1
Fish nutrition and
product quality
Sustainable
aquaculture feeds
A. Estévez 15/05/2014
Fish nutrition and final product ...
Total Global capture and Aquaculture Production (FAO, 2011)
The rapid growth of aquaculture has been due in part to the av...
1 China 45,279,173 62.0%
2 Indonesia 4,712,846 6.5%
3 India 3,791,922 5.2%
4 Viet Nam 2,589,800 3.5%
5 Philippines 2,477,3...
Total global production of marine fish species
(Source FAO – Aquastat, 2011)
Global aquafeed production has been growing a...
Total Commercial Aquafeed production
Estimated 50 million tonnes (Mt) in 2015 and 70 Mt in 2020
Top 10 Countries
1 China 1...
Which ingredients can be used for aquafeed production?
A. Estévez 15/05/2014
Which ingredients can be used for aquafeed production ?
Land animal by-product meals and fats
represent the largest source...
Which ingredients can be used for aquafeed production ?
Martek’s Life DHA 40-50% DHA
Martek’s DHA-S 32-38% DHA
LonzaDHA Ul...
A. Estévez 15/05/2014
Use of fishmeal by the
aquaculture sector is
expected to decrease
in the long term
– From 4.22 million
tonnes (Mt) in 2005...
Initiatives to increase use of plant products in aquafeeds
• Processing and techniques to enhance nutrient digestibility, ...
EU initiatives. Projects PEPPA and RAFOA (2001-2005) and
AQUAMAX (2006-2010)
A. Estévez 15/05/2014
EU initiatives. Projects PEPPA and RAFOA (2001-2005) and
AQUAMAX (2006-2010)
Main results obtained from these projects:
1 ...
EU initiatives. Projects PEPPA and RAFOA (2001-2005) and
AQUAMAX (2006-2010)
Main results obtained from these projects:
3....
EU initiatives. Projects PEPPA and RAFOA (2001-2005) and
AQUAMAX (2006-2010)
Main results obtained from these projects:
A....
EU initiatives. Projects PEPPA and RAFOA (2001-2005) and
AQUAMAX (2006-2010)
A. Estévez 15/05/2014
The final objective of ...
Next Steps
A. Estévez 15/05/2014
-Study the long term effects of alternative ingredients on growth,
metabolism and health ...
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Sponsor Day on animal feeding: Fish nutrition and final product quality. Sustainable aquaculture feeds

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Sponsor Day: Seminar on Animal Feeding
15th-16th May 2014
IRTA Mas Bover

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Sponsor Day on animal feeding: Fish nutrition and final product quality. Sustainable aquaculture feeds

  1. 1. 1 Fish nutrition and product quality Sustainable aquaculture feeds A. Estévez 15/05/2014 Fish nutrition and final product quality. Sustainable aquaculture feeds. Alicia Estevez. IRTA-San Carlos de la Rápita
  2. 2. Total Global capture and Aquaculture Production (FAO, 2011) The rapid growth of aquaculture has been due in part to the availability and provision of feed inputs within producing countries A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  3. 3. 1 China 45,279,173 62.0% 2 Indonesia 4,712,846 6.5% 3 India 3,791,922 5.2% 4 Viet Nam 2,589,800 3.5% 5 Philippines 2,477,392 3.4% 6 Thailand 1,396,020 1.9% 7 Korea 1,331,719 1.8% 8 Japan 1,243,336 1.7% 9 Bangladesh 1,064,285 1.5% 10 Norway 961,840 1.3% Top country producers – Global aquaculture– 2009 (Source: FAO – FISHSTAT, 2011) Total marine fish produced in 2009 were 1.95 Mt of the total global production (73 Mt with 78% cultured in Asia, 10% in Europe and 12% in the rest of the world) A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  4. 4. Total global production of marine fish species (Source FAO – Aquastat, 2011) Global aquafeed production has been growing at an average rate of over 10.7% per year since 1995, with production increasing from 7.61 million tonnes in 1995 to over 35 million tonnes in 2010, and expected to grow to 50 million tonnes by 2015, and over 70 million tonnes by 2020 A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  5. 5. Total Commercial Aquafeed production Estimated 50 million tonnes (Mt) in 2015 and 70 Mt in 2020 Top 10 Countries 1 China 13-15 Mt 2 Viet Nam 1625-2800 Tt 3 Thailand 1210-2800 Tt 4 Norway 1137-1382 Tt 5 Indonesia 1030-1184 Tt 6 Chile 883-1050 Tt 7 USA 700-750 Tt 8 Japan 500 Tt 9 Philippines 400-450 Tt 10 Taiwan 345 Tt With feed costs usually representing over half the operating cost of most finfish and shrimp farming operations, and increasing ingredient and feed processing costs, considerable efforts have been placed by feed manufacturers and farmers toward reducing feed costs per unit of fish/shrimp production, through: • improvements in feed ingredient selection & feed formulation • improvements in feed ingredient processing & feed manufacture, • improvements in on-farm feed & water management, and • improvements in fish/shrimp genetics & breeding. A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  6. 6. Which ingredients can be used for aquafeed production? A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  7. 7. Which ingredients can be used for aquafeed production ? Land animal by-product meals and fats represent the largest source of feed grade animal protein and lipid available to the animal feed industry A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  8. 8. Which ingredients can be used for aquafeed production ? Martek’s Life DHA 40-50% DHA Martek’s DHA-S 32-38% DHA LonzaDHA Ulkenia 32% min DHA Dupont’s NewHarvest Yeast yarrowia lipolytica 50% EPA Also Syngenta, Dow Agrisciences Numerous crossover bioenergy companies BioCentric, Aurora,Solazyme A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  9. 9. A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  10. 10. Use of fishmeal by the aquaculture sector is expected to decrease in the long term – From 4.22 million tonnes (Mt) in 2005 to 3.69 Mt by 2020 The reason being 1.- More of the raw material goes for direct human consumption and increasing fishmeal prices 2.- Increased use of less expensive fishmeal replacers There will continue to be a strong demand for fish oil in aquaculture diets, but production volumes to remain static or fall with a reduction in raw material. • There is also a growing demand for the use of fish oil for direct use as human supplements or Pharmaceutical medicines. • This market is likely to be able to pay a premium for oil resulting in aquaculture to reduce its usage of fish oil. A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  11. 11. Initiatives to increase use of plant products in aquafeeds • Processing and techniques to enhance nutrient digestibility, nutritional value and quality • Augmenting nutritional quality through genetic manipulations of plants • Enhancing utilization by genetic selection of fish • Additives to enhance utilisation of plant feedstuffs • Optimizing bioactive compounds • Monitoring effects of plant feedstuffs on product quality and consumer health • Enhancing palatability of plant feedstuffs EU initiatives. Projects PEPPA and RAFOA (2001-2005) and AQUAMAX (2006-2010) Peppa and Rafoa projects under the scope of the FORM project studied the substitution of FM and FO in the diets for rainbow trout, salmon, turbot, gilthead sea bream and sea bass in terms of growth, nutrient utilisation, gene expression changes, flesh quality, environmental impacts, sustainability, reproductive performance, etc •fPPARs (coordinated by N.AG.RE.F.-F.R.I., Greece) •RAFOA (coordinated by the University of Stirling, Scotland) •PUFAFEED (coordinated by the Agrotechnological Research Institute, Holland) •GUTINTEGRITY (coordinated by Goteborg University, Sweden) •PEPPA (coordinated by INRA, France) A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  12. 12. EU initiatives. Projects PEPPA and RAFOA (2001-2005) and AQUAMAX (2006-2010) A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  13. 13. EU initiatives. Projects PEPPA and RAFOA (2001-2005) and AQUAMAX (2006-2010) Main results obtained from these projects: 1 –PEPPA established a FM substitution by plant meals up to 75-100% without affecting growth in rainbow trout, seabream, sea bass, turbot, salmon 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 77 60 37 19 7 % DIETARY PROTEIN FROM FISHMEAL GROWTH (%/d) FCR (DM/WW) FEED INTAKE (relative to FM77) -8% -2% +5% FM replacement in sea bass (Kaushi et al, 2004) 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 100 50 25 0 % DIETARY PROTEIN FROM FISHMEAL GROWTH (%/d) FCR (DM/WW) FEED INTAKE (relative to FM100) -46% +1% -22% FM replacement in sea bream (Sitja Bobadilla et al, 2005) FM replacement in salmon (Speet al, 2006) 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 GROWTH (%/d) FCR FEED INTAKE (relative to FM71) FM71 FM0 (FSOL7) -10% -18%-2% 2- RAFOA has established that the FO used in the production of salmon, rainbow trout, sea bream and sea bass can be replaced (up to 100% in salmon, 60-80% in sea bream) with a blend of VOs without affecting growth. Changes in the fatty acid composition of the fillets from the VO fed fish can be reversed in all species with a "finishing diet" of FO. Replacement of FO with VO blends in aquafeeds is already being implemented by the feed industry . A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  14. 14. EU initiatives. Projects PEPPA and RAFOA (2001-2005) and AQUAMAX (2006-2010) Main results obtained from these projects: 3.- Aquamax used FM+FO replacement. In salmon, a diet with 25%FM + 40%PM + 100% VO or 100%FO was used to feed control (MH), lean or fat salmon strains without any effects on growth (SGR) or FCR. Lipid content was: lean = fat > MH in fish fed VO. DHA was reduced in fish fed 100% VO by 65-75% but could be restored using a FO finishing diet In gilthead sea bream, a diet with 15%FM + 58%PM + 33VO, 66VO or 100VO did not affect growth. Changes in body composition with weight gain did not modify the FA profile of fish fed FO, 33VO or 66VO diets. Increased amounts of oleic acid (18:1n−9), linoleic acid (18:2n−6) and linolenic acid (18:3n−3), in combination with reduced proportions of n−3 LC- PUFAs, were found with the partial replacement of FO. A. Estévez 15/05/2014
  15. 15. EU initiatives. Projects PEPPA and RAFOA (2001-2005) and AQUAMAX (2006-2010) Main results obtained from these projects: A. Estévez 15/05/2014 4.- A complete restoration of the FA profile was not fully achieved until a fish oil re-feeding period of 32 days in red sea bream (Glencross et al., 2003), 8 weeks in turbot (Regost et al., 2003); 8 weeks in brown trout (Robin et al., 2003), 12–25 weeks in Atlantic salmon (Bell et al., 2003a,b; Bell, 2004; Torstensen et al., 2004); 3 months in gilthead sea bream (Izquierdo et al., 2005); 4 months in Murray cod (Turchini et al., 2006); and 5 months in European sea bass (Montero et al., 2005). In the case of gilthead sea bream fed 33VO diet more than 12 weeks are needed to revert back the FA composition toward the normal variability of fish fed FO based diets. Besides, low and intermediate levels of FO replacement can produce equally acceptable fillets when the latter is accompanied by a FO finishing phase.
  16. 16. EU initiatives. Projects PEPPA and RAFOA (2001-2005) and AQUAMAX (2006-2010) A. Estévez 15/05/2014 The final objective of all these projects was to reduce wild fish use for FM and FO, Fish in-Fish out ratio was reduced for all the species considered in the projects
  17. 17. Next Steps A. Estévez 15/05/2014 -Study the long term effects of alternative ingredients on growth, metabolism and health along the whole lifecycle (Arraina project 2012- 2017) - Selection and inclusion of new ingredients (animal processing products, Insects, single cell organisms like yeast, bacteria and algae, protein hydrolysates...) In this case you are welcome and we are here at IRTA to help you

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