Open access impactIryna KuchmaOpen Access Programme managerPresented at “New Trends for Science Dissemination”,ICTP – Trieste, Italy, 27 September 2011www.eifl.net Attribution 3.0 Unported
Visibility Usage Usage impactImpact in the form of citations
Research efficiencyHigh-Energy Physics (HEP) has exploredalternative communication strategies fordecades, initially via the mass mailing ofpaper copies of preliminary manuscripts, thenvia the open access repositories.In 1991, Paul Ginsparg, then at the LosAlamos National Laboratory, conceived arXiv,an internet-based system to disseminatepreprints. arXiv was first based on e-mail andthen on the web.
Research efficiency (2)Nowadays the research cycle in HEP isapproaching maximum efficiency as a resultof the early and free availability of articlesthat scientists in the field can use and buildupon rapidly
Research efficiency (3)“Brody has looked at the pattern of citationsto articles deposited in arXiv, specifically atthe length of the delay between when anarticle is deposited and when it is cited, andhas published the aggregated data for eachyear from 1991.
Research efficiency (4)As more papers are deposited and morescientists use the repository, the timebetween an article being deposited and beingcited has been shrinking dramatically, yearupon year. This is important for researchuptake and progress, because it means thatin this area of research, where articles aremade available at – or frequently before –publication, the research cycle isaccelerating.” (From: Brody, Tim; Harnad, Stevan; Carr, Leslie.Earlier web usage statistics as predictors of later citation impact. Journal of the American Association forInformation Science and Technology (JASIST), 2005, Vol. 57 no. 8 pp. 1060-1072; andSwan, A. (2006) Open Access: What is it and why should we have it?).
Research efficiency (5)Anne Gentil-Beccot, Salvatore Mele and TravisBrooks analysed almost two decades of use ofpreprints and repositories in the HEP communityin “Citing and Reading Behaviours in High-EnergyPhysics. How a Community Stopped Worryingabout Journals and Learned to Love Repositories” and provided(http://arxiv.org/abs/0906.5418)evidences that “submission of articles toan open access subject repository, arXiv,yields a citation advantage of a factorfive”.
Research efficiency (6)“the citation advantage of articles appearingin a repository is connected to theirdissemination prior to publication, 20% ofcitations of HEP articles over a two-yearperiod occur before publication”;“HEP scientists are between four and eighttimes more likely to download an articlein its preprint form from arXiv ratherthan its final published version on ajournal web site.”
“When we are faced with a challenging scientificproblem we cannot solve, what do we do? Many of us would go to see our colleagues and ask for theiradvice. Our professional network is valuable. It is alsolimited. Perhaps there are people who are well-placed to help us, in another university or company, in a different country, but we unfortunately do not knowthem. Surely science would proceed faster if we could reach those people? Or, better, if they could find us? This Commentary describes a case study — a chemical project where open-source methodologies were employed to accelerate the process of discovery. The acceleration occurred because the project was open: relevant experts could identify themselves.” (http://bit.ly/qxvkow)
“The process is transparent, meaning the publiccan be assured that funding for science, arising from their taxes, is being used responsibly andthere is no suggestion of political interference in the scientific process.Open science is subject to the most rigorous peer review because the review process never ends, essentially because there will always be a commenting function on results, and a mechanism for the community to police those comments.”http://bit.ly/qxvkow)
“The results of open science, freely available on the web, can still be published in pre-publication peer-reviewed journals that accept work that haspreviously been made public, because this serves as an important mechanism to summarize the research for future participants, and to rewardthose who have contributed with authorship along a traditional model.” (http://bit.ly/qxvkow)
Citation impactA number of studies have now been carriedout on the effect of open access on citationsto articles, showing the increased citationimpact that open access can bringSwan, A. (2010) The Open Access citation advantage:Studies and results to date. Technical Report , Schoolof Electronics & Computer Science, University ofSouthampton: http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/18516/
Swan, A. (2010)Around 35 studiesAbout 30 studies demonstrated that openaccess increases citations impact with anincrease of up to 600% found in some cases,though most showed an increase of up to200%.Only a few do not show any increase incitations from open access.
Journal Impact factor (JIF)Thomson-Reuters: the JIF shouldn’t be usedfor judging individual researchers.Eugene Garfield (the man who invented theJIF): it should never be used to judgeindividual researchers.JIF does not measure people & papers, tellsnothing whatsoever about the quality ofresearchers work.
“My personal belief is that we should befocussing on developing effective and diverse measures of the re-use of research outputs.By measuring use rather than merely prestige we can go much of the way of delivering on the so-called impact agenda, optimising our use of public funds to generate outcomes but while retaining some say over the types of outcomes that are important and what timeframes they are measured over.” Cameron Neylon: Warning: Misusing the journal impact factor can damage your science! http://bit.ly/cbK2DK
re-use in industry re-use in public health re-use in education re-use in policy development & enactment re-use in researchCameron Neylon: (S)low impact research and the importance of open in maximising re-use: http://bit.ly/ntbzQ6
From SPARC Europe workshop “How to make your work OA” Adapted from: John Houghton, Colin Steele and Peter Sheehan, Report to the Department of Education, Science and Training “Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits” [Online] Available at: http://www. dest . gov .au/NR/ rdonlyres /0ACB271F-EA7D-4FAF-B3F7- 0381F441B175/13935/DEST_Research_Communications_Cost_Report_Sept2006. pdf26/09/11
Group work Problem solving: A positive approachStep 1: Identify the goal: “I wish we could...” Step 2: Identify the barriers: “I wonder how to...” Step 3: Identify the solutions: “Perhaps we could...”