Open access for researchers, policy makers and research managers

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Presented at Open Access: Maximising Research Impact, April 23 2009, New Bulgarian University Library, Sofia. Open access for researchers: enlarged audience, citation impact, tenure and promotion. Open access for policy makers and research managers:
new tools to manage a university’s image and impact. How to maximize the visibility of research publications, improve the impact and influence of the work, disseminate the results of the research, showcase the quality of the research in the Universities and research institutions, better measure and manage the research in the institution, collect and curate the digital outputs, generate new knowledge from existing findings, enable and encourage collaboration, bring savings to the higher education sector and better return on investment. What are the key functions for research libraries?

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Open access for researchers, policy makers and research managers

  1. 1. Open access for researchers, policy makers and research managers Iryna Kuchma, eIFL Open Access program manager, eIFL.net Presented at Open Access: Maximising Research Impact, April 23 2009, New Bulgarian University Library, Sofia
  2. 2. Why Open Access (OA)? <ul><li>Open access for researchers: </li></ul><ul><li>enlarged audience </li></ul><ul><li>citation impact </li></ul><ul><li>tenure </li></ul><ul><li>and promotion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why OA? <ul><li>Open access for policy makers and research managers: </li></ul><ul><li>new tools </li></ul><ul><li>to manage </li></ul><ul><li>a university’s image and impact </li></ul>
  4. 4. How to? <ul><li>maximize the visibility of research publications </li></ul><ul><li>improve the impact and influence of the work </li></ul><ul><li>d isseminate the results of the research </li></ul>
  5. 5. How to? <ul><li>showcase the quality of the research in the Universities and research institutions </li></ul><ul><li>better measure and manage the research in the institution </li></ul><ul><li>collect and curate the digital outputs </li></ul>
  6. 6. How to? <ul><li>generate new knowledge from existing findings </li></ul><ul><li>enable and encourage collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>bring savings to the higher education sector </li></ul><ul><li>and better return on investment </li></ul>
  7. 7. What are <ul><li>the key functions for research libraries? </li></ul>
  8. 8. eIFL.net – 4 0 00 libraries in 46 countries
  9. 13. eIFL.net programs <ul><li>Open access </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy for access to knowledge: copyright and libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting free and open source software for libraries </li></ul><ul><li>1+1=More and better. The benefits of library consortia </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting a culture of cooperation: knowledge and information sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Advocating for affordable and fair access to commercially produced scholarly resources </li></ul>
  10. 14. eIFL Open Access <ul><li>Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>open repositories </li></ul><ul><li>open access journals </li></ul><ul><li>open educational sources </li></ul><ul><li>open data </li></ul><ul><li>open access policies </li></ul><ul><li>trainings and consultations </li></ul>
  11. 15. eIFL Open Access <ul><li>Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building </li></ul>
  12. 16. eIFL Open Access <ul><li>seeks to enhance access to research </li></ul><ul><li>thereby accelerating innovation </li></ul><ul><li>and economic development in the countries </li></ul>
  13. 17. CC BY-NC by mollyali : http :// www . flickr . com / photos / mollyali /2924209043/
  14. 18. Story N1 : Threadless ( thank you John Wilbanks!)
  15. 19. Story N1 : Threadless ( thank you John Wilbanks!) <ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><li>successful business approach : Google, Facebook, YouTube… </li></ul><ul><li>Threadless – Collaborative T-shirts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-line store skinnyCorp from Chicago in 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-founders Nickell та Jacob DeHart started with $1,000 ( won in the design competition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threadless community: design samples on-line, votes, producing and buying the best </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Story N1 : Threadless ( thank you John Wilbanks!) <ul><li>Threadless : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client is the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales – $ 5 mln a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profits – 500% annual growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New approach to innovations </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Story N2 : arXiv.org
  18. 23. Open Access Impact <ul><li>Open access brings more rapid and more efficient progress for scholarly research </li></ul><ul><li>http:// arxiv .org/ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Brody has looked at the pattern of citations to articles deposited in arXiv, specifically at the length of the delay between when an article is deposited and when it is cited, and has published the aggregated data for each year from 1991.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brody, Tim; Harnad, Stevan; Carr, Leslie. Earlier web usage statistics as predictors of later citation impact. Journal of the American Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST), 2005, Vol. 57 no. 8 pp. 1060-1072. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10713/01/timcorr.htm (accessed 30 October 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? - ECS EPrints ...Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? Swan, A. (2006) Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? http:// eprints . ecs . soton .ac. uk /13028/ </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. Open Access Impact <ul><li>“ As more papers are deposited and more scientists use the repository, the time between an article being deposited and being cited has been shrinking dramatically, year upon year. </li></ul><ul><li>This is important for research uptake and progress, because it means that in this area of research, where articles are made available at – or frequently before – publication, </li></ul><ul><li>the research cycle is accelerating . </li></ul><ul><li>the research cycle in high energy physics is approaching maximum efficiency as a result of the early and free availability of articles that scientists in the field can use and build upon rapidly.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brody, Tim; Harnad, Stevan; Carr, Leslie. Earlier web usage statistics as predictors of later citation impact. Journal of the American Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST), 2005, Vol. 57 no. 8 pp. 1060-1072. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10713/01/timcorr.htm (accessed 30 October 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? - ECS EPrints ...Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? Swan, A. (2006) Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? http:// eprints . ecs . soton .ac. uk /13028/ </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Story N3 : research article by cogdogblog http :// www . flickr . com / photos / cogdog /1635259272/
  21. 26. Story N3 : Research article <ul><li>Serial crises </li></ul>
  22. 31. Scientific Publication Packages - Jane Hunter - Autumn 2006 “ Enhanced publications (what are they, why are they important)” by Dr.Leo Waaijers , http://www. eifl .net/cps/sections/services/ eifl - oa /training/2008- chisinau /12
  23. 32. Scientific Publication Packages - Jane Hunter - Autumn 2006 “ Enhanced publications (what are they, why are they important)” by Dr.Leo Waaijers , http://www. eifl .net/cps/sections/services/ eifl - oa /training/2008- chisinau /12
  24. 36. Story N4 <ul><li>What scientists want? </li></ul><ul><li>Where the world/web is going anyway? </li></ul><ul><li>(thank you Peter Murray-Rust !) </li></ul>
  25. 39. Story N5 – Traditional library (thank you Leo Waaijers!) <ul><li>Importer </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Students use Google (Scholar) </li></ul>
  26. 40. Story N5 – Library of the future (thank you Leo Waaijers!) <ul><li>Exporter </li></ul><ul><li>Much cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited </li></ul><ul><li>Students use Google (Scholar) </li></ul>
  27. 41. OA <ul><li>is the free online availability </li></ul><ul><li>of peer reviewed literature </li></ul><ul><li>permitting any user to read , </li></ul><ul><li>download, </li></ul><ul><li>copy, </li></ul><ul><li>distribute, </li></ul><ul><li>print, </li></ul><ul><li>search, </li></ul><ul><li>or link to the full texts of articles </li></ul>
  28. 42. OA <ul><li>“ It is important to stress here that publishing is a fundamental part of the process of doing science . Moreover, as a scientist I am not writing for money — like my wife, who was a professional writer at one time — but I am writing for fame: I want everyone to read what I write… Everybody who writes a scientific paper is writing to be read, not to make money. For that reason we volunteer our services, and we don’t get paid. That is what makes Open Access a powerful concept for scientists. It means, for instance, that anyone anywhere in the world who searches for oncogenes, mouse models, or any other search term that applies to my own work, will find it, and will be able to have immediate access to it. That is the goal we are hoping to achieve.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Basement Interviews Freeing the scientific literature Harold Varmus, Nobel laureate, former director of the US National Institutes of Health, and co-founder of open access publisher Public Library of Science, talks to Richard Poynder. Published on June 5th 2006 http:// poynder . blogspot .com/2006/06/interview-with- harold - varmus .html </li></ul>
  29. 43. 2 complementary strategies: Gold by Vitó http :// www . flickr . com / photos / janeladeimagens /192943825/
  30. 44. www. doaj .org
  31. 46. Hindawi Publishing Corporation <ul><li>On February 21, 2007 the Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Egypt, converted the last of its subscription-based journals to an open access model. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindawi Publishing Corporation is a commercial publisher of STM literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindawi currently employs more than 250 people, and publishes more than 100 peer-reviewed journals. </li></ul>
  32. 47. Hindawi Publishing Corporation <ul><li>an increase of more than 40% per year in the number of submitted manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>since its full conversion to Open Access in February 2007, Hindawi's growth has continued to accelerate, with monthly submission levels growing by more than 100% during 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>annual impact factor growth more than 14% </li></ul>
  33. 49. First Monday (Thank you Edward J. Valauskas !) <ul><li>Contributions to First Monday have routinely been expanded into book form </li></ul><ul><li>by their authors after initial publication in First Monday </li></ul>
  34. 50. Here are a few examples: <ul><li>&quot;The social life of documents&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>by John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid </li></ul><ul><li>First Monday, volume 1, number 1 (May 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>was expanded into the book entitled </li></ul><ul><li>The social life of information </li></ul><ul><li>Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>(reprinted by Harvard Business School Press in 2002 and 2006; Dutch translation &quot;De waarde van informatie&quot; published in 2000; Chinese translation &quot;Zi xun ge ming le shen me?&quot; in 2001; Korean translation &quot;Bit`u eso ingan uro&quot; in 2001; Portuguese translation &quot;A vida social da informação&quot; in 2001; Spanish translation &quot;La vida social de la información&quot; in 2001; Turkish translation &quot;Enformasyonun sosyal yasami&quot; in 2001; Japanese translation &quot;Naze aiti wa shakai o kaenainoka&quot; in 2002). </li></ul>
  35. 51. Here are a few examples: <ul><li>&quot;Digital diploma mills: </li></ul><ul><li>The automation of higher education&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>by David F. Noble </li></ul><ul><li>First Monday, volume 3, number 1 (January 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>was expanded into the book entitled </li></ul><ul><li>Digital diploma mills: The automation of higher education </li></ul><ul><li>New York: Monthly Review Press, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>(reprinted 2002 with new afterward by the author) </li></ul>
  36. 52. Here are a few examples: <ul><li>&quot;The cathedral and the bazaar&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>by Eric S. Raymond </li></ul><ul><li>First Monday, volume 3, number 3 (March 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>was expanded into the book entitled </li></ul><ul><li>The cathedral and the bazaar </li></ul><ul><li>Cambridge, Mass.: O'Reilly, 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>(Revised edition 2001) </li></ul>
  37. 53. Here are a few examples: <ul><li>&quot;Internet, innovation, and open source: </li></ul><ul><li>Actors in the network&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>by Ilkka Tuomi </li></ul><ul><li>First Monday, volume 6, number 1 (January 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>was expanded into the book entitled </li></ul><ul><li>Networks of innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Change and meaning in the age of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. </li></ul>
  38. 54. Here are a few examples: <ul><li>&quot;Networks, netwars and the fight for the future&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>by David Ronfeldt and John Arquilla </li></ul><ul><li>First Monday, volume 6, number 10 (October 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>was expanded into the book entitled </li></ul><ul><li>Networks and netwars: The future of terror, crime, and militancy </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>(Spanish edition &quot;Redes y guerras en red&quot; published in 2003, Ukrainian edition “ Мережі і мережні війни. Майбутнє терору, злочинності і бойових дій ”, 2005 </li></ul>
  39. 55. First Monday <ul><li>has cooperated with MIT Press </li></ul><ul><li>in publishing excerpts </li></ul><ul><li>from new </li></ul><ul><li>books </li></ul><ul><li>in the virtual pages of the journal </li></ul>
  40. 56. Here are a few examples: <ul><li>- Information ecologies: Using technology with heart by Bonnie A Nardi and Vicki O'Day </li></ul><ul><li>Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>excerpts in First Monday, volume 4, number 5 (May 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>-  Change of state: Information, policy and power by Sandra Braman </li></ul><ul><li>Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>excerpts in First Monday, volume 12, number 4 (April 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>  - Acting with technology: Activity theory and interaction design by Victor Kaptelinin and Bonnie Nardi </li></ul><ul><li>Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>excerpts in First Monday, volume 12, number 4 (April 2007) </li></ul>
  41. 57. Here are a few examples: <ul><li>   Additionally, excerpts from other scholarly imprints have been included in </li></ul><ul><li>First Monday, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Netizens: On the history and impact of Usenet and the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Hauben and Ronda Hauben </li></ul><ul><li>Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>excerpts in First Monday, volume 3, number 7 (July 1998) </li></ul>
  42. 58. First Monday <ul><li>Content from First Monday </li></ul><ul><li>has re-appeared in a variety of newspapers, </li></ul><ul><li>magazines, and journals around the world : </li></ul><ul><li>Business Week, </li></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles Times, </li></ul><ul><li>New York Times, </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific American, </li></ul><ul><li>Washington Post, </li></ul><ul><li>and Wired, among others </li></ul>
  43. 62. https :// wiki . library . jhu . edu / display / epubs / Home ? showChildren = false
  44. 63. 2 complementary strategies - Green by Jim Frazier http :// www . flickr . com / photos / jimfrazier /140042827/
  45. 64. Open repositories <ul><li>A digital repository is defined as </li></ul><ul><li>containing research output, </li></ul><ul><li>institutional or thematic </li></ul><ul><li>and OAI compliant ( http://www. openarchives .org/OAI/ openarchivesprotocol .html ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(From The European Repository Landscape Inventory Study into the Present Type and Level of OAI-Compliant Digital Repository Activities in the EU by Maurits van der Graaf and Kwame van Eijndhoven </li></ul></ul>
  46. 65. Content <ul><li>Peer-reviewed articles </li></ul><ul><li>Conference presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Course packs </li></ul><ul><li>Annotated images </li></ul><ul><li>Audio and video clips </li></ul><ul><li>Research data </li></ul>
  47. 66. Content <ul><li>Gray literature : </li></ul><ul><li>Preprints / working materials / theses and dissertations / reports / conference materials / bulletins / grant applications / reports to the donors / memorandums / statistical reports / technical documentation / questionnaires… </li></ul>
  48. 67. http :// www . opendoar . org /
  49. 68. http :// oad . simmons . edu / oadwiki / Disciplinary _ repositories
  50. 72. http ://search3. driver .research- infrastructures . eu / webInterface / simpleSearch . do ; jsessionid =30E69E7F5FDBD7BB9CB5AC829852074B? action = load
  51. 74. Theses and dissertations <ul><li>John Hagen, West Virginia University : </li></ul><ul><li>Moving from print to electronic – usage growth 145% </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular theses and dissertations were downloaded 37,501 times (history ) and 33,752 times (engineering); history one was published and was a long seller </li></ul><ul><li>69% of students from the creative writing department had more successful careers if they went OA with their dissertations – a good marketing tool for them </li></ul>
  52. 75. Open Access Impact <ul><li>increased citation rates : </li></ul><ul><li>For 72% of papers published in the Astrophysical Journal, free versions of the paper are available (mainly through ArXiv). These 72% of papers are, on average, cited more than twice as often as the remaining 28% that do not have free versions. </li></ul><ul><li>Schwarz, G. and Kennicutt Jr., R. C. (2004): Demographic and Citation Trends in Astrophysical Journal Papers and Preprints (pdf 14pp), arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0411275, 10 November 2004, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 36, 1654-1663 </li></ul>
  53. 76. Open Access Impact <ul><li>Open access PNAS papers have 50% more full-text downloads than non-open access papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.library. yale . edu /~ llicense / ListArchives /0505/msg01580.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… and are on average twice as likely to be cited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://biology. plosjournals .org/ perlserv /?request=get-document& doi =10.1371/journal. pbio .0040157 </li></ul></ul>
  54. 80. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint The Repository has made a splash page, with previews and usage stats ( Example from EPrints at University of Southampton)
  55. 81. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint The repository has made a bibliography for you …( Example from DSpace at Universiteit Hasselt, Belgium)
  56. 82. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint …maybe personalised it with other information about you… ( Example from DSpace at University of Chicago, Illinois)
  57. 83. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint …set up a mailing list for you… Example from Digital Commons at Cal Poly
  58. 84. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint Automatically updated your research group web pages (Example from IAM web site at University of Southampton, UK)
  59. 85. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint Less Administration: Management will use the information for the admin forms you would otherwise have to complete
  60. 86. Leverage by L es C arr : http :// www . slideshare . net / lescarr / leverage ? type = powerpoint Update your Teaching Pages
  61. 88. Permissions
  62. 89. Why open repositories? <ul><li>Academic and research institutions – and research funders – </li></ul><ul><li>find open repositories valuable </li></ul><ul><li>in generating management information </li></ul><ul><li>and reports on their research programmes, enabling better research assessment , </li></ul><ul><li>and in raising awareness of their research profile and transparency </li></ul>
  63. 90. Why open repositories? <ul><li>Opening up the outputs of the institution to the world </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizing the visibility and impact of these outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Showcasing the quality of the research in the institution </li></ul>
  64. 91. Why open repositories? <ul><li>Collecting and curating the digital outputs of the institution </li></ul><ul><li>Managing and measuring research and teaching activities </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a workspace for work-in-progress and for collaborative and large-scale projects </li></ul>
  65. 92. Why open repositories? <ul><li>Enabling and encouraging interdisciplinary approaches to research </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating the development and sharing of digital teaching materials and aids </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting student endeavours, providing access to theses and dissertations and a location for the development of e-portfolios </li></ul>
  66. 93. Why open repositories? <ul><li>Institutional and national level research assessment and research management, bringing together research expertise across the institution and country </li></ul><ul><li>Information rich collaboration, effective decision-making and successful research activity </li></ul><ul><li>Improved governmental policy and public health care outcomes </li></ul>
  67. 95. Institutional Advantages from Open Access: http :// www . openoasis . org / index . php ? option = com _ content & view = article & id =142& Itemid =337
  68. 96. Business Aspects of Institutional Repositories : http :// www . openoasis . org / index . php ? option = com _ content & view = article & id =164& Itemid =334
  69. 97. Institutional Repositories for Research Management and Assessment : http :// www . openoasis . org / index . php ? option = com _ content & view = article & id =165& Itemid =335
  70. 102. The Power of Open Access <ul><li>There are considerable </li></ul><ul><li>economic, </li></ul><ul><li>social </li></ul><ul><li>and educational benefits </li></ul><ul><li>to making research and other outputs available without financial, </li></ul><ul><li>legal </li></ul><ul><li>and technical barriers to access </li></ul>
  71. 104. http://www. jisc .ac. uk /publications/publications/ economicpublishingmodelsfinalreport . aspx <ul><li>“… open access publishing for journal articles might bring system savings of around £215 million per annum nationally in the UK (at 2007 prices and levels of publishing activity), of which around £165 million would accrue in higher education. </li></ul><ul><li>… a repositories and overlay services model may well </li></ul><ul><li>produce greater cost savings than open access publishing – with our estimates suggesting system savings of perhaps £260 million nationally, of which around £205 might accrue in higher education.” </li></ul><ul><li>And the increase in returns to R&D resulting from enhanced access may be substantial.” </li></ul>
  72. 105. Next steps – researchers and students <ul><li>Publish articles in OA journals </li></ul><ul><li>Self-archive in open repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Spread a word about OA </li></ul>
  73. 106. Next steps – researcher managers <ul><li>Introduce OA polices </li></ul><ul><li>Transform the journals into OA journals </li></ul><ul><li>Set-up open repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Spread a word about OA </li></ul>
  74. 107. Next steps – libraries <ul><li>Set-up open repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Help researchers and students to self-archive </li></ul><ul><li>Help to publish OA journals </li></ul><ul><li>Spread a word about OA </li></ul>
  75. 109. Thank you ! Questions ? Iryna Kuchma iryna.kuchma[at]eifl.net; www. eifl .net The presentation is licensed with Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

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