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Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT


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Process report of a project "Design for an NGO", reflecting upon Service Design in practice.

Process report of a project "Design for an NGO", reflecting upon Service Design in practice.

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  • 1. PROCESS report Social Innovation and New Industrial Contexts:EXPLORATION OF NEW TERRITORIES FOR pss DESIGN IN PRACTICE
  • 2. title pagedocument group placeProcess report AD9-ID7 Department of Industrial Design, Institute of Architecture & Design, Aalborg Universitytheme supervisorDesign Research and Strategy Nicola Morelli, Associated Professor editions 7 number of pages 87subtheme project periodSocial Innovation and New Industrial Contexts October 08/January 09project titleExploration of new territories forProduct Service System [PSS] design in practicecasePSS design for Zirrarastudy unitMain project, 3rd semester,Master Degree of Industrial Design2 Irune Gonzalez Cruz TITLE PAGE
  • 3. SYNOPSIS This process report describes the steps followed in the project called Social Innovation and New Industrial Context: Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice. The case explored to reflect upon the topic has the name of PSS design for Zirrara. The project was developed in the autumn 2009 as main project of 3rd semester of Industrial Design, under the theme of “Design Research and Strategy”.synopsis 3
  • 4. project overview title: Social Innovation and New Industrial Contexts: Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice [Gonzalez, 2008] PROCESS report case: PSS design for an NGO process concepts plan conclusions reflections hypothesisSocial Innovation andNew Industrial Contexts:Can designers “Industrialize” WORKSHOP with Zirrara Presentation of projectSocially Responsible Solutions? conclusions[Morelli, 2007] REFLECTION paper4 ill. -1.1: project overview diagram SUBMISSION [17-XII-2008] dk [27-XII-2008] sp EXAMINATION [08-I-2009] dk [date] place PROJECT OVERVIEW
  • 5. reading guidance The project is represented through two different The project has contained parallel processes and documents: the PROCESS report and the REFLECTION iterative loops, therefore the content of the process paper. It is recommended to read the PROCESS report report is not presented entirely in a chronological in advance in order to get a clearer understanding of the structure. It is separated in four phases (from 0 to 3) project. which are also divided into different chapters. The references are added in the text by the Harvard Method “[Author, year]”, with the full references listed in alphabetical order in the reference list at the end of the report. Web site references are in the text referred to as a name “[web site name]”, with the exact web site address in the source list at the end of the report. They were updated on December 17th, 2008. Illustrations, schemes and diagrams are referred to as “ill.phase number.illustration number: description”. The illustration list can be found in the end of the report and only contains illustrations not made by the author. The appendices have not been printed but are kept on the enclosed CD, with the file name and the language indicated in the report “[appendix A_description, language]”. 5 All the printed versions of the documents are in grey scale. Nevertheless, the original PDF files in full colour resolution can be found in the attached CD.READING GUIDANCE
  • 6. hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendremtable of contents [phase 0] [phase 2] 10 before the project started 38 system’s behaviour 10 THE BEGINNING 38 VALUE BASED METHODOLOGY 10 ZIRRARA 38 value mission 10 what is it? 38 interaction vision2 title page 10 general information 40 SCENARIO3 SYNOPSIS 11 analysis of problems4 project overview 12 ngo CAPACITY FRAMEWORK 42 concept generation5 reading guidance 13 focus 42 PROCESS6 table of contents 14 THE ROLE OF A DESIGNER 43 PROPOSALS 15 TRIP TO ECUADOR 44 concept 1 [arrange-meet-cook-eat] 45 concept 2 [moving kitchen] [phase 1] 46 concept 3 [being part of the whole cycle] 18 building the context 18 ECUADOR 47 end of phase 19 RICAURTE 47 STATUS SEMINAR 20 PROBLEM AREAS 47 feedback 22 TARGET GROUP 48 evaluation and future lines 27 general characteristics 28 narrowing down 28 CHOOSING FOCUS 30 INTERPRETATION OF THE CHOSE PROBLEMS 31 PROBLEM FORMULATION 31 problem statement (PS) 32 interpretation of PS6 34 end of phase 34 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 35 PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • 7. [phase 3] 62 system representation52 rethinking the project 62 SYSTEM OVERVIEW52 STEPPING OUTSIDE THE CASE 62 use case of different actors52 project PS 64 material flow52 case PS 64 knowledge flow53 METHOD AND CONTENT 64 information flow 84 project conclusions 66 FROM “FINISHED” TO “SEMI-FINISHED”54 looking at the world 67 CONCLUSIONS 86 acknowledgements54 THE STORY OF STUFF55 TOWARDS ANOTHER WAY 68 industrialization of service 87 lists 68 MODULARITY AND REPLICABILITY 87 REFERENCES56 practice-oriented analysis 70 EFFICIENCY 87 ILLUSTRATIONS56 PRACTICE-ORIENTED APPROACH 71 the seven deadly wastes 87 SOURCES56 changing and creating practices 75 division of labour57 process 75 5S57 ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM 75 plant distribution60 INTERPRETATION 76 poka yoke60 classification of practices 76 others60 how to evoke images? 77 PROBLEMS60 appropriate location 77 contradictions and incongruities60 control of information 78 aim61 knowledge 78 conclusions61 where are the people?61 ability 80 end of phase61 material 80 WHAT DOES zirrara GET?61 CONCLUSION 80 WORKSHOP 80 purpose 7 81 ideal semi-finished solution 81 method 82 structure 83 considerations 83 hypothesis and expectations 83 WHAT IS NEXT? TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • 8. This chapter describes the preparation phase of the project. Before it was started the client was analyzed, the design opportunities were seen and the focus was chosen. Aphase 0 trip was done to get in contact with the context that the Product Service System is designed for, before the semester started.8
  • 9. phase 0
  • 10. PHASE 0 before the project started THE BEGINNING ZIRRARA The time to choose the 3rd semester project and the what is it? news that Zirrara was created came together. Once that The name of the group is a Basque word which can be PSS was chosen as direction for the following semester Zirrara is a non-governmental and nondenominational translated into English as emotion, excitement, feeling studies, the idea of designing for an NGO came out. Due organization (see illustration 0.1 on the next page or sensation. It comes from the thought “ irrifar baten to the personal interest and motivation about working for the logo). A small group of young people, after six zirrara”, which means the emotion that a smile provokes. on that field and the possibilities that it offers, it was years activity together, decided to create an official The group members agree that people’s smile is what seen as an interesting opportunity that could fit both and legally recognized organization. On April 2008 gives them motivation and makes them happy. personal interests and semester goals. “Zirrara solidaritza taldea” (Zirrara solidarity group) was established. The first approach to the topic can be stated like this: general information The activity of the group started in 2002 and since Name: Zirrara then different things have been done with the aim of contributing to the human development. One of the Address: Arraguako Salbatore Parrokia most important work is the volunteering done in a What can I, as a designer, provide Zirrara in order to 20180 Oiartzun school in Ecuador for 4 years by members of the group. push the development of it as an NGO? Basque Country So far, all the initiatives have been supported by a little Spain church and member’s own founds. e-mail: Being a recognized organization offers the opportunity to apply for help to public administration, companies account number: 3035 0126 6512 6004 0405 or people, in order to involve society in the cooperation Euskadiko Kutxa and strengthen the results.10 C.I.F.: Q2000343J [The articles of association can be found in the appendix A_articles of association of Zirrara, Basque] the beginning / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / phase 0
  • 11. analysis of the problemsThis part wants to dig into the current situation ofthe organization. Other existing NGOs have beenanalysed [Calcuta ondoan, fundacion Vicente Ferrer, zirrara ill. 0.1: logo of Zirraraidealist, ingenieros sin fronteras, sonrisas de Bombay,volunteering Ecuador] to have an overview of how they As starting point, the organization should define itself A high percentage of the income of the organizationswork and the different subareas they have. Taking them more deeply. A mission, vision and values could be comes from members. Membership is open and freeas examples and comparing them to Zirrara, which just written. for everybody at this moment. But some rules shouldstarted, many things could be done in different levels. be established, such us who can be member, different There is nobody working full time on the management of types of members (active collaboration, sponsoring of a the organization. The coordination of all the subareas is child, donations, etc.). limited by the members, studying in different countries at this moment. Apart from the long term projects in action areas (South), some initiatives are usually done in parallel There are ongoing projects (“heziketa eta zaintza (North), such as awareness programs and education for pertsona ezinduei Ekuadorren”, which means the development in schools education and health care for disabled people in Ecuador) [the report of this project can be found in the appendix B_heziketa eta zaintza pertsona ezinduei ekuadorren, Basque] supported by the members. Looking at the future, some project ideas have been thought, but there is a lack of money that complicates the process. That is why it is important to find ways of financing the organization’s activities. Other NGOs are supported by members, private companies (sponsors) 11 and public administration, but an appropriate work on communication must be done to reach them. A web page and speeches or presentations are usually used by other groups.phase 0 / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / zirrara
  • 12. PHASE 0 vision mission society strategy programmes ngo CAPACITY FRAMEWORK impact projects Although there are many ways of describing organizations, the diagram on the side reflects NGO’s key characteristics in an appropriate way [Edwards and Fowler, 2002]. people To do development well, an NGO must have adequate capacity in all the areas and each must be consistent structure systems with the other (see illustration 0.2). management resources relationships results and learningsorganization ill. 0.2: NGO capacity framework, elements and relations NGO capacity framework / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / phase 0
  • 13. focus missionAfter analizing those areas and the current situation ofZirrara, it is seen as a good start to develop a projectthat fits the programmes of the organization, so thatthe results and learnings have an impact on society (see strategyillustration 0.3).The contribution of the designer to Zirrara will be thedevelopment of a PSS for Ricaurte (Ecuador), that is programmesalready known for the organization and accessible forfuture intervention. projects people structure systems management resources relationshipsill. 0.3: NGO capacity framework, focus of the project Zirraraphase 0 / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / NGO capacity framework results and learnings 13
  • 14. PHASE 0 THE ROLE OF A DESIGNER How can I [designer] help Zirrara [client] help them [end users] help themselves? Help can be defined in many ways, depending on the Aalborg question “for whom”. As it has been shown in the Oiartzun previous part, although Zirrara itself has problems, they are completely different from the problems of the end users. zirrara A way of approaching the project is decided. The focus of the project will be in the design of a solution for a specific area, which could constitute a future project of the organization. Once that the service system is designed, it could facilitate the search of financial Ricaurte support (see illustration 0.4).14 ill. 0.4: location of actor involved in the project the role of a designer / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / phase 0
  • 15. TRIP TO ECUADOR The current activity of Zirrara is focused in Ecuador. This year a trip to Ecuador was also planned for the summer. In order to get an insight of the context and interact and live with the people there, the author joined the trip. Before travelling a first brainstorm on problem areas, and cultural differences was done with members of the group that already had been there. It helped to make a rough picture of the place and to create some expectations. From 13-VII-08 to 29-VII-08 three people went to the town of Ricaurte to volunteer in a school that supports children with special educational needs and disabilities. Although the trip was only 46 days long, it helped to get an understanding on the reality people are living in. Video recording, a diary and a notebook were the way of documenting the data. The information gathered is mainly qualitative. The experience gained makes possible to define target groups characteristics, cultural differences and problem areas, which will be crucial for choosing the direction of the project and the later 15 development of it in Denmark.phase 0 / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / trip to Ecuador
  • 16. This chapter starts by documenting what was observed during the trip and describes the place, the problem areas, and the target group in order to build the context. Later in the process the case is narrowed down and the problem is formulated. The phasephase 1 ends up with the redaction of the program, which frames the project for the following concept generation and development phases.16
  • 17. PHASE 1 building the context ECUADOR The Republic of Ecuador is a representative democratic republic in South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, by Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the west. The country also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific. Ecuador straddles the18 equator, from which it takes its name, and has an area of 256,371 square kilometres. Its capital city is Quito and its largest city Guayaquil, which is one of the most important harbours in South America. ill. 1.1: Location of Ricaurte ecuador / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / phase 1
  • 18. Deteriorating economic performance in 1997-98 As a developing country, Ecuador is nowadays facedculminated in a severe economic and financial crisis in with many socio-economic problems. The population1999. The crisis was precipitated by a number of external is approximately 13 million, of which over 7 million areshocks, including the El Niño weather phenomenon, living below the poverty line.a sharp drop in global oil prices, and internationalemerging market instability. These factors highlighted The public education system is free and attendancethe unsustainable economic policy of the Government. is mandatory from ages 5 to 14. Provision of publicThe Sucre devaluated on 2000 and the U.S. dollar schools falls far below the levels needed, and class sizeswas adopted as the official currency of Ecuador to are often very large. However, the Ministry of Educationaddress the ongoing economic crisis. Buoyed by high reports that only 76 percent of children finish six yearsoil prices, the Ecuadorean economy experienced a of schooling [get Quito Ecuador].modest recovery that year. However, 70 percent of thepopulation was estimated to live below the povertyline, more than double the rate in 1995. 20 percent of RICAURTEthe population emigrated after the crisis, often to USA,Spain and Italy. The region of Urdaneta is divided into different towns and Ricaurte is one of them (see illustration 1.1 onEcuador has substantial petroleum resources and rich the previous page for the localization of it on a map).agricultural areas. Half of the labour is used in the Approximately 8000 people live there and most of themprimary sector. Because the country exports primary work in agriculture. The activity of Zirrara is focusedproducts such as oil, bananas, rice, cacao, sugar, flowers here, and the next two chapters will build a picture of,and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can the context, by the description of problem areas andhave a substantial domestic impact. people.phase 1 / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / ricaurte 19
  • 19. PHASE 1PHASE 2PHASE 3PHASE 4 working children debt poverty prostitution PROBLEM AREAS cheap food sucre vs. dollar rice & banana bad economic situation The most significant outcome of the trip is the detection of the different opportunities that the specific case desnutrition offers for a project. education private=expensive public=toomany students A mind map is done (see illustration 1.3 on the next eat to kill hunger disabilities not enough teachers page) in order to state all the possible problems and try feed properly vitamins, proteins... to see the relations between them. The problems are illness big and broad which makes the relations between them very complicated. health leave studies difficult diagnosis The following diagram (see illustration 1.2) shows the obstacles that can be found and gives a general idea of expensive medicines hospitals private illiterate the situation. hygiene mosquitos! ignorance slow process (go/diagnosis/buy tools and material/cure) pigs dogs queue cats lots of people lice! pollution rubbish everywhere dirty streets too much sugar flood children picking up in rubbish dumps pesticides by plane no protection of workers coca cola20 bottled water weather sell plastic/cardboard bad not drinkable recicle river laundry/shower ill. 1.2: diagram of problem areas water problem areas / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / phase 1
  • 20. means of transport spare time kind of bus lots of motorcycles bad roads sports (basket, football) mototaxis few cars internet “socialize” expensive mobile phones increasing number of cabines & cybers dance party/disco public administration burocracy=nightmare music reggaeton slow! bachata salsa stay at home boring!!! differences between ill. 1.3: working on problem areas chauvinism early “marriage” mistreat to have sex women surprise kids alcohol children people’s behaviour to leave home punctuality agressive leave things for later (tomorrow) work need of affection open and social, but feel lonely at home (cook/clean/kids) can’t concentrate at school old at 22 think ahead/save money low salaries 21 importance of appearance (to own a phone even if nothing to eat) jobs 1st sector inferiority complex banana weak houses buildings “victim of society” and that is the way it iscollapse construction nothing can be done to change it school shops phase 1 / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / problem areas
  • 21. PHASE 1TARGET GROUPThe following chapter gives an idea about the lifestyleof the people living in Ricaurte (see illustrations1.4/1.5/1.6/1.7 and 1.8 on the next pages). Kevin [ 6] Loves pla with hi ying footba s fri ll field n ends in the ear the s house mall where he live s. Hi Yaha s oldest ira ( siste a 1 child nd clea 3), coo r, re ns ks beca n and th for four use eir d day. he wor ad, H ks hom is mum all e ye l ars a eft [27] go. Magali in a to work22 S he used but now is all dining h ed. Her unemp loy in a d works husban ir shop and pa moto re to sons. ill. 1.4: pictures of potential target group they have target group / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / phase 1
  • 22. Yuri [21] Left her studies to get married. Cleaning, cooking and taking care of her son is what she does in a common day. e of t e ag o [32 ] n [1 9] da t th f time a Juli Nixo ent blin a lot o He is eld. t . na fi He w d spen is mum kes bana build a n 4 a with h and li he still s in a o 1 eWork uld like t could ve t hom talkati alk, bu upport. H e wo where he fe. ry or a w dies s e i ve g f hous with his w bo li ve goin s some d nee phase 1 / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / target group 23 ill. 1.5: pictures of potential target group
  • 23. PHASE 1 a [23 ] her teac Melis rks as a r it at the 8] o cio [3 She w studies fo of his Mauri ile our led and wh ity. F b xi ivers are disa tion to-ta un s a mo anging ers ten a Works likes h broth pecial at is s . r and friends. H drive with need edicines na m out orks i and wife w ry shop. groce Clemen cia [61 ] She ha d1 now sh 1 children a e loves nd of her g ta rand ch king care has no ildren. sp Sh but she ecial hobbie e has ple s24 spare t nty of ime. ill. 1.6: pictures of potential target group target group / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / phase 1
  • 24. Néstor [21] He is the last of 11 brother and sisters. Eats at school. He 2 year s old and is only 9kg, and has a phycomotor disabilit y y[44] s in anc row ns, in tg w because he is N tha o d. undernourished. co, sband e roa co hu s th Sell her nd by eld le sta fi t t a li [46] nd José ced a divor sons. 25 tly recen f his Was ith one o uction. w r lives on const s Work ill. 1.7: pictures of potential target groupphase 1 / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / target group
  • 25. PHASE 1 ] [49 los Car h wit ou ntry nd he c ns a own s in t wo so lls in t Live wife, t He se paya a hi gther. and p te. s au acao ltiva d c cu the t they th a Tito Wor [63] k and s at th sha e bu his s r s He i on a es his h statio s nd g ouse n like very ta rand c with Verónica [25] s fo enjo otba lkative hildren . coo ys eati ll. He r and She is a therapist for deaf ked ng, eall . but y nev children. Is very good er friend of other teachers, but never meets them outside the school.26ill. 1.8: pictures of potential target group target group / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / phase 1
  • 26. general characteristics As in every culture, there are some behaviours that are quite general among Ecuadoreans and in other South American countries. Being late is very common. People arrive two hours late to events and it is not seen as disrespectful to others. It could also be mentioned that the appearance is very important. They tend to show higher economic level that they have by wearing nice clothes or having motorbike, mobile phone and so on. Some teenagers leave studies and get married early. un Once they get big responsibilities (job, children, etc.) d they start feeling “old” and the social life is somehowpeople’s behaviour tar ers restricted. Although big cities are changing in this ge ta aspect, in the town of Ricaurte and in many others women don’t usually work outside their house. punctuality leave things for later (”tomorrow”) t g nd open and social, but feel lonely ro in old at 22 think ahead/save money up g importance of appearance (to own a phone even if nothing to eat) inferiority complex “victim of society” (and that is the way it is, nothing can be done to change it)phase 1 / BUILDING THE CONTEXT /target group 27
  • 27. PHASE 1 narrowing down n be fu working children poverty an debt gc kincheap food prostitution CHOOSING FOCUS coo rice & banana sucre vs. dollar bad economic situation food d desnutrition out of schoolprivate=expensive ee eat to kill hunger education The diagram (see illustration 1.9) highlights the problem areas that n feed properly public=toomany students ic vitamins, proteins... disabilities offer more interesting opportunities not enough teachers as for the development of a project and the relevant issues related to them. In the following pages the problems are b illness further explained. health leave studies difficult diagnosis expensive medicines hospitals hab private illiterate its hygiene slow process (go/diagnosis/buy tools and material/cure) mosquitos! pigs ignorance dogs queue cats lots of people lice! pollution rubbish everywhere dirty streets too much sugar flood children picking up in rubbish dumps pesticides by plane no protection of workers coca cola bottled water weather28 sell plastic/cardboard bad not drinkable recicle river laundry/shower water ill. 1.9: diagram of chosen problem areas choosing focus /NARROWING DOWN / phase 1
  • 28. socia l inte ract means of transport spare time ion kind of bus bad roads lots of motorcycles sports (basket, football) mototaxis few cars internet “socialize” expensive mobile phones increasing number of cabines & cybers dance party/disco music public administration oney, reggaeton n burocracy=nightmare mo oint bachatano m salsa slow! for b n no fustay at home com ng p oth eti boring!!! differences between early “marriage” me mistreat chauvinism to have sex women surprise kids alcohol children to leave home agressive work need of affection at home (cook/clean/kids) can’t concentrate at school low salaries 29 jobs banana 1st sector collapse weak houses buildings construction school shops phase 1 / NARROWING DOWN / choosing focus
  • 29. PHASE 1 INTERPRETATION OF THE The volunteering was done in a school of “special education”, that provides appropriate education to In relation with food, different issues were detected. Drinkable water doesn’t come from the tap, and it must CHOSEN FOCUS disabled children according to their residual capabilities. The opportunity to work with physical handicap and be bought. This makes people buy other drinks, usually soft drinks rich in sugar, which mixed with a not well- mental handicap was given. Some of the children were balanced diet are very unhealthy. Rice and banana are During the trip done before the project started, the blind, deaf, had down syndrome or had some kind of the basis of every meal. They give the feeling of being problems previously mentioned were observed. disability that was not classified (often because of the full fast but without providing them with all nutrients lack of money for the tests). necessary for long-term survival. The aim was to experience the different aspects trying to feel as close as possible to the way they live. The The index of disabled children in the area is notoriously Apart from the fact that they don’t have money enough interaction with local people was very rich due to the higher in the region of Los Rios, where Ricaurte is located, to buy the ingredients, they don’t feed properly because openness of Ecuadoreans and the fact that it was the than in other places. The school has 180 students, they don’t know how. Most of the people does not know 4th year members of the group were there, and it gave coming from towns nearby. The three objectives of neither that the body needs proteins, carbohydrates, a chance to get a broader understanding of it. the school are Nutrition, Health and Education, in that vitamins, etc. nor that the amount must be balanced. order. With the help of Innfa (Instituto Nacional de la The Hospitals were seen from different points of view. Niñez y la Familia), [Innfa], the school provides food to The social life of Ecuadoreans is centred in birthday First as a visitor, then as companion of a child and in the all the students. parties and family events. They are very important and end as a patient. This showed that health care systems food, drinks and music are a must of the celebrations. are far from the social security model of other countries. Agriculture is the main economic activity and lots of Other than those special days, the social life is reserved The process is too slow. There are long queues and pesticides are used for better results. Fumigations mainly for young people who go to discotheques. Men once the doctor sees the patient, he makes a list of the are done by plane, affecting people working without who work and their wives that spend their time at home material he needs to examine the patient. Then those protection. This seems to be the causes of some do not meet with other people spontaneously. This is materials must be bought and wait the queue again. disabilities. Malnutrition in the first years of life lowers one of the reasons why they use to feel lonely. There are Medicines are expensive and usually people can’t afford defences, which are not enough to fight illnesses, and no places where people usually meet in Ricaurte. the whole treatment and they buy some of the pills (It is end up bringing disabilities.30 possible to buy pills by units instead of full packages). Other schools were also visited, and lots of concentration problems come from nutrition, because a hungry child can not learn. interpretation of the chosen focus /NARROWING DOWN / phase 1
  • 30. PROBLEM FORMULATION problem statement (PS) The project started with a broad question: How can I design a PSS that contributes to creatingWhat can I, as a designer, provide Zirrara in order to push the awareness of the importance of an adequate diet, development of it as an NGO? providing people with the knowledge that will enable them to make healthier decisions based on their available resources, in a social environment? Before any project is started in a developing country, financial support is needed. The current situation of Zirrara makes it difficult to start any activity. In order to search for sponsors or financial support, a project and a plan must be presented, informing about all the relevant issues. For this reason, designing a specific solution seems to be an appropriate way of reaching the goal. Taking the town Ricaurte (Ecuador) as a case gives the opportunity to get information about the target group and the social context, due to the already existing contact with the place and the possibility of experiencing and getting close to the reality they are living in. It is also probable that in the future Zirrara continues with the work started there. 31 After the analysis of the context and all the documentation made on phase 1, the focus is chosen and the problem will be narrowed down. phase 1 / NARROWING DOWN / problem formulation
  • 31. PHASE 1 interpretation of the PS This chapter gives a further explanation in the concepts that the Problem Statement mentions. healthier decisions social environment create awareness of an adequate diet Enable them to chose wether X is better than Z or In this context interaction between people is very Refers to explaining the relations between nutrition and cooking the same thing in a way of the other is better, important. People tend to leave their social life aside health (positive-negative effects of eating properly), always from a nutritional point of view. Better choices once they get married ( 18-24) and tend to think that in order to understand the importance of it. The towards physical and mental well-being. there is no place for entertainment in their lives. It adequateness of a diet is measured in relation to the should be an enjoyable activity , not an obligation, just effects on the body (physical/mental) and contains all their available resources something they do for fun. A meaningful situation that nutrients necessary for a long-term survival. It has to be coherent with what they have within reach. facilitates relation between individuals. knowledge Even if X is very healthy, expensive solutions should be avoided. What can be done with what they already people Refers to practical and useful knowledge. In this case, have? At this point of the project, the target group is broad. All knowledge relevant for their daily life. It could be of the inhabitants of Ricaurte could benefit from such a information about the origin of food, how to cook, concept. As it has been explained before, lot of different variety of dishes, hygiene habits, etc. but always in a level reasons could make the target group be interested in that people without higher studies could understand. such a concept.32 problem formulation /NARROWING DOWN / phase 1
  • 32. Choosing problem areas led us to define some user needs, which the Problem Statement aims to cover. It can be said at firs sight that the PS refers to basic needs such as food and health. But it is also important that, once the physiological and safety needs are covered, a move could be made to upper levels of Maslow’s pyramid. It is very interesting that people develop self-esteem, feels respected and morality gets recognition from others. The social environment creativity should facilitate this. spontaneity problem solving The system will fulfil people’s needs in different levels lack of prejudice (see illustration 1.10). acceptance of facts SELF-ACTUALIZATION self-esteem/conficence achievement/ respect ESTEEM friendship/family/sexual intimacy BELONGING security of health/family/employment/resources 33 SAFETY breathing/food/water/sex/sleep/homeostasis/excretion PHYSIOLOGICAL ill. 1.10: maslow’s pyramid of needsphase 1 / NARROWING DOWN / problem formulation
  • 33. PHASE 1 hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendrem end of phase SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS There are some general requirements that should be taken into account for the solution to be successful: · Future users must be part of the start up of the project. They need to be and feel part of it in order to the later development of it. · It has to be created in a way that it will be possible to keep functioning by Ecuadoreans. It has to be sustainable in the sense of not need of support from Zirrara (people, money, etc.) in the future. · The aim of it is to help them help themselves. It is not giving something “for free”. · It is not easy to attract Ecuadoreans to new and unknown things. It has to be a meaningful solution which gives visible value to people. · The start up of the project must be cheap, in a way that it does not include high technology equipment, so that Zirrara can afford it and it is coherent with the reality of the town.34 system requirements / END OF PHASE / phase 1
  • 34. PROGRAM The program is written as a sum up of the phase 1. It is presented in a separate document that has been added to the CD [appendix C_program, English]. The following ones are the contents of the document: PROBLEM FORMULATION VISION OBJECTIVES CONTENT METHODOLOGIES DELIMITATIONS ASSUMPTIONS TIMETABLEphase 1 / END OF PHASE / program 35
  • 35. The following chapter embraces the concept generation phase. In first place it describes the behaviour of the system through the Value Based Methodology. Secondly the proposals generated through the idea generation process are explained. And finally,phase 2 the evaluation of them is described and the concept chosen to be further developed is shown.36
  • 36. PHASE 2 hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendrem system’s behaviour VALUE BASED value mission METHODOLOGY help to selfhelp guide, show some ways let others do In order to find the core values of the system, the Vision Based Model [Tollestrup, 2007] has been used. After enjoyable social experience doing some brainstorms and mind maps, the most entertainment, fun suitable value mission and interaction vision have been chosen and represented in the Lerdahl’s pyramid (see illustration 2.1 on next page). interaction vision The system should be designed keeping the upper open to everybody level of the pyramid in mind, and it should be perceived welcoming, no need of invitation according to those key words. like going to a park game like rules, reward, play by teams like a win-win game easy to use useful, handy, easy to use, fast understanding, intuitive38 value based methodology / SYSTEM’S BEHAVIOUR / phase 2
  • 37. t ac str ab help to selfhelp enjoyable social experience VALUE MISSION phylosophy SPIRITUAL intention open to everybody soft game like easy to use INTERACTION VISION story CONTEXTUAL expression PRODUCT PRINCIPALS concept PRINCIPAL concept e ret hard nc co 39 PRODUCT DETAILS elements MATERIAL product kinesthetic visual ill. 2.1: value mission and interaction visionphase 2 / SYSTEM’S BEHAVIOUR / value based methodology
  • 38. PHASE 2 the church is in front of us 1 WALKsurroundings describe WITH THEM give useful references to find their way around [generate relevant knowledge] 2 they can do itTHEthemselves I think we are in front of the FOLLOW IN DISTANCE yeah! church make sure bySCENARIO assist when dangerInstead of using metaphors and images, the followingscenario (see illustration 2.2) has been seen to be themost appropriate way of explaining the behaviour ofthe system.It explains the steps followed instructing blind people 3 LET THEM DO IT(from the school where the volunteering was done) in I am in frontorder to help them help themselves to walk around the of the churchtown, being self-sufficient.40 ill. 2.2: scenario of system behaviour scenario / SYSTEM’S BEHAVIOUR / phase 2
  • 39. It is very important that the knowledge gained was There were relevant details in the way of proceeding All those little details and the scenario picture a similar remembered, so a tool was provided and how to use which have similarities with the desired system’s behaviour to the one that the system should show. First it was taught them. A 3D map of the town was done behaviour: of all, at the operational level, when the system is already with different materials and textures (see illustration working. But also it refers to the relation between 2.3). This way, the information would be remembered It was not allowed neither to hold their hands nor to Zirrara and the Ecuadoreans when implementing the or consulted before going to the streets without walk ahead (because they could guide by the sound of whole system. It has to be done with them, then make assistance. steps). We showed how to protect in case of danger. We sure they can manage by themselves, and later leave were not going for a walk with them ,we were helping them do it. them be prepared to go for a walk by themselves (help to selfhelp). Different walks were tried out and better results were reached doing them by couples than individually. We all talked about interesting topics in which they were interested. Definitely it was more fun, and having an enjoyable experience at the same time of learning turned out to be more effective.main street As complementary activity we learnt Braille from them. This reciprocal learning-teaching was very appropriate for self-actualization of both parts. The practice had the aim of showing them the town, but also became in a process of showing blind people to the people in the town. It turned out to be very positive, ironmonger’s shop because it facilitated the interaction between blind 41 people and inhabitants of Ricaurte, which was not seen before. ill. 2.3: 3D map phase 2 / SYSTEM’S BEHAVIOUR / scenario
  • 40. PHASE 2 hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendrem concept generation PROCESS At the beginning of the phase crazy ideas were generated based on solving the problem statement (see illustration 2.4). Several brainstorms were done and ideas were represented by fast sketches. Some were selected and discussed with other groups and the supevisor. problem statement ideas !42 ill. 2.4: idea generation process / CONCEPT GENERATION / phase 2
  • 41. PROPOSALS After evaluating the ideas, and choosing some of them, the proposals were given a second thought. The following pages explain the concepts presented in the status seminar (see illustrations 2.5/2.6/2.7).phase 2 / CONCEPT GENERATION / proposals 43
  • 42. PHASE 2 hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendremconcept1[arrange-meet-learn-cook-eat] day 1This concept is about arranging groups of peopleinterested in eating together with others. A timetableis planned and they meet each day at somebody’splace. There is an assistant teaching how to cook andall of them are part of it. The costs of the ingredientsareshared among all the participants.This way all of them learn from each other while creatinga nice atmosphere for talking and strengthening theirfriendship.There is no need of a common meeting point due tothe fact that they meet at their places, each time in adifferent one, so the cost of this system is very low.44 day 2 ill. 2.5: concept 1 proposals / CONCEPT GENERATION / phase 2
  • 43. concept2[moving kitchen]This concept is a moving educational unit, that could bea truck or a big bus, specially designed for the educationabout nutrition and food.Inside the unit there are interactive games, informationpanels and a kitchen. This way people entering the unitlearn, cook a little bit and eat.Once every week the unit goes to another town, this wayreaching a lot of people from many different places.phase 2 / CONCEPT GENERATION / proposals ill. 2.6: concept 2 45
  • 44. PHASE 2 hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendremconcept3[being part of the whole cycle]The third concept makes the user embrace the stepsin the eating process, from extraction of raw material,through the transformation of them to the consumption productionof prepared food.People learn about food and nutrition by being active inthe whole process. Having the overview of the cycle hasvery positive effects in the understanding of it.A meeting point is created, where apart from learningabout fruits and vegetables, cooking and eating them,other activities such as speeches, cooking contest andgames are organized. There is also a workshop withtools that children use to create kites, repair their bikeor make jewellery by painting stones. transformation consumption46 ill. 2.7: concept 3 proposals / CONCEPT GENERATION / phase 2
  • 45. end of phaseSTATUS SEMINARThe status seminar on the 28th of October gave and endto phase 2 of the project. A presentation [ which can befound in the CD, appendix D_status seminar slides,English] was given explaining what was done so far aswell as the concepts generated during the phase. feedback The most relevant critic received was that the project was too focused in solving the case. The presentation given only showed the process and outcome of the design of a PSS for Zirrara. The semester objectives require more than solving a specific problem. The case should be used to reflect upon it and get an understanding of it in a higher level. It was suggested to step outside the case and find a new approach to the topic.phase 2 / END OF PHASE / status seminar 47
  • 46. PHASE 2 hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendrem concept evaluation Regarding the concepts presented, they were evaluated together with a member or Zirrara, representing the NGO, in order to go on with the project and get to the developing phase. The advantages and disadvantages of each concept were seen according to the problem statement and the value mission and interaction vision. A comparative table was done (see illustration 2.8 on next page). This evaluation ended up with the election of the third concept [ part of the whole cycle] as concept to be developed further.48 status seminar / END OF PHASE / phase 2
  • 47. + + social environment + reach more people + better opportunities regarding the project + easy start up + continuous education + low complexity/cost + social environment- - no enough room - no appropriate tools for cooking - high costs - no finantial benefits - high complexity - need of further and deeper 49 development - hospitality is a core value, and having - uncontinuous education guest at home is a problem when not enough to offer them - specific and limited knowledge transmission ill. 2.8: concept evaluationphase 2 / END OF PHASE / status seminar
  • 48. According to design processes followed in other projects [adapted from the generic product development process described by Ulrich & Eppinger, 2002], the last phase should be the detailing of the product or the service system, and the later presentation of it . Due to the fact that the semester is focused on design research, the project is seen as a case to generate argumentation contributing the theme of Social Innovation and New industrial contexts. Many issues related to the topic are analyzed and thephase 3 project has shifted the aim to enabling the client to create his own values. So, during the phase, how to create a semi-finished solution is explored. This chapter also discusses the use of the possible convergences between industrial logics to deal with social problems emerging in the new industrial context. The practice-oriented approach is used to analyze the system and mainly use cases and flow diagrams are used to represent the outcome. The phase concludes with the plan to present the project to the client, a workshop.50
  • 49. phase 3
  • 50. PHASE 3 rethinking the project The project aims to reflect upon all those issues by means of exploring the case. STEPPING OUTSIDE THE CASE project PS The status seminar pointed out the need of rethinking the semester objectives and the focus of the project. How does the industrialization of service relate to the Reflections done upon the question of “what does the case? case do for me?” changed the perspective of the project from being just a PSS design to looking at the project How does the case help the understanding of the as a research work contributing to a current research chosen methodological problem? topic. Due to personal interests of the author and the opportunities the case offers, the paper Social Innovation and New Industrial Contexts: can a designer The case and the problem statement remain the same. “industrialize” socially responsible solutions? [Morelli, 2007], has been chosen to be the base of the project [the article can be found in the appendix E_social innovation case PS and new industrial context_can designers industrialize What can I, as a designer, provide Zirrara in order to push the socially responsible solutions, English]. development of it as an NGO? The paper raises many questions such as: Can a service be “industrialized”? What are the limitations of this method? How can I design a PSS that contributes to creating awareness of the importance of an adequate diet, providing people with the knowledge that will enable52 What kind of tools do we need for organizing this kind of semi-finished platforms? them to make healthier decisions based on their Is it possible to generate knowledge that helps going from local to multi-local solutions? available resources, in a social environment? stepping outside the case / RETHINKING THE PROJEC / phase 3
  • 51. METHOD AND CONTENT The way of proceeding will start by understanding the papers and the concepts mentioned. Solving the case will help to move from organizing the service to understand it from an industrial point of view and detecting critical points. By means of solving a problem and thinking on a local solution, hypothesis will be done about if it is possible to organize it in order to adapt to other cases. In this project the NGO is not seen as a client or customer. The topic talks about enabling solutions instead of disabling solutions, so members of Zirrara are co-producers together with the designer. Instead of designing a final solution, the outcome of the case will be a semi-finished platform, represented in a language that non-designers could understand. This way, Zirrara should be able to organize the service and adapt it to different contexts, creating different solutions. 53 The validation of the outcome is limited by the fact that the final users are out of reach when the project is developed. Anyway, a workshop will be held with the NGO for presentation and validation.phase 3 / RETHINKING THE PROJECT / method and content
  • 52. PHASE 3 looking at the world extraction production distribution consumption disposal ill. 3.1: steps in the system in crisis THE STORY OF STUFF Before going into the detailing phase of the system,. it is interesting to have a look at the world, where the system will coexist with other systems, that will at the same time be part of a global system. Annie Leonard exposes the connections between a huge number of environmental and social issues [in the sketch of her web site called Story of Stuff] . Illustration54 3.1 gives a picture of the production and consumption patterns nowadays. Lots of facts evidence that this linear system is a system in crisis, that wastes resources and people. the story of stuff / LOOKING AT THE WORLD / phase 3
  • 53. TOWARDS ANOTHER WAYHopefully new ways of thinking and acting are emergingbased on sustainability and equity (see illustration3.2). Many movements have already started, such asGreen Chemistry, Zero Waste, Closed Loop Production,Renewable Energy and Local Living Economies. Thesituation is generating a demand for solutions of highsocial value and industry is changing in response to it[the full footnoted script of the sketch and facts can befound in appendix F_story of stuff, English].The system proposed in the project will try to fit thementioned context.phase 3 / LOOKING AT THE WORLD / towards another way ill. 3.2: another way 55
  • 54. PHASE 3 practice-oriented analysis PRACTICE-ORIENTED APPROACH In order to get a better understanding and a more detailed picture of the concept chosen in phase 2, the practice oriented approach [Munnecke, 2008] has been used. This is a way of looking at the system from an activity-centric perspective (see illustration 3.3), instead changing and creating practices of the more common actor centric-perspective. If we recall the problem statement and try to look at it actor A from this perspective, it can be said that the primary image intervention that is envisioned is keeping the material (their available resources) and changing the image and practice skills attached to the practices (around nutrition) (see illustration 3.5). skills Nevertheless, there are a lot of practices in the system actor B and some elements are kept and some are changed. ill. 3.3: activity centric perspective A deeper analysis has been done to understand the change of elements in the system and their impact on material Each practice consist of the combination of three the actors within it. elements: images, skills and material (see illustration 3.4). image ill. 3.5: one way of creating a practice56 material skills ill. 3.4: elements of a practice practice-oriented approach / PRACTICE-ORIENTED ANALYSIS / phase 3
  • 55. process ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM The process of the practice oriented analysis starts by The diagram shown in the following page (see illustration detecting the practices, finding the elements in each 3.7) helps to understand the dynamics of practices and one and finally identifying the actors and their roles in to identify points of intervention. the system (see illustration 3.6). The main steps of extraction / transformation / consumption have been divided in sub-steps and from them the elements needed for each practice have been noted down.practices elements actors ill. 3.6: process of practice oriented analysis phase 3 / PRACTICE-ORIENTED ANALYSIS / analysis of the system 57
  • 56. PHASE 3 ARRANGING EXTRACTING TRANSFORMING sowing cultivating harvesting meeting explaining · simple · beginning · take care · pick up the · fun · understand what and why · effective of a project · fun result of an effort · leisure · accessible · hope · rewarding · social activity image · easy · nice atmosphere · feel part of the whole process, have cooking and eating in mind... EDGEhow to reach an adequete diet agriculture WL KNO · organizational skills · how to sow · how to cultivate · how to harvest · communication skills skills · physical capability · supporting · seeds · vegetables · meeting point · supporting elements elements · water · storage · recipe · information from · fertilizer other the practices · working tools N ATIO · landmaterial ROL OF E LOC CONT N ROP RIATINFO RMATIO APP ABILITY58 analysis of the system / PRACTICE-ORIENTED ANALYSIS / phase 3
  • 57. CONSUMING cooking laying the table explaining eating cleaning hygiene procedures · fun · I do it for myself · self actualization · reward of · cooperation ·clean · easy effort done · healthy EVOKE · chat · healthy · nice looking · participation O HOW T ?nutrition/food/cooking I MAGES · how to cook · communication skills · how to eat · vegetables · cuttlery · supporting elements · prepared food cleaning tools · supporting elements · other ingredients · plates · storage · glasses · kitchen tools · tables · power+water · chairs · kitchen · eating room MEGAPRACTICES practices 59 elements ill. 3.7: analysis of elements of the system phase 3 / PRACTICE-ORIENTED ANALYSIS/ analysis of the system
  • 58. PHASE 3 INTERPRETATION classification of practices how to evoke images? appropriate location The images of the practices are related to the Lerdahl’s One of the most important things are the locations. The The system consists of three megapractices (extracting- practices will happen in a context and in a specific place, transforming-consuming) that have been divided in upper level key words, the value mission and the interaction vision, which are: help to selfhelp, enjoyable which must be chosen. This will affect the performance several practices. Although they are represented one of the practices, material flow, amount of people after the other one, they do not happen chronologycally. experience, game like, open to everybody and easy to use. involved, money necessary to start up the system, etc. Most of them are overlapping and will happen in parallel to other practices. The operational way of the system’s back office must control of information Arranging, although represented at the beginning, help to the front office experience to be coherent with is above the other megapractices and embraces all those values, so that the users perceive them properly. As it has been said before, the system needs to be the practices. The organization, control, planning regulated and the different practices connected. Actors and regularization of all the system lays in this Arranging the activity like a game gives the opportunity must coordinate with each other and an information megapractice. to introduce certain rules and putting people together in flow is needed between them. groups. This way social interaction and entertainment There are some practices that support each other, are guaranteed. It should be simple, efficient and accessible, but the due to the material flow, that in some cases is output elements to support information transmission depend of one and input of the next one. Nevertheless, the It has to be taken into account that depending on the on the amount of money invested on it and the resources. system should be thought in a way that the practices culture we are working with the images connected with It can be done in many ways, from using paper to highly are supporting one another but not depending. It might the practices might be different. computerized solutions, but they will contain the same happen that one of the megapractice is not part of the type of information: production estimations, final system itself, but that fact should not compromise the Establishing some hygiene procedures as part of other production data , accountancy, people participating in practices will help to the naturalization of them. They60 operation of the sytem, so in that case some external the system, etc. suppliers should be found. will become a habit and could help people to attach the image of organized and clean place to the system. interpretation / PRACTICE-ORIENTED ANALYSIS / phase 3
  • 59. knowledge where are the people? During the operation of the extracting raw food, cooking and eating, power and water supply are needed, whichThe fundamental aim of the system is knowledge In the activity centric approach actors are seen as will certainly come from external suppliers. The rawtransmission by means of interaction between people. certain configuration of elements. When thinking on the food and other ingredients needed for the cooking will behaviour of the system and the elements needed, two flow in the system. There will always be moving materialThe behaviour of the system changes the view of types of actors can be distinguished. Ones will be first in the system.knowledge transmission as information giving (one- knowledge carriers and they could be called facilitator,way road, from the transmitter to the receiver). Bytaking part in the different practices of the system, assistant or helper. On the other hand there will be users or learners, that will become knowledge carriers as well. CONCLUSIONquestions about food like “where does it come from By means of interaction in the same practice (with its The practice-oriented analysis of the system points outand where does it go?”, the same reflection done in images, skills, and material) there will be a synergy many relevant points of intervention in order to arrangethe story of stuff (see page 54), will have an answer between them and knowledge will be spread. the system in a sustainable manner and making sureby getting the big picture of it. Furthermore, it is not that it evolves and involves more information, but communicating, as a two-way abilityconversation what helps the learning process. Being Once the system of practices are being performed,an active part on the learning and communicating to It is assumed that all the tasks require some physical the cultivation phase, a process of naturalization willothers what learned, is much more effective. abilities from the users. Anyway, the system is open to happen and intentional practices will become habit or everybody, so if there is people who can not perform performed with naturalness by the users.Supporting elements are needed in order to facilitate the some of the tasks, other tasks will be provided to themknowledge flow and to make sure it gets documented according to their residual capabilities. The system is The analysis has given a better understanding of whatfor the later use. about improving skills and the improvements can start has to be taken into account when designing and from many levels. representing the system. From a designer’s point of view, the most important things to take into account in material the case are the flows, of knowledge and information, and the regulation of them. 61 Most of the material listed, tools and appliances, entail a first inversion and maintenance costs. All that is somehow static in the system, but suppliers are needed as well.phase 3 / PRACTICE-ORIENTED ANALYSIS / interpretation
  • 60. hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autatPHASE 3 ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendrem system representation From the practice-oriented analysis it has been seen that the system contains a lot of elements that have SYSTEM OVERVIEW The next day, at 2pm mother and father walk towards the field (extraction area in the diagram). The man to be arranged and connected to each other somehow. meets other people and the farmer there. The farmer This chapter creates a big picture of the system, but use case of different actors gives a presentation of the vegetables that are being it has to be taken into account that the aim is not grown and the task that they are going to do. Some of generating a final solution. That is why is has to be seen The most relevant issue in the project is the experience the people have some questions and after everything as a way of understanding the system, not as a defined that the users get, so an overview of what happens is clarified they work for some hours watering plants representation of it. As much elements as possible are to each actor is created (see illustration 3.8 on the and picking up fruits. The woman has taken a package kept in the system, in order to explain the most complex following page). with vegetables and fruit and she brings it to The House of the cases. (transformation and consumption area in the diagram). If the diagram is read horizontally, it is like a story of She meets her two sons and a lot more people from the what each actor does. It can be seen where the activities town and the chief talks about the food they are going take place (the extraction area, the transformation and to cook. Everybody is happy to hear about it and they consumption area or somewhere else). Three different get excited. Three teams are created, ones in charge flows are represented: information, knowledge and of the main dish, others in charge of the second dish material. Time is also represented in a pre-phase when and children who are going to cook dessert. They cook the things are arranged and a during-phase when the themselves and the chief assists them once in a while. main tasks are performed. It is also visible that although When the food is ready the people who was in the field the actors start in different places and different tasks, come to The House and meet the others. More people they all end up in the eating area. also join them for dinner. Some people from the field and from the cooking lesson explain to the others what they learnt and what they found interesting. Next, everybody takes a sit and they eat the delicious meal they all created and enjoy the chatting. People who has The diagram can be told as a story: been contributing to it, people in the fields and in the kitchen, get the meal in exchange of their effort. People62 A four-member family wishes to participate in the system so they join the list for the next day. The planer interested in having dinner there with the others, pay has been gathering information and has arranged the a fairly cheap amount of money for it. After they finish menu for the cooking lesson and ordered the ingredients eating everybody helps cleaning and they stay there needed. until The House is closed. system overview / SYSTEM REPRESENTATION /phase 3
  • 61. CONCLUSIONS The diagrams just shown are one of the multiple options that the system admits. The representation diagrams in two dimensions are static and it may look like if they were fixed. It is difficult to show that there are many options to get to an end. It is actually easier when more than one people are creating them and talking while doing it. This way the time is perceived and it can be discussed “if we do this... or if we do that...”. In order to develop the semi-finished solution, it is better to have different elements (pieces of paper, post its or movable tokens) to play with and try out different configurations. This is going to be taken into account in the phase of moving from the semi- finished to the finished solution.phase 3 / SYSTEM REPRESENTATION / conclusions 67
  • 62. PHASE 3 industrialization of service This chapter aims to explore the possible convergences between industrial logics and social instances to support MODULARITY AND a shift of designers’ activities from products to systemic solutions. REPLICABILITY In order to get an understanding of the system it has By implementation and reflection about it through the been divided in three main modules, defined by the case, links between fully industrial theories and the three main activities. system are found. The advantages and disadvantages of utilization of industrial logic in the solution of For the system to be modular, those independent social problems are evaluated and this will help the modules could be arranged differently, or eliminated, identification of relevant issues for Zirrara and the and the operation of the system should not be affected. making of the semi-finished solution. Of course, in that case, other alternatives should be found, in order to make up for them. The ideal system has the three modules inside (see illustration 3.12 on next page). That is the best one with regards to the better performance of the system. The users will gain the most this way. But if the system needs to be applied in another context, for instance a different country, different people and less resources, the system could be seen as a smaller unit. This way of looking at the system, as a platform that68 can be adapted, gives freedom in the use of it. Lots of questions must be answered before any system is started, but this gives space for more opportunities. modularity and replicability / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / phase 3
  • 63. extracting transforming consuming system embracing three megapracticesThe different configurations depend on how big theboundary of the system is. If any of the modules is notpart of the system, a way of substituting it must befound because all of them are necessary for the systemto work. What changes is the relation the system haswith the outside.Although the different arrangements will still make the system embracing two megapracticessystem function, the most valuable one will be the systemthat embraces all the practices. Any configuration mustalways keep the transformation module, due to the factthat this is were most value is accumulated. 69Depending on the resources and context, decisionsmust be made to choose the best way of developing the system of just one megapracticefinal solution. ill. 3.12: modularity of the systemphase 3 / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / modularity and replicability
  • 64. PHASE 1PHASE 3 In order to relate the industrial logics to the case, the industrial methods are briefly explained first and connected to the system later. There is no need read the first description if familiar with the industrial models discussed. In order to evaluate the convergences with industrial logics the system has been looked at as a manufacturing process. EFFICIENCY The concept of efficiency is all about getting the maximum result using minimum resources (see illustration 3.13). In the companies this result is understood as income and the resources are for instance the time and material used for it. There are several industrial logics aiming efficiency and they will be explained and related to the project in the following pages [Castaño, 2004].70 ill. 3.13: efficiency from a businessman point of view efficiency / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / phase 3
  • 65. the seven deadly wastes 1 Overproduction The production of vegetables in the extraction area Overproduction is the result of producing more product must be controlled and a lot of knowledge aboutWaste elimination is essential to increase profitability than the market requires. When the market is strong, agriculture is needed. It has to be taken into account thatin manufacturing and distribution businesses [Plan this waste might not be noticeable, but, when demand depending on the resources (if the production is insideServices]. drops, overproduction produces serious problems with a greenhouse, or in the fields), the weather conditions unsold inventory and wasted by-products. Wasted by- will also influence the production. Such factors are products include material handling, storage space, unpredictable, and could cause overproduction as well[waste = anything that adds cost, inventory interest charges, machinery and equipment, as underproduction. defects, overhead, workers and paperwork. but not value, to a product] Nevertheless, in case of overproduction, the system In the system for Zirrara, overproduction could be a should have a way of regulating it without really being a problem in two points: the extraction area and the waste. If the system has a kind of shop where productsThe following seven wastes are the cause of the most eating area. The raw material and the prepared food that are not going to be used inside the system can beimportant inefficiencies. that will be part of the product, must be kept in storage sold (at very low cost, lower than other shops, to make rooms under special conditions (temperature, humidity sure everything is sold), that would be another way of etc.). getting some money inside the system (that could be used for example maintenance costs). Planning is very important to avoid overproduction. An updated and accurate information platform that controls material flow is needed, to match supply and demand. To make sure that what is produced will be consumed (the production pushing consumption), the production has to be thought the other way around. The consumer needs to define the production (consumption pulling the production).phase 3 / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / efficiency 71
  • 66. PHASE 3 2 Processing methods 3 Wait time Maintenance and manufacturability are keys to Workers who have already completed the required eliminating waste from process methods. Regular amount of work or employees who spend much time preventive maintenance reduces defective pieces watching machines but are powerless to prevent produced. problems are two examples of the waste of waiting. The process itself, the transformation of raw material Referring to tasks that depend one on another one, into prepared meal (cooking process) could have waiting for the previous operation to be done of for the inefficiencies. The tools should be revised and well next one to be ready is also a waste. Waiting for raw maintained to avoid defective output. Different material to reach the kitchen and waiting for people to processes for the same outcome should be tried to meet before the cooking lesson is started are two of the improve processing methods. examples related to the case. Influenced by their culture, most Ecuadoreans are always late and this could difficult the performance of the different activities. The way of dealing with it has to be decided to avoid problems. Tooling breakdowns or defects are also the cause of wait time. Those could be that the oven is broken and has to be fixed, or that the raw material that was going to be used for cooking is not in good conditions to be eaten. In the context of Ecuador, fast ways of solving such problems must be found, because it would probably easier to think about another way of cooking the dish than waiting for the oven to be repaired.72 But the best way of eliminating wait time waste is a material handling system that regulates the flow of material and users at an efficient pace. efficiency / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / phase 3
  • 67. 4 TransportationOften the root cause of this waste is a poor layout ofthe area and storage facilities, which can mean long-distance transportation. Temporary storage andfrequent changes of storage locations aggravate thesituation.The material movement does not add value to the end By placing the system’s different areas close to eachproduct. Transportation waste can be eliminated by other or transporting material fast from one placeminimizing the distances materials must travel (see to the other one, the unnecessary movement wouldillustration 3.14), eliminating unnecessary movement, be reduced. Inside the kitchen and the eating area,better process coordination, better transportation material movement could also be reduced dependingmethods, faster transportation and general organization for instance on the layout of furniture, appliances orof the operation. storage rooms.phase 3 / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / efficiency ill. 3.14: long distance material movement 73
  • 68. PHASE 3 5 Motion 6 Inventory 7 Defects Waste motion is defined as time spent not adding value Inventory waste (see illustration 3.15) is closely Product defect wastes aren’t simply those items quality to the product or process. Movement doesn’t equal connected with overproduction. Excess inventory control rejects before shipment. Instead, product defect work. requires extra handling, storage space, interest charges, waste actually causes other types of waste throughout people and paperwork. the manufacturing process: wait time that increases In the system motion waste can most often be revealed costs, rework that increases labour costs, additional in the actions of workers (users) as they search for tools It is essential to dispose obsolete materials and produce materials needed for replacement parts, the extra (cuttlery, frying pan...), how they pick and place tools only the number of items the next process requires. labour involved in sorting defective from acceptable and parts (material, semi-finished food...) that are kept An accurate estimation is needed to regulate this. parts, and scrapping defective pieces, which wastes out of immediate reach of the workstation (kitchen As previously mentioned, food goes off very quickly both materials and work already performed. area), and the time spent walking among machines if and a rule of “first in first out” must be followed. If the they are responsible for several workstations. inventory is kept to a minimum, the flow of material The worst thing regarding defects is a customer and the operation of the system will be easier and more discovering them because it will certainly cause A carefully planned layout and the people in charge of efficient. dissatisfaction. To provide bad or low quality meal is tasks can eliminate motion waste. definitely a waste of resources. The ideal solution is to eliminate defect waste at the source, identifying defects or the conditions that cause defects as they occur.74 ill. 3.15: excess of inventory efficiency / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / phase 3
  • 69. division of labour 5s plant distributionThe division of labour is the specialization of people in This is a method for arranging elements in a shared The layout of the work area (see illustration 3.16) is closetasks and roles intended to increase the productivity of workplace and keeping it organized. to the idea of efficiency. To avoid most of the wastes,labour. such as material transportation, the distribution of Seiri / Sorting: Going through all the tools and materials elements must be carefully designed.If the system is divided in small tasks, the people in in the work area and keeping only essential items.charge of them would focus on tasks that they are best Everything else is stored or discarded. Related to the system, the extraction, theat. More repetitions lead to learning faster ways to transformation and the eating area must be arrangedperform the task, causing higher efficiency in terms of Seiton / Straighten or Set in Order: The intent is to in the most efficient way, taking into account severaltime. Productivity will also increase because training arrange the tools, equipment and parts in a manner factors: the location, the internal and external structuretime is reduced and the person is productive in a short that promotes work flow. of the building, the working conditions, the materialamount of time. And finally, little time is spent moving flow, the storage system... It is also very important thatbetween tasks so overall time wasted is reduced. Seisō / Sweeping or Shining: Systematic Cleaning or the distribution is variable, in order to adapt to new the need to keep the workplace clean. The key point is situations if required. that maintaining cleanliness should be part of the daily work. Seiketsu / Standardizing: Standardized work practices or operating in a consistent and standardized fashion. Shitsuke / Sustaining: Refers to maintaining and reviewing standards. The procedure of the 5S is important to give the image 75 of clean workplace and nice atmosphere. The hygiene procedures can also be introduced as daily tasks and standardize and sustain, to become a habit. ill. 3.16: inadequate plant distributionphase 3 / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / efficiency
  • 70. PHASE 3 poka yoke others Poka-yoke is a Japanese term that means “fail-safing”, There are many other methods and theories which “Foolproof” or “mistake-proofing”. Avoiding inadvertent are not going to be analysed further but have similar errors is a method of preventing errors by putting limits objectives as the ones previously mentioned. The on how an operation can be performed in order to force endless pursuit of waste elimination is the essence of the correct completion of the operation. Lean manufacturing and Just In Time. And some of the methods have direct application just in industrial There are many ways of making poka yokes (see context and with machinery related issues, such as: illustration 3.17), all of them with the aim of avoiding M.R.P., Balancing of manufacturing cells and SMED making mistakes, because the way of performing the Single Minute Exchange of Die. task does not let another option than doing it right. This kind of procedures could be though to any of the tasks of the whole process that the system involves. 76 ill. 3.17: geometric poka yoke efficiency / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / phase 3
  • 71. PROBLEMSSo far the link between the industrial approach and the service system have been explained. But while trying to adaptall those methods to the system, many weak points and incoherent issues have been found.contradictions and incongruities· In the process of application the industrial logics, the actors performing have been workers and clients, but it hasbeen left outside the idea of moving the clients to an active customer role, the co-producer of value.· Looking at the seven deadly wastes, almost all of them can be criticized. Is material transportation a waste if it isperformed as a team task, as a long and nice walk while chatting to each other? Who says that wait time does nothave benefits? There can be a nice conversation going on while waiting. And since people will be learning how to cook,there is also potential in making defective meal, just for the sake of learning what not to do next time. The proceduretowards efficiency starts by defining activities that add value and activities that do not, and deleting the last ones.But from which point of view? And for whom? What is the important thing in the system? To have a lot to eat, or tolearn a lot when cooking? Then spending time on generating knowledge should not be a waste, even if it lowers foodproductivity.· The division of labour disconnects people from effect of actions. The specialization is directly disabling people ofdoing other things. It goes against people enabling logic.· The use of poka yokes avoids making mistakes. Where is the advantage of doing things well without knowing why? 77But isn’t making mistakes a good way of learning? The use of poka yokes is another means of disabling people. As wellas the simplification, integration and automatization of as much as procedures as possible. ·So it is pretty clear that those methods are not directly applicable to the system, but why is that?phase 3 / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / problems
  • 72. PHASE 3 aim The basic idea of those models is that the users have some needs that the companies will solve providing them with products. They have to do it in an efficient way, maximizing results (money) and minimizing resources. But what if success criteria of an activity is not measured by money? What if the added value of the system could be raised by a way of performing the task itself? Then all those wastes and inefficiencies previously mentioned could be understood differently and would not be a waste anymore. The NGO, as non-profit organization, has not the same understanding of efficiency as a company. From the very beginning of the project the value mission has been defined as help To self-help and enjoyable experience. It was never the main objective the maximization of food production. So the main difference of such a project and a common production system is the aim, which makes the methods not to be as successful as they should be. Furthermore the system is developed with the idea that well-being based on consumption should not exist anymore. In the new context abilities, social interaction and knowledge transmission are the basis of well-being. conclusions By this analysis it has been seen that the system proposes a shift in the perspective. If in industrial logics the process is the means and the product is the aim, the service system designed has the product as a means and the process is the aim (see illustration 3.18 on next page). In order to deal with this new perspective, a redefinition of inefficiency and added value are needed for the context. Efficiency is all about getting the maximum result using minimum resources. But what if we call result to social impact and positive change instead of money? Could we define waste in a new way?78 [waste = anything that adds cost, but not value, to a service, experience] problems / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / phase 3
  • 73. It has been seen that it is not possible to take the methods and directly apply them. It is not even enough to grabindustrial logics and adapt them. All the focus must be switched because some of them become contradictory due tothe incongruity of the aim.New tools are needed to measure the efficiency in making social innovation, in making changes in the way individualsor communities act to obtain results. For instance, if the objective is the maximization of knowledge generation, howcould that me measured? Through examinations? In this new approach to efficiency new wastes could be discovered,like the disuse of the potential of the ideas of the personnel. But some of the concepts such as plant distribution or 5Sare still valid if used to reach the objectives. product focused process focusedphase 3 / INDUSTRIALIZATION OF SERVICE / problems 79 ill. 3.X: changing focus from product to process
  • 74. PHASE 3 end of phase WHAT DOES zirrara GET? WORKSHOP! The outcome of the project is neither a product nor a service system, but the understanding of the system purpose and the knowledge to develop it further. The process can be described as an “enabling chain” (see illustration The most appropriate way to present such an outcome 3.19), where the designer enables the client so that the to the client is to hold a workshop with different client can enable somebody an underserved end user. phases: a presentation, some tasks and a conclusion to Nevertheless, it is important to recall that the designer create awareness of the critical points and show that it has analysed both Zirrara and a developing community is possible to manage the knowledge and arrange it in in order to create the system. order to design the solutions themselves. So, now that the project is almost finished, what is The main objective of the workshop is to validate that Zirrara going to get, and how? it is possible to create enabling solutions to solve local problems that can be expanded to solve multiple local problems. The entire workshop will be recorded and the material documented and presented in the examination.designer members developing community The secondary objective is that Zirrara, as client, takes advantage of the semi-finished solution. So apart from the reports, all the material generated in the workshop will be given to them for later use.80 ENABLE ENABLE ill. 3.19: enable to enable what does ZIRRARA get? / END OF PHASE / phase 3
  • 75. ideal semi-finished solution method The members of Zirrara will constitute a multidisciplinary The solution should contain elements and links. By The workshop will have an introduction where all the team. None of them has design background and creating some rules of relating the elements and linking relevant information of the analysis and concept phases are not familiar with design processes, methods, them, different configurations could be arranged, so will be provided to the members. The system will be ways of problem solving, analysis, arrangement, and that different context frameworks could be fulfilled. In explained and once that the overview is understood, representation techniques. case that the context is complex, complex shape, gaps the group will be divided in two teams who will work must be filled with other external components. separately in the detailing of two different concepts. In The main idea behind is a semi-finished solution as a the end everything will be presented and evaluated and result of a sum of components (see illustration 3.20). problems found and the key issues will be discussed. In the development part both groups will be provided a diagram of the interaction of the different actors with the system and with each other, explaining the experience. From there they will be asked to build the system behind through different steps. + + = There will be a quick explanation of the task with some examples and the members will work it for a certain amount of time. It is important to move forward, so some question cards will be provided, with problems to reflect upon issues concerning the system. Those questions will serve as check list, to make sure some relevant things have been taken into account and to push the team forward if it gets stuck. When the time is 81 over, another task will be introduced to them.elements & links context frameworks relation rules different results In parallel to the tasks a big cardboard will be provided in order to note down problems and important issues. ill. 3.20: components of ideal semi-finished solutions phase 3 / END OF PHASE / workshop!
  • 76. PHASE 3 introduction structure (see illustration 3.21) [ 1 ] introduction slides [ 2 ] development [ 3 ] conclusions Aim of the workshop Divide group into two teams Present what each group has done Short introduction about design process: Association game to catalyse creativity Talk about problems and difficulties found Phase 0 Understand the use case of different actors Evaluate and discuss the outcome Trip (all of us have done it) Define the system needed to support the experience: Exchange ideas for the future Phase 1 static material need to start up the system Reflect upon most important issues Target group material flow Document material created Problem areas knowledge flow Needs/Values people/skills Problem Statement Introduce more problems by questions (what if...?) Phase 2 Idea generation Concepts Phase 3 System overview Modularity Explain what their task is and why82 ill. 3.21: workshop steps workshop! / END OF PHASE / phase 3
  • 77. introductionconsiderations hypothesis and expectations WHAT IS NEXT? Members of Zirrara do not know about the system and Through the workshop the members of Zirrara will The main limitation of the project is that neither thegiving a short introduction of the previous phases is be able to understand the system and to develop two NGO nor the Ecuadoreans are on scope. That is whyadequate before they are asked to develop it further. different systems for the same place with different the final workshop and validation must be done after configuration. They will realize of the adaptability of submission of the project.It is very important that the material shown to them is the system and that will encourage them for the laternot sophisticated, so that they do not get intimidated use of the tools and questions used in the workshop for The workshop will be held on the 27th of decemberby the complex diagrams. What matters in this case implementing solutions to real problems in the future. and the conclusions will be hopefully available in theis the understanding of the system they get, not the presentation and examination.quality of the representation of it.The workshop will be limited to a maximum of 4h and itwill be held in Basque due to the fact that the participantsfeel more comfortable and explain themselves better inthat language.It has to be taken into account that the sequence ofevents affects the result of the workshop. The designeris part of the experiment, because he has designed itand because he will be participating in the workshop.phase 3 / END OF PHASE / workshop! 83
  • 78. project conclusionsAs mentioned at the beginning, the project consists The case, PSS design for Zirrara, has been appropriate The main difficulty of the project has been understandingof two reports. The other document is a REFLECTION and has facilitated the reflection upon the research the objectives of the semester and finding the way topaper, which discusses about how the topic and the case topic, which is Social Innovation and New Industrial focus the project in order to address them.relate to each other. Conclusions about the research Context: Exploration of territories for PSS in practice.topic are written in that paper. Most of the concepts to explore, described by Morelli, While previous projects were developed towards an end are connected to the case due to the fact that the aim of solution of an specific case, this project has changed the NGO is to create socially responsible solutions and perspective and has given more importance to the it has been possible to relate them in practice. reflection part. Dealing with a more abstract project has sometimes caused confusion during the process. Having a real case helps the understanding of topics and detection of possibilities and difficulties. By the Less emphasis than other projects has been put on developing process of the case an argumentation explaining the methods used, but on the other hand has been created on the current research topic. New more attention has been paid to reflecting upon why knowledge about the topic itself and about design they are used, which limitations they have and what can methods has been gained through it. be done. Difficulties have been experienced in defining, representing and working on semi-finished solutions The client, Zirrara, will benefit from the project in terms instead of finished solutions. of knowledge. A semi-finished system will be provided, based on the analysis of a local problem (targeted in Being a one-person group limits the discussion of ideas, Ricaurte, Ecuador) and by means of a workshop the but meetings with other groups have been held in order ability to generate their own solutions will be transferred to share comments and get some external feedback. to the members. If the NGO Zirrara meets the requisites to start up such a system in the town of Ricaurte or another developing community, end users will also benefit from the84 project. PROJECT CONCLUSIONS
  • 79. The main delimitation of the project is that the The first contact with the semester theme was doneclient and the end users are out of scope during the through several lectures about research and strategydevelopment of the project. The communication with under the name of “Design Research Methodology”. Amembers of Zirrara has been fluent by e-mail and one number of design research topics currently in progressperson represented them on the presentation given at were presented through different courses. Some ofthe status seminar. After submission of the project a them (“Holistic Design”, “Practice Oriented Design”,workshop will be held giving an end to the project. The “Globalisation, Localisation and Social Sustainability”conclusions will be shown at the presentation of the and “ Design and Environmental Sustainability”) areexamination and they will serve as validation of parts of close to the project and the knowledge gained has beenthe argumentation. A trip to Ricaurte before the project implemented in the project to see how they relate tostarted made it possible to design for a community in each other. A course on “Academic Paper Writing” wasEcuador, but the real interaction with them will begin also held, and what was learned there has been usedwhen Zirrara decides to start up the project. for the presentation of the research work in the most professional way.Although the reports are written in English, thecommunication with Zirrara is done in Basque and with Through the project a methodological problem has beenEcuadoreans in Spanish. analysed within the field of PSS design. The ability to work with current research themes has been developed. Working on themes that are under development is difficult but challenging. It is seen as an appropriate approach to get an insight on a more research focused field of Industrial Design. It has been very interesting working on a topic of personal interest on the project. It helped to keep motivation and encourage to work more and investigate upon the topic.PROJECT CONCLUSIONS 85
  • 80. acknowledgements The author would like to thank all the people involved in the development of the project. In the first place, thanks to Zirrara for the opportunity given and the collaboration during the process. Thanks to Ecuadoreans met during the trip, who where always open and helpful. Thanks to Nicola Morelli for the support in supervision meetings. And finally thanks to Miren Beramendi, Christian J. Christensen, Roberto Reyes, Anders Rafn Hansen Kvist, and Maria Winther Kristensen for the contribution to the project, which was mainly feedback and new ideas.86 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • 81. listsREFERENCES ILLUSTRATIONSCastaño, Alfonso: Desarrollo de Estructuras Productivas | Slide show from lectures |2004 | Ingeniería de Producción | ill. 3.1: steps in the system in crisisMondragon Unibertsitatea ill. 3.2: another way from web page of The Story of StuffEdwards, Michael & Fowler, Alan (2002): The Earthscan Reader on NGO Management | ISBN: 1 85383 848 9| Part 5 |Earthscan Publications Ltd | LondonKarl T. Ulrich & Steven D. Eppinger (2003): Product Design and Development |3th edition | Mc Graw Hill SOURCES www.calcutaondoan.orgManzini, Ezio (2005): Enabling solutions for creative communities Design Matters | Number 10 (special edition) | Pages www.fundacionvicenteferrer.org64-68 www.innfa.orgMorelli, Nicola (2007): Social Innovation and New industrial Contexts: can designers “industrialize” Socially Responsible www.isf.esSolutions? Designs Issues | Volume 23, Number 4 | Page 3-21 By Wendell Leimbach and John Farrell www.sonrisasdebombay.orgMunnecke, Max (2008): Practice Oriented Approach | Slide show from lectures | 2008 | Aalborg University By Annie Leonard 87Tollestrup, Christian: Value Based Methodology | Presented through workshop | 2007 | Aalborg UniversityLISTS / references