation Trends in Astrophysical Journal Papers and Preprints (pdf 14pp), arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0411275, 10 November 2004, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 36, 1654-1663
  • 54. Open Access Impact
    • Open access PNAS papers have 50% more full-text downloads than non-open access papers
      • http://www.library. yale . edu /~ llicense / ListArchives /0505/msg01580.html
    • … and are on average twice as likely to be cited
      • http://biology. plosjournals .org/ perlserv /?request=get-document& doi =10.1371/journal. pbio .0040157
  • 55. Open Access Impact
    • In Chinese scientific journals citation indicators of Open Access journals were found to be higher than those of non-Open Access journals.
    • Cheng, W. H. and Ren, S. L. (2008): Evolution of open access publishing in Chinese scientific journals, Learned Publishing, Vol. 21, No. 2, April 2008, 140-152
  • 56. Open Access Impact
    • “ Government-funded open access journals would be a breakthrough for science publishing in China . A government-funded open access initiative would reduce or eliminate the cost of publishing — enabling Chinese journals to attract more high-quality papers and improve their impact . Domestic journals can publish papers faster .”
    • said Zhu Zuoyan, the recently retired deputy head of the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) http://www. scidev .net/en/news/make-china-journals-open-access-says-top-scientist.html
  • 57. Open Access Impact
    • And there is a long list of bibliography The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact : a bibliography of studies:
    • http:// opcit . eprints .org/ oacitation - biblio .html#most-recent
    • Another recent posts:
    • Thinking about prestige, quality, and open access by Peter Suber in the SPARC Open Access Newsletter, issue #125: http://www. earlham . edu /~peters/ fos /newsletter/09-02-08. htm
    • Open Access: The question of quality by Richard Poynder in his blog Open and Shut?: http :// poynder . blogspot . com /2008/11/open-access-question-of- quality _21. html
  • 58. Open Access Impact
    • Open access brings more rapid and more efficient progress for scholarly research
    • http:// arxiv .org/ Open access to 486,864 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Quantitative Biology and Statistics
    • “ Brody has looked at the pattern of citations to articles deposited in arXiv, specifically at the length of the delay between when an article is deposited and when it is cited, and has published the aggregated data for each year from 1991.”
      • Brody, Tim; Harnad, Stevan; Carr, Leslie. Earlier web usage statistics as predictors of later citation impact. Journal of the American Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST), 2005, Vol. 57 no. 8 pp. 1060-1072. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10713/01/timcorr.htm (accessed 30 October 2006)
      • Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? - ECS EPrints ...Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? Swan, A. (2006) Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? http:// eprints . ecs . soton .ac. uk /13028/
  • 59. Open Access Impact
    • “ As more papers are deposited and more scientists use the repository, the time between an article being deposited and being cited has been shrinking dramatically, year upon year.
    • This is important for research uptake and progress, because it means that in this area of research, where articles are made available at – or frequently before – publication, the research cycle is accelerating.
    • the research cycle in high energy physics is approaching maximum efficiency as a result of the early and free availability of articles that scientists in the field can use and build upon rapidly.”
      • Brody, Tim; Harnad, Stevan; Carr, Leslie. Earlier web usage statistics as predictors of later citation impact. Journal of the American Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST), 2005, Vol. 57 no. 8 pp. 1060-1072. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10713/01/timcorr.htm (accessed 30 October 2006)
      • Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? - ECS EPrints ...Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? Swan, A. (2006) Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? http:// eprints . ecs . soton .ac. uk /13028/
  • 60. The Power of Open Access
    • Open Access enabled the opportunities provided by technological developments, such as data mining and text mining , to be realised
  • 61.  
  • 62. The Power of Open Access
    • “ The precepts of the publicly funded genome project made a very big impression, and it does have an impact on people's approach to scientific information, and their attitudes about access to it. There is also no doubt that virtually everyone working in the field of science that I work in depends very heavily on publicly available annotated sequences of humans, of mice, of worms and many other organisms. That principle is one that heavily informs the Open Access Movement, because it demonstrates how important search and retrieval is . It shows how important it is not just to have pieces of sequence floating around and the literature somewhere else, but to have them actually amalgamated into one site where you can do a search and get the information you want . That is a metaphor that we are trying to develop with the scientific literature.” The Basement Interviews Freeing the scientific literature Harold Varmus, Nobel laureate, former director of the US National Institutes of Health, and co-founder of open access publisher Public Library of Science, talks to Richard Poynder. Published on June 5th 2006 http:// poynder . blogspot .com/2006/06/interview-with- harold - varmus .html
  • 63. The Power of Open Access
    • “ I am certainly a strong proponent of the kinds of things that Larry Lessig talks about with Creative Commons: the reuse of information, the creation of new ideas by having access to previously published work, the right to reformulate information in ways that will allow us to have new insights — all of us who contribute to discovery want to see this .”
    • The Basement Interviews Freeing the scientific literature Harold Varmus, Nobel laureate, former director of the US National Institutes of Health, and co-founder of open access publisher Public Library of Science, talks to Richard Poynder. Published on June 5th 2006 http:// poynder . blogspot .com/2006/06/interview-with- harold - varmus .html
  • 64.  
  • 65.  
  • 66.  
  • 67.  
  • 68.  
  • 69.  
  • 70.  
  • 71. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint The Repository has made a splash page, with previews and usage stats ( Example from EPrints at University of Southampton)
  • 72. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint The repository has made a bibliography for you …( Example from DSpace at Universiteit Hasselt, Belgium)
  • 73. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint …maybe personalised it with other information about you… ( Example from DSpace at University of Chicago, Illinois)
  • 74. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint …set up a mailing list for you…( Example from Digital Commons at Cal Poly
  • 75. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint Automatically updated your research group web pages (Example from IAM web site at University of Southampton, UK)
  • 76. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint Less Administration: Management will use the information for the admin forms you would otherwise have to complete
  • 77. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint Update your Teaching Pages
    • The HTML for these boxes are created by the teaching repository for me to embed into my lecture page
    • This example comes from the JISC EdSpace project
  • 78.  
  • 79.  
  • 80.  
  • 81.  
  • 82. Open innovations
    • "We are and will remain a net importer of knowledge , so it is in our interest to promote the freest possible flow of information domestically and globally.
    • The arguments for stepping out first on open access are the same as the arguments for stepping out first on emissions trading – the more willing we are to show leadership on this, we more chance we have of persuading other countries to reciprocate.” Senator Carr
  • 83. Libraries
    • Libraries are no more just reading rooms and collections of books on the shelves
    • From importers of knowledge they turn into exporters of knowledge
    • Libraries as publishers and educators
  • 84. The Power of Open Access
    • There are considerable economic, social and educational benefits to making research and other outputs available without financial, legal and technical barriers to access .
  • 85. What do authors think?
    • Allison Fullard conducted a survey of South African responses to open access publishing, which showed that the research community already welcomed open access:
    • 93,21% of respondents agreed, that open access boosts developing countries’ access to scholarly literature;
    • 87,04% - that open access promotes developing countries’ engagement with global science;
    • 91,97 – that open access promotes the advance of scientific knowledge;
      • Allison Fullard, (2007) “South African responses to Open Access publishing: a survey of the research community”, South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science 73(1): 40-50. http:// eprints . rclis .org/archive/00010749/
  • 86. What do authors think?
    • 57,4% - that open access provides more accountable use of publicly funded research;
    • 70,36% - that open access articles will be read by more people, and probably cited more often;
    • 51,85% - that authors retain copyright and are free to use it as they wish
    • and 65,43% - that with open access development the serials crisis facing libraries will be broken
      • Allison Fullard, (2007) “South African responses to Open Access publishing: a survey of the research community”, South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science 73(1): 40-50. http:// eprints . rclis .org/archive/00010749/
  • 87. Comments
    • “ Open access publishing has given us an opportunity to a world of information regardless of where one is. Previously it was almost impossible to know the latest in malaria research unless you read an abstract or an institution got some hard copies which always arrived a month or more after publication. However, with BioMed Central, one is able to have a wide range of information on research activities . This helps in providing the much-needed information on topical issues and one can learn form diverse methods , geographical settings and be able to participate in the global debate on health issues and also provide quality policy information. It also enables us form the developing world to publish our research findings and share the information with other researchers globally . ” Dr G Chongwe of tropical Diseases Research Centre in Zambia, Pascalina Chanda of Malaria Control Centre Zambia , Mr Stanley Banda of Ministry of Health Zambia http://www. biomedcentral .com/ developingcountries /stories/ )
  • 88. Open Access Impact
    • John Houghton, Colin Steele and Peter Sheehan in their report to the Department of Education, Science and Training “ Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits ” mentioned the most important potential benefit of Open Access – “ enhanced access to, and greater use of, research findings , which would, in turn, increase the efficiency of R&D as it builds upon previous research.”
  • 89. Open Access Impact
    • “ Speed of access speeding up the research and discovery process, increasing returns to investment in R&D and, potentially, reducing the time/cost involved for a given outcome, and increasing the rate of accumulation of the stock of knowledge”
    • “ Improved access leading to less duplicative research , saving duplicative R&D expenditure and improving the efficiency of R&D;”
      • John Houghton, Colin Steele and Peter Sheehan, Report to the Department of Education, Science and Training “Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits” http://www. dest . gov .au/NR/ rdonlyres /0ACB271F-EA7D-4FAF-B3F7-0381F441B175/13935/DEST_Research_Communications_Cost_Report_Sept2006. pdf
  • 90. Open Access Impact
    • “ Faster access leading to better informed research , reducing, saving R&D expenditure and improving the efficiency of R&D;”
    • “ Wider access providing enhanced opportunities for multi-disciplinary research , inter-institutional and inter-sectoral collaborations ;”
      • John Houghton, Colin Steele and Peter Sheehan, Report to the Department of Education, Science and Training “Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits” http://www. dest . gov .au/NR/ rdonlyres /0ACB271F-EA7D-4FAF-B3F7-0381F441B175/13935/DEST_Research_Communications_Cost_Report_Sept2006. pdf
  • 91. Open Access Impact
    • “ Wider access enabling researchers to study their context more broadly , potentially leading to increased opportunities for , and rates of, application/commercialization ;”
    • “ Improved access leading to improved education outcomes , enabling a given education spend to produce a higher level of educational attainment (at least at the post secondary level), leading to an improvement in the quality of the ‘stock’ of researchers and research users .”
      • John Houghton, Colin Steele and Peter Sheehan, Report to the Department of Education, Science and Training “Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits” http://www. dest . gov .au/NR/ rdonlyres /0ACB271F-EA7D-4FAF-B3F7-0381F441B175/13935/DEST_Research_Communications_Cost_Report_Sept2006. pdf
  • 92. Open Access
    • While Open Access was only defined six years ago
    • it is now being debated by governments and publishers
    • and mandated by funding bodies and universities throughout the world
  • 93. Open Access
    • Much still remains to be achieved, but it is clear that Open Access has permanently changed the field of scholarly communication
  • 94. Thank you ! Questions ? Iryna Kuchma iryna.kuchma[at]eifl.net; www. eifl .net The presentation is licensed with Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License