Easy Ways To Teach Pronunciation

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Adaptable pronunciation methodology presentation for different levels of teachers.

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Easy Ways To Teach Pronunciation

  1. 1. Easy Ways to Teach Pronunciation Erin Lowry TEFL Certificate Course May 23, 2009 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Companion Website  http://colombotech.pbwiki.com/E 4
  5. 5. Parts of Pronunciation  Sounds (i.e. phones or phonemes)  Stress and rhythm  Intonation 5
  6. 6. Phonemes  Smallest unit of sound that has meaning  Represent various sounds that consonants and vowels, or combinations, can create  Written with phonetic symbols ◦ Here we’ll use IP A , the International Phonetic Alphabet 6
  7. 7. Why Know IPA?  English wouldn’t be a good system to use! Just compare heart, beard, and heard, Dies and diet, lord and word, Sword and sward, retain and Britain. (Mind the latter, how it's written.) Now I surely will not plague you With such words as plaque and ague. But be careful how you speak: Say break and steak, but bleak and 7
  8. 8. The IPA 8
  9. 9. The IPA 9
  10. 10. Ways of Teaching  S e g m e n t a ls are isolated sounds (consonants, vowels, diphthongs) ◦ However, sounds are rarely produced in isolation  Students need to become aware of s u p r a s e g m e n t a ls , i.e., features of speech like stress, intonation, rhythm and linking 10
  11. 11. Phonemic Symbols vs. Alphabet  1 phonemic  1 letter may = more symbol = than 1 phoneme only1phoneme  Letter “a” = ◦ /æ/ (hat)  / i :/ ◦ /eɪ/ (made)  / ɑɪ / ◦ /ə/ (usually)  /ɜ/ 11
  12. 12. Why phonemic symbols?  Alphabet used to write English has 2 6 letters  British English has 4 4 sounds  English spelling is not a reliable guide to pronunciation because: ◦ Some letters have more than one sound ◦ Sometimes letters are not pronounced at all ◦ The same sound may be represented by different letters ◦ Sometimes syllables indicated by the spelling are not pronounced at all 12
  13. 13. Phonemic Script  Example: Phoneme = p ◦ pen /pen/ ◦ pig /pɪg/ ◦ pencil /'pənsel/ 13
  14. 14. Common Vowel Problems (Spanish)  /i:/ vs. /ɪ/  /æ/ vs. /ɑ:/ vs. /Λ/  /ɔ:/ vs. /Þ/  /ʊ/ vs. /u:/ 14
  15. 15. Common Consonant Problems (Spanish)  Word-Initial Position ◦ /p/ vs. /b/ ◦ /t/ vs. /d/ ◦ /k/ vs. /g/  Word-Final Position ◦ /b/ vs. /p/ ◦ /d/ vs. /t/ ◦ /j/ vs. /d ◦ /m/ vs. /n/ vs. /ŋ/ ◦ / 15
  16. 16. Vowel Sounds  Which phonemes represent: ◦ Short vowels? ◦ Long vowels? ◦ Diphthongs? 16
  17. 17. Vowels 17
  18. 18. Vowel Activity 18
  19. 19. Activity  How would you teach a student who had difficulty with the following words? bead beat  How about these? lee’s lease 19
  20. 20. Activities  Minimal pair drills: (listening and speaking) ◦ Individually ◦ In sentences ◦ In sequences  Repetition of specific sounds: ◦ sheep, she, usher, flashed, bush, rush ◦ Tongue Twisters (i.e. Peter Piper, How much wood)  Tape recorder 20
  21. 21. Activity  Write down your phone number. (It may 1 bat help if you translate it using this code. 2 bait 3 bet  Find a partner and dictate your coded phone number to him or her. Please go 4 beat slowly! 5 bit 6 bite  Check to see if the numbers are correct. 7 bot  Switch and try again. 8 boat (Dalton, 1997) 9 but 0 boot 21
  22. 22. Diphthongs  A combination of two vowel sounds ◦ /ay/ /aɪ/ (IPA)  Boy ◦ /aw/ /aʊ/ (IPA)  How ◦ /ɔy/ /ɔɪ/ (IPA)  Time 22
  23. 23. Word-level Stress  Circle the number of the syllable that receives the most stress in each group. 1 - 2 - 3 1 - 2 - 3 embarrassed president dictation envelope eraser holiday pajamas beautiful banana bicycle 23
  24. 24. Rhythm  English is stress-timed (Spanish is syllable-timed) Example: The p r e sident is in terested in eliminating the emb a r go. D e a d m e a n w e a r p la id . (Brown, 2001) 24
  25. 25. Activities  Listen for tense, number of words, etc. in sentences at natural speed.  Jazz Chants Examples: Hi! How are you? I’m fine; how are you? What do you wear on your head? A hat. What do you wear on your hands? Gloves. What do you wear on your feet? Socks. Shoes and socks, shoes and socks. (by Carolyn Graham) 25
  26. 26. Activity  Choose a partner. One person should be facing away from the Powerpoint.  The person facing the Powerpoint should read the questions.  The person facing away from the Powerpoint should answer them in the form of “No, I…”  Then, the partners should switch positions. New questions will be given. 26
  27. 27. Person 1  You have two sisters, don’t you?  You work in a school, right?  Don’t you have a red pen?  Is that your new car? 27
  28. 28. Person 2  You have two sisters, don’t you?  You work in a school, right?  Don’t you have a red pen?  Is that your new car? 28
  29. 29. Content / Information Function Words Words  Often stressed  Usually unstressed ◦ Nouns ◦ Articles ◦ Auxiliary verbs ◦ Main verbs ◦ Personal pronouns ◦ Adjectives ◦ Possessive adjectives ◦ Possessive pronouns ◦ Demonstrative adjectives ◦ Demonstrative ◦ Prepositions pronouns ◦ Conjunctions ◦ Adverbs ◦ Interrogatives 29
  30. 30. C ATS C H AS E M IC E Th e C ATS ha ve C H AS ED M IC E Th e C ATS w ill C H AS E t h e M IC E Th e C ATS ha ve be e n C H A S in g t h e M IC E Th e C ATS c o u ld h a v e b e e n 30
  31. 31. Connected Speech  All words join to make a connected stream of sounds  Characteristics of connected speech that helps keep rhythm regular: ◦ Sentence stress ◦ Contractions ◦ Shortening of vowels in unstressed words and syllables 31
  32. 32. Intonation  Change of level of voice ◦ 4 levels in English (extra high, high, medium, low)  Used to: ◦ Express emotions and attitudes ◦ Emphasize or lessen certain things we say ◦ Make it clear to others the function of what we are saying 32
  33. 33. Intonation Patterns  Rising-Falling ◦ Declarative sentences ◦ WH- questions ◦ Commands  Rising ◦ Yes/no questions ◦ Open-choice alternative questions 33
  34. 34. Intonation Patterns 4 EXTRA HIGH 3 HIGH re d 2 MID J o a n is w e a r in g to - 1 LOW d a y. 34
  35. 35. Authentic Materials  Limericks ◦ There was an old man of Peru ◦ Who dreamed he was eating his shoe ◦ He awoke in the night ◦ In a terrible fright ◦ And found it was perfectly true! 35
  36. 36. Authentic Materials  Jazz chants  Rhymes ◦ Eeny, meeny, miny, moe ◦ Catch a tiger by the toe ◦ If he hollers let him go ◦ Eenie, meeny, miny, moe 36
  37. 37. Ea rs H e a r Whistles toot, Flies buzz, Bells clang. Motors roar. Doors slam: Bang! Bang! Kettles hiss, Kids shout, People snore. Clocks ding. Dogs bark, Babies cry, Birds cheep. Phones ring. Autos honk: Beep! Beep! Balls bounce, Winds sigh, Spoons drop. Shoes squeak. People scream: Stop! Stop Trucks honk, 37 Floors creak. -Lucia M. & James L. Hymes Jr.
  38. 38. What Can You Do?  Find authentic resources  Include pronunciation in lesson planning  Teach pronunciation communicatively  Practice your own pronunciation 38
  39. 39. Questions?  Erin Lowry ◦ erin.lowry@gmail.com  Workshop wiki ◦ http://colombotech.pbwiki.com 39

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