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Open Access and the Evolving Scholarly Communication Environment
 

Open Access and the Evolving Scholarly Communication Environment

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Open access for researchers: enlarged audience and citation impact, tenure and promotion. Open access for policy makers and research managers: new tools to manage a university’s image and impact. ...

Open access for researchers: enlarged audience and citation impact, tenure and promotion. Open access for policy makers and research managers: new tools to manage a university’s image and impact. Open access for libraries. Maintaining digital repository as a key function for research libraries.

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    Open Access and the Evolving Scholarly Communication Environment Open Access and the Evolving Scholarly Communication Environment Presentation Transcript

    • Open Access and the Evolving Scholarly Communication Environment Iryna Kuchma, eIFL Open Access program manager, eIFL.net Presented at Open Access: Maximising Research Quality and Impact, October 29 – 30, 2009 University of Malawi, Kamuzu College of Nursing, Lilongwe
    • eIFL.net
    • 4 000 libraries in 46 countries
    • 4 000 libraries in 46 countries
    • eIFL.net programs 1. Open access 2. Advocacy for access to knowledge: copyright and libraries 3. Promoting free and open source software for libraries
    • eIFL.net programs 2 4. 1+1=More and better. The benefits of library consortia 5. Promoting a culture of cooperation: knowledge and information sharing 6. Advocating for affordable and fair access to commercially produced scholarly resources
    • eIFL-IP: Copyright for libraries to maximize access to knowledge via libraries for education, research and the public through fair and balanced copyright laws that take into account the needs of their users to raise awareness of libraries and copyright, and to empower the eIFL.net community to become advocates and proponents of fair access for all
    • eIFL-IP: Copyright for libraries 2 eIFL Handbook on Copyright and Related Issues http://www.eifl.net/cps/sections/services/eifl-ip/issues/eifl-handbook-on eIFL-IP Draft Law on Copyright Including Model Exceptions and Limitations for Libraries and Consumers http://www.eifl.net/cps/sections/docs/ip_docs/draft-law
    • eIFL-FOSS http://www.eifl.net/cps/sections/services/eifl-foss - Success of the Greenstone pilot in Southern Africa, leading to the SA Greenstone - Support Network  Launch of Integrated Library Systems (ILS) project  - UNESCO award for a Linux Thin Server Project How To Guide from Birzeit University to help libraries extend or maximize the usefulness of old computers
    • Negotiations eIFL.net is advocating for affordable access to commercially produced electronic journals and databases through collective negotiations with publishers and aggregators negotiation activity includes not only obtaining affordable prices, but also establishing fair terms and conditions for access to those resources by library users in developing and transitional countries
    • Consortium building eIFL.net assists the countries in the building of sustainable national library consortia a wide range of activities underpins this goal including: training events, national and regional workshops and meetings, individual country visits, grants, manuals, web resources
    • eIFL Open Access
    • eIFL Open Access 2 Focus for 2009/10: Open access policies to be adopted by research funding agencies, universities and research organisations in eIFL.net countries Sustainability of open repositories within the eIFL region
    • eIFL Open Access 3 Open Access Week, 19-23 October 2009 Advocacy materials for eIFL.net countries Turning pilot repositories into strong operational tools (open access resources create value through the impact they have on users) Watching briefs on open access to data and open educational resources
    • eIFL Open Access 4 soon: coming Evaluation of Institutional Repository Development in Developing and Transition Countries – a cooperative program between eIFL.net, the University of Kansas Libraries, the DRIVER project and Key Perspectives Ltd case studies on institutional repositories from eIFL countries a report on the implementation of open content licenses in developing and transition countries
    • Why Open Access (OA)?
    • Why OA 2?
    • OA FAQ What is the difference between open access literature and digital, online and free of charge literature?
    • OA FAQ 2 Digital, online and free for users literature doesn’t have the price barriers for the users, but still has permission barriers (e.g. registration, copyright and licensing restrictions, no reuse rights). If you are asked to register, provide IP address, or sign a license, this is not open access. E.g. you might have free access to research literature via HINARI, AGORA, OARE and other international initiatives because somebody paid on your behalf, or the publisher was generous to provide free access to you, or this was a result of negotiations.
    • OA FAQ 3 By 'open access' to literature, we mean its permanent free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself.
    • OA FAQ 4 The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited (open access definition from the Budapest Open Access Initiative http://www.soros.org/openaccess/read. shtml).
    • Helicopter flight by phault http://www.flickr.com/photos/pjh/171451412/
    • 2 complementary strategies: Gold by Vitó http://www.flickr.com/photos/janeladeimagens/192943825/
    • www.doaj.org
    • www.doaj.org
    • www.doaj.org
    • https://wiki.library.jhu.edu/display/epubs/Home?showChildren=false
    • http://www.openaccesspublishing.org/materials.php
    • http://www.soros.org/openaccess/resources.shtml
    • http://www.arl.org/sparc/publisher/incomemodels/
    • 2 complementary strategies - Green by Jim Frazier http://www.flickr.com/photos/jimfrazier/140042827/
    • http://www.opendoar.org/
    • http://roar.eprints.org/
    • Open repositories A digital repository is defined as containing research output institutional or thematic and OAI compliant (http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/openarchivesprotocol.html) (From The European Repository Landscape Inventory Study into the Present Type and Level of OAI-Compliant Digital Repository Activities in the EU by Maurits van der Graaf and Kwame van Eijndhoven)
    • Open Access Repository Types - (from the Directory of Open Access Repositories )
    • http://oad.simmons.edu/oadwiki/Disciplinary_repositories
    • Content Types in OpenDOAR Repositories
    • Content Gray literature: Preprints / working materials / theses and dissertations / reports / conference materials / bulletins / grant applications / reports to the donors / memorandums / statistical reports / technical documentation / questionnaires…
    • Theses and dissertations The most popular theses and dissertations were downloaded 37,501 times (history ) and 33,752 times (engineering); history one was published and was a long seller (John Hagen, West Virginia University)
    • Depot The Depot ( www.depot.edina.ac.uk) is an assured gateway to make research Open Access EDINA (a JISC UK-national academic data centre based at the University of Edinburgh) announced that the Depot has been opened up internationally to support the Open Access agenda.
    • Depot 2 1. a deposit service for researchers worldwide without an institutional repository in which to deposit their papers, articles, and book chapters (e-prints) 2. a re-direct service which alerts depositors to more appropriate local services if they exist
    • arXiv.org
    • Open Access Impact Open access brings more rapid and more efficient progress for scholarly research http://arxiv.org/ “Brody has looked at the pattern of citations to articles deposited in arXiv, specifically at the length of the delay between when an article is deposited and when it is cited, and has published the aggregated data for each year from 1991.” – Brody, Tim; Harnad, Stevan; Carr, Leslie. Earlier web usage statistics as predictors of later citation impact. Journal of the American Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST), 2005, Vol. 57 no. 8 pp. 1060-1072. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10713/01/timcorr.htm (accessed 30 October 2006) – Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? - ECS EPrints ...Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? Swan, A. (2006) Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/13028/
    • Open Access Impact 2 “As more papers are deposited and more scientists use the repository, the time between an article being deposited and being cited has been shrinking dramatically, year upon year” Brody, Tim; Harnad, Stevan; Carr, Leslie. Earlier web usage statistics as predictors of later citation impact. Journal of the American Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST), 2005, Vol. 57 no. 8 pp. 1060-1072. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10713/01/timcorr.htm (accessed 30 October 2006) – Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? - ECS EPrints ...Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? Swan, A. (2006) Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/13028/
    • Open Access Impact 3 “This is important for research uptake and progress, because it means that in this area of research, where articles are made available at – or frequently before – publication, the research cycle is accelerating” Brody, Tim; Harnad, Stevan; Carr, Leslie. Earlier web usage statistics as predictors of later citation impact. Journal of the American Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST), 2005, Vol. 57 no. 8 pp. 1060-1072. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10713/01/timcorr.htm (accessed 30 October 2006) – Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? - ECS EPrints ...Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? Swan, A. (2006) Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/13028/
    • Open Access Impact 4 “The research cycle in high energy physics is approaching maximum efficiency as a result of the early and free availability of articles that scientists in the field can use and build upon rapidly” – Brody, Tim; Harnad, Stevan; Carr, Leslie. Earlier web usage statistics as predictors of later citation impact. Journal of the American Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST), 2005, Vol. 57 no. 8 pp. 1060-1072. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10713/01/timcorr.htm (accessed 30 October 2006) – Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? - ECS EPrints ...Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? Swan, A. (2006) Open Access: What is it and why should we have it? http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/13028/
    • Open Access Impact 5 1. “submission of articles to an open access subject repository, arXiv, yields a citation advantage of a factor five”; (Evidences from Anne Gentil-Beccot, Salvatore Mele and Travis Brooks: Citing and Reading Behaviours in High-Energy Physics. How a Community Stopped Worrying about Journals and Learned to Love Repositories: http://arxiv .org/abs/0906.5418 )
    • Open Access Impact 6 2. “the citation advantage of articles appearing in a repository is connected to their dissemination prior to publication, 20% of citations of HEP articles over a two-year period occur before publication” (Evidences from Anne Gentil-Beccot, Salvatore Mele and Travis Brooks: Citing and Reading Behaviours in High-Energy Physics. How a Community Stopped Worrying about Journals and Learned to Love Repositories: http://arxiv .org/abs/0906.5418 )
    • Open Access Impact 7 3. “HEP scientists are between four and eight times more likely to download an article in its preprint form from arXiv rather than its final published version on a journal web site”. (Evidences from Anne Gentil-Beccot, Salvatore Mele and Travis Brooks: Citing and Reading Behaviours in High-Energy Physics. How a Community Stopped Worrying about Journals and Learned to Love Repositories: http://arxiv .org/abs/0906.5418 )
    • Enhanced publications Publications combined with research data Improve interpretation and verification Promote available data Browsable network of related items (from the presentation Enhanced Publications & LTP Connector demonstrators by Paul Doorenbosch, KB Netherlands, at the DRIVER Confederation Summit)
    • Scholarly communication Science is dynamic and collaborative and it is important to sustain the communication processes, rather than simply archiving research results in the form of a single journal article
    • Open Access “It is important to stress here that publishing is a fundamental part of the process of doing science. Moreover, as a scientist I am not writing for money — like my wife, who was a professional writer at one time — but I am writing for fame: I want everyone to read what I write… For that reason we volunteer our services, and we don’t get paid. That is what makes Open Access a powerful concept for scientists.” The Basement Interviews Freeing the scientific literature Harold Varmus, Nobel laureate, former director of the US National Institutes of Health, and co-founder of open access publisher Public Library of Science, talks to Richard Poynder. Published on June 5th 2006 http://poynder.blogspot.com/2006/06/interview-with-harold-varmus.html
    • http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html
    • MESUR
    • The Power of Open Access There are considerable economic, social and educational benefits to making research and other outputs available without financial, legal and technical barriers to access
    • OA FAQ 5 Is open access compatible with copyright? Completely. Copyright law gives the copyright holder the right to make access open or restricted, and we seek to put copyright in the hands of authors or institutions that will consent to make access open.   (From the Budapest Open Access Initiative: Frequently Asked Questions http://www. earlham.edu/~peters/fos/boaifaq.htm)
    • OA FAQ 6 If articles are easily available, then plagiarism will be made easier? On the contrary. Open access might make plagiarism easier to commit, for people trolling for text to cut and paste. But for the same reason, open access makes plagiarism more hazardous to commit. Insofar as open access makes plagiarism easier, it's only for plagiarism from open access sources. But plagiarism from open access sources is the easiest kind to detect.”  (From Open access and quality written by Peter Suber, SPARC Open Access Newsletter, issue #102, October 2, 2006: http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/newsletter/10-02-06.htm#quality) 
    • OA FAQ 7 “In fact, plagiarism is diminished as a problem. It is far easier to detect if the original, date-stamped material is freely accessible to all, rather than being hidden in an obscure journal.”  (From the Open Access Frequently Asked Questions, DRIVER — Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research http://www.driver-support.eu/faq/oafaq.html)  
    • OA FAQ 8 “It is easier to detect simple plagiarism with electronic than with printed text by using search engines or other services to find identical texts. For more subtle forms of misuse, the difficulties of detection are no greater than with traditional journal articles. Indeed, metadata tagging, including new ways of tracking the provenance of electronic data and text, promise to make it easier.”  (From JISC Opening up Access to Research Results: Questions and Answers, http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/QandA-Doc-final.pdf)
    • http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/plagiarism/archive/detection.aspx
    • Leverage by Les Carr: http://www.slideshare.net/lescarr/ leverage?type=powerpoint The Repository has made a splash page, with previews and usage stats (Example from EPrints at University of Southampton)
    • Leverage by Les Carr: http://www.slideshare.net/lescarr/ leverage?type=powerpoint The repository has made a bibliography for you …(Example from DSpace at Universiteit Hasselt, Belgium)
    • Leverage by Les Carr: http://www.slideshare.net/lescarr/ leverage?type=powerpoint …maybe personalised it with other information about you… (Example from DSpace at University of Chicago, Illinois)
    • Leverage by Les Carr: http://www.slideshare.net/lescarr/ leverage?type=powerpoint …set up a mailing list for you…Example from Digital Commons at Cal Poly
    • Leverage by Les Carr: http://www.slideshare.net/lescarr/ leverage?type=powerpoint Automatically updated your research group web pages (Example from IAM web site at University of Southampton, UK)
    • Leverage by Les Carr: http://www.slideshare.net/lescarr/ leverage?type=powerpoint Less Administration: Management will use the information for the admin forms you would otherwise have to complete
    • Leverage by Les Carr: http://www.slideshare.net/lescarr/ leverage?type=powerpoint Update your Teaching Pages
    • Why open repositories? Opening up the outputs of the institution to the world Maximizing the visibility and impact of these outputs Showcasing the quality of the research in the institution
    • Why open repositories? 2 Collecting and curating the digital outputs of the institution Managing and measuring research and teaching activities Providing a workspace for work-in-progress and for collaborative and large-scale projects
    • Why open repositories? 3 Enabling and encouraging interdisciplinary approaches to research Facilitating the development and sharing of digital teaching materials and aids Supporting student endeavours, providing access to theses and dissertations and a location for the development of e-portfolios
    • Why open repositories? 4 Institutional and national level research assessment and research management, bringing together research expertise across the institution and country Information rich collaboration, effective decision-making and successful research activity Improved governmental policy and public health care outcomes
    • EOS “The world of research is changing and universities and other research-based institutions must drive the change, not sit back and let it happen. Having embarked upon implementing changes in thinking and practice at my own university, I want to encourage others in my position to join the discussion and help lead the way to a better future,” said Professor Bernard Rentier.
    • Next steps – researchers and students Publish articles in OA journals Self-archive in open repositories Spread a word about OA
    • Next steps – researcher managers Introduce OA polices Transform the journals into OA journals Set-up open repositories Spread a word about OA
    • Next steps – libraries Set-up open repositories Help researchers and students to self-archive Help to publish OA journals and create open educational resources
    • Next steps – libraries 2 Help in data curation and sharing Spread a word about OA
    • http://ujscienceslibrarynews.wordpress.com/open-access-oa/
    • Thank you! Questions? Iryna Kuchma iryna.kuchma[at]eifl.net; www.eifl.net The presentation is licensed with Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License