Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Animal Welfare:
definition, assessment and improvement
Feed additives,
can they improve animal welfare?
MC Meunier-Salaün
...
• Animal welfare : central in the issues of animal ethic
what are the places of animal within human societies ?
 Human re...
 Brambell report (1965) : physical and mental well-being
where behaviour is a key signal
Animal Welfare: definitions
 Fa...
 the adaptation concept : associated to the effort for the animal to
cope to its environment Broom, 1987
 the harmony co...
* Repeated events related with negative emotions
(fear, pain, frustration), difficulties to cope,
physiological abilities ...
sensibility recognised for animals
subjective state
towards the internal/external environment
Whatever the definition
Anim...
Step 1/ produce scientific knowledge
 on behavioural and physiological needs
 on the coping strategies
 on the human-an...
- to assess the welfare at individual or group level
- to evaluate farming practises, to improve or
promote new systems re...
Multicriteria approach
• Behaviour : budget-time, social relationships, play, comfort
behaviour, redirected behaviours (st...
CEAV Module Ethologie-Bien-Etre Production Porcine
14-16 Janvier 2014 Nantes ONIRIS
 Assessment of welfare inputs and wel...
CEAV Module Ethologie-Bien-Etre Production Porcine
14-16 Janvier 2014 Nantes ONIRIS
 assessment of welfare inputs and wel...
Application : nutritionnal issues
- limited access to feed or at feeder/drinker
* competition within group
* body lesions ...
Behaviour : redirected behaviours (frustration): stereotypies, belly suckling
feeding motivation : spontaneous dietary pre...
nutritional changes: inadequate feeding
behaviour => digestive disorders, growth
depressed
 hunger and thirst
mixing unfa...
Application: Feeding transition in weaned piglets
How to improve the welfare state in nutritionnal issue ?
 increase the ...
Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets
studies on experimental diets with sensory functional ingredients
(i.e. phy...
Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets
• preference during two-choice feeding tests
- between diets with or withou...
Food consumed, % total intake N+C
Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets
no significant preference N-C : N1 stevia...
Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets
three two-choice tests : - avoidance of N2B
- high and stable consumption w...
Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets
2/ impact of concentration of additive ingredient
two-choice feeding tests ...
 feed intake and growth performance over the whole period : no effect
(Clouard et al, 2012)
N1 enable to maintain a norma...
32 females
8,32 ± 0,15 kg
Individual pen
Criteria :
Feeding preference : two-choice test : Fan vs T
3 sessions : day 6 - 2...
Feeding preference two-choice test
 Palatabilité :
1h- test
**
*
0
200
400
600
800
D23D16 D26
22h- Test
FA2 > C stronger
...
• Variation in biological responses according to characteristices of
animal : age, sex, breed
emotional state: stressful r...
CONCLUSIONS
Feed additives, can they improve animal welfare ?
Feed additives may potentially
* promote the feeding motivat...
* multichoice test : preference relative rather than absolute
* one-way with unique diet : individual variation, impact of...
CONCLUSIONS
Applications to other species : next talks
Poultry: Dr. Borja Vilà
Ruminant: Dr. Maria Devant
Fish: Dr. Enric ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Sponsor Day on animal feeding: Animal Welfare: definition, assessment and improvement Feed additives, can they improve animal welfare?

304

Published on

Sponsor Day on animal feeding
15th-16th May 2014
IRTA Mas Bover
Aurthor: Dr. Marie Christine Salaün. INRA, France

Published in: Technology, Spiritual
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
304
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
17
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Sponsor Day on animal feeding: Animal Welfare: definition, assessment and improvement Feed additives, can they improve animal welfare?"

  1. 1. Animal Welfare: definition, assessment and improvement Feed additives, can they improve animal welfare? MC Meunier-Salaün 14-16 th may 2014, IRTA Tarragona Seminar on animal feeding
  2. 2. • Animal welfare : central in the issues of animal ethic what are the places of animal within human societies ?  Human responsibility towards animals ? Animal Welfare concept - a life companion for human (pets) - a working tool but also a social partner (horse, elephant) - a laboratory model (rodent, farm animal) - a social economic value (farm animals) - a life component to preserve wild life (natural species) Status of animal Representation and perception of human of - their role towards animals - the needs and/or rights of animals
  3. 3.  Brambell report (1965) : physical and mental well-being where behaviour is a key signal Animal Welfare: definitions  Farm Animal Welfare Council (1976) Freedom from Fear and Distress Freedom from Hunger and Thirst Freedom from Discomfort Freedom from Pain, Injury or Disease Freedom to Express Normal Behavior 5 Freedoms used by legislator for EU standard rules How the animal welfare is defined in biology ?
  4. 4.  the adaptation concept : associated to the effort for the animal to cope to its environment Broom, 1987  the harmony concept: state of complete mental and physical health in which an animal is in harmony with its environment Hughes, 1975; Fraser, 1995, Boissy et al, 2002 Definitions are refering also to  the subjective experience with negative and positive feelings  mental representation, emotional and cognitive capacities Duncan et Petherick, 1989, Dawkins, 1990, Boissy et al, 2007 Animal Welfare: definitions
  5. 5. * Repeated events related with negative emotions (fear, pain, frustration), difficulties to cope, physiological abilities of adaptation overloaded Ideal = harmony = all motivations are fullfilled Welfare * Events: novelty, unpredictable, impaired expectation -> emotions, coping Impaired Welfare : chronic stress Animal Welfare: a continuum
  6. 6. sensibility recognised for animals subjective state towards the internal/external environment Whatever the definition Animal Welfare  complex and multidimensional Animal Welfare: definition
  7. 7. Step 1/ produce scientific knowledge  on behavioural and physiological needs  on the coping strategies  on the human-animal relationships  on the expression and processes involved in the - animal sensibility - sensorial perception, - emotional and cognitive abilities Animal Welfare assessment Are they are in good physical and psychological state ? What do they want ? What are their motivations ? What can they learn ? What are their emotions ?
  8. 8. - to assess the welfare at individual or group level - to evaluate farming practises, to improve or promote new systems respecting the AW Step 2/ define and validate criteria on animal welfare Harmony animal –– farmers living conditions / working conditions Animal Welfare assessment
  9. 9. Multicriteria approach • Behaviour : budget-time, social relationships, play, comfort behaviour, redirected behaviours (stereotypies, tail biting, featherpecking) * behaviour • Stress physiology: HPA, Autonomous Nervous System * stress physiology * health • Health : immune function, disease lameness, cannibalism • Animal performance : growth, reproduction * animal performances Animal Welfare criteria Ressource-based criteria : housing, livestock practises Animal-based criteria
  10. 10. CEAV Module Ethologie-Bien-Etre Production Porcine 14-16 Janvier 2014 Nantes ONIRIS  Assessment of welfare inputs and welfare outputs : * inputs being the factors that affect the animal’s welfare : risk factors * outputs being the actual impact of these factors on the animal’s welfare : responses Animal Welfare assessment Three components (EFSA, 2012)  Use of the Five Freedoms: * Freedom from Hunger and Thirst * Freedom from Discomfort * Freedom to Express Normal Behavior * Freedom from Fear and Distress * Freedom from Pain, Injury or Disease applications to nutritional issues : use of feed additive ex : impact of feed additive in weaned piglets Dr MC Meunier-Salaün Additives for happier poultry. Dr. Borja Vilà Improving welfare using feed additives. Dr. Maria Devant Use of feed additives for fish health and welfare. Dr. Enric Gisbert
  11. 11. CEAV Module Ethologie-Bien-Etre Production Porcine 14-16 Janvier 2014 Nantes ONIRIS  assessment of welfare inputs and welfare outputs : Animal welfare assessment Three components (EFSA, 2012)  use of the Five Freedoms  Quantification of welfare problems : practical tools for stakeholders (severity, duration of problems, number of animals affected  applications to nutritional issues : use of feed additive example in pigs Additives for happier poultry. Dr. Borja Vilà) Improving welfare using feed additives. Dr. Maria Devant Use of feed additives for fish health and welfare. Dr. Enric Gisbert Talk “Welfare indicators at farm level” A. Velarde
  12. 12. Application : nutritionnal issues - limited access to feed or at feeder/drinker * competition within group * body lesions due to agressive interactions * physical constraints for the access  fear and distress  pain, injury, disease  express normal behavior (specie-specific) - Feeding practises : restriction : unsustained feeding motivation unique diet supply, abrupt dietary transition  discomfort - diet with inapropriate components : unpalatable, low technology and hygienic quality : roughness, contamination, high bulkiness, … - inappropriate diet to nutritionnal needs - lack of continuous access to water  hunger and thirst Risk factors Five Freedoms
  13. 13. Behaviour : redirected behaviours (frustration): stereotypies, belly suckling feeding motivation : spontaneous dietary preferences, operant responses agressive behaviour at feeder or drinker (related to feeding competition) Physiology : Stress responses linked to frustration and competition: glucocorticoids, inflammation proteins Health : body lesions related to competitive interactions at feeder or drinker digestive troubles (diarrhea, constipation, ….) Performance : body condition, growth rate Animal-based Ressource-based • Dietary supply (Feed component and practises) • Stocking density (related to feeder access) • Equipment : Feeder - Drinker (type, number) • Temperature • Environmental enrichment : fibrous substrate Assessment of Animal Welfare : criteria Application : nutritionnal issues
  14. 14. nutritional changes: inadequate feeding behaviour => digestive disorders, growth depressed  hunger and thirst mixing unfamiliar conspecifics social stress agressive interactions : body lesions  fear and distress  pain, injury, disease  express normal behavior (specie-specific) early breakdown of the mother-young bond : accelerated weaning process  discomfort - housing overcrowding : limited feeder access - diet with inapropriate components : unpalatable, low technology and hygienic quality: digestive disorders Risk factors related to weaning Five Freedoms Application: Feeding transition in weaned piglets
  15. 15. Application: Feeding transition in weaned piglets How to improve the welfare state in nutritionnal issue ?  increase the feeding motivation previous experience : habituation to new diet, improve transition weaning diet : more palatable , preferred by piglets Use of feed additive feeding motivation promoted by adjunction of sensorial additive ingredients in the weaning diet
  16. 16. Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets studies on experimental diets with sensory functional ingredients (i.e. phytogenic products) Clouard et al, 2012, 2014 1/ preference towards various nuclei ? nuclei from essential oils, plant extracts or flavouring compounds : stevia, citrus, hot-flavoured spices, cinnamom, camphor, star anise, aromatic analdehyde… Paradigms 2/ impact of concentration of the additive component 3/ impact at short and long term  key points for methodology to assess the impact of feed additive on AW - impact on feeding motivation (hedonic effect) and performance - factors of variation involved in the effects of the feed additive
  17. 17. Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets • preference during two-choice feeding tests - between diets with or without additive components - during various time duration: 30 min- meal test, one hour or 22 hours Criteria feeding motivation promoted by adjunction of sensorial additive ingredients in the weaning diet Feeding motivation : • feed consumption during a one-way test (30 min-meal test) during the postweaning period Growth performance Health
  18. 18. Food consumed, % total intake N+C Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets no significant preference N-C : N1 stevia and saponin 3.7ml/kg N3 hot-flavoured spice 0.045 ml/kg N4 aromatic aldhehyde and MCFA 0.58 ml/kg (Clouard et al, 2012) 1/ preference towards various nuclei : essential oils, plant extracts or flavouring compounds (stevia, citrus, hot-flavoured spices, cinnamom, camphor, star anise, …) Concentration : 0.02 to 3.7 mg/kg diet, dilution water/oil two-choice feeding tests : 30 min meal  between Nn and control (C) diets
  19. 19. Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets three two-choice tests : - avoidance of N2B - high and stable consumption with N1 - increasing consumption with N3. two-choice feeding tests : 30 min meal  between « additive » diets N1 Stevia and saponin (3.7ml/kg), N2B orange (0.03 ml/kg) N3 hot-flavoured spices (0.45 ml/kg), N4 aromatic aldhehyde and MCFA (0.58 ml/kg), (Clouard et al, 2013) Food consumed, % total intake N-N
  20. 20. Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets 2/ impact of concentration of additive ingredient two-choice feeding tests : 30 min meal, diet with extract of orange Preference depends on the incorporation rate of the additive from welfare point of view : attraction  emotion > 0 aversion  emotion < 0 not prefered N2B N1 (stevia)vs N3 (hot-flavoured spice) N4 (aromatic aldhehyde & MCFA) (Clouard et al, 2012) N2 N2A 0,12 ml/kg High concentration : stronger aversion N2B 0,03 ml/kg vs control (C) diets
  21. 21.  feed intake and growth performance over the whole period : no effect (Clouard et al, 2012) N1 enable to maintain a normal consumption just after the transition N1 N3 Day 9 – Day 10 C Nuclei tested : N1 stevia and saponin 3,7ml/kg, N3 hot-flavour spice 0,045 ml/kg) additive ingredient to weaning diet may potentially enhance the welfare by improving the feeding transition 3/ impact of additive ingredients over time Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets
  22. 22. 32 females 8,32 ± 0,15 kg Individual pen Criteria : Feeding preference : two-choice test : Fan vs T 3 sessions : day 6 - 23 – 26 Short term : 1H test (9-10h) long term : 22H test (11- 9h following day) measure : % feed intake (Fn) / total feed intake (Fn+T) Performance : growth and feed intake during the post- weaning period Clouard et al, 2014 Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets 3/ impact of additive ingredients over time Ad Lib 1er- 2sd âge Weaning Transition T 1 2616 23 287 14 21 Days diet 1er age FA1 diet 2ème age FA1 diet 1er age FA2 diet 2ème age FA2 diet 1er age T diet 2ème age T diet 1er age FA3 diet 2ème age FA3 Incorporation: FA1: 0,4%; FA2 : 0,003125% ; FA3 : 0,0405% in a wheat matrix (10 kg/t)
  23. 23. Feeding preference two-choice test  Palatabilité : 1h- test ** * 0 200 400 600 800 D23D16 D26 22h- Test FA2 > C stronger at long term FA2 vs C 0 25 50 75 100 125 † 0 200 400 600 800 D23D16 D26 FA3 > C only after 10 days after transition 0 25 50 75 100 125 * FA3 vs C Example : Feeding transition in weaned piglets Feed intake - growth performance during the weaning period not affected
  24. 24. • Variation in biological responses according to characteristices of animal : age, sex, breed emotional state: stressful responses to novelty cognitive abilities : learning / coping strategy ressources : source of nutritionnal components, feeding practises, social context (competition or social facilitation) CONCLUSIONS How to take into account the Animal Welfare concept in nutritionnal issues • Keep in mind that the assessment of animal welfare needs a multicriteria approach : animal-based & ressources based criteria • Identify the risk factors related to housing and feeding practises which can interact with the nutritional treatment tested : importance for the interpretation of results and their application to various contexts
  25. 25. CONCLUSIONS Feed additives, can they improve animal welfare ? Feed additives may potentially * promote the feeding motivation * help animals in feeding transitions linked to novel feed or changes in feeding and housing practises ==> positive effect on performance and health  improvement of animal welfare to components : sources, concentration in diet to time schedule : short, mid, long term But effects vary according cautions in interpretation of data using experimental paradigms
  26. 26. * multichoice test : preference relative rather than absolute * one-way with unique diet : individual variation, impact of satiety state * group context vs individual : social facilitation process or feeding competition context which can modulate individual preferences or responses CONCLUSIONS Feed additives, can they improve animal welfare? Experimental paradigms to assess feeding motivation, preference/aversion Operant conditionning paradigm: the animals need to work to obtain a food reward / access to diet previous learning needed to use the design  work required can modulate the intensity of responses Ordinateur Choice test:
  27. 27. CONCLUSIONS Applications to other species : next talks Poultry: Dr. Borja Vilà Ruminant: Dr. Maria Devant Fish: Dr. Enric Gisbert Feed additives, can they improve animal welfare? Thanks for your attention
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×