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Chapter 04 dessler 12-ce_ppt_ch04

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  • 1. Chapter 4: Designing and Analyzing Jobs Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-1 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. Dessler, Chhinzer, Cole Human Resources Management in Canada Canadian Twelfth Edition
  • 2. Learning Outcomes • DEFINE job design and explain the difference between a job and a position. • DESCRIBE the evolution of job design and how organizational structure influences job design. Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-2 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • EXPLAIN the steps in job analysis.
  • 3. Learning Outcomes • DESCRIBE and evaluate multiple methods of collecting job analysis information. • EXPLAIN the difference between a job description and a job specification. Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-3 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • EXPLAIN the three reasons why competency-based job analysis has become more common.
  • 4. Job Analysis “A process by which information about jobs is systematically gathered and organized.” • a group of related activities/duties for one or more employees Position • the collection of tasks/responsibilities performed by one person Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-4 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. Job
  • 5. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Uses of Job Analysis Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-5
  • 6. Steps in Job Analysis Step 6: Communicate and update information as needed Step 4: Verify/modify data if required Step 3: Collect data on job activities Step 2: Select jobs to be analyzed Step 1: Review relevant background information Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-6 reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Step 5: Write job descriptions and job specifications
  • 7. Step 1: Review Relevant Background Information Organizational Structure the formal relationships among jobs in an organization • should be appropriate given strategic goals Organization Chart • clarifies chain of command; who reports to whom • does not explain communication patterns, degree of supervision, power, authority, or specific duties Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-7 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. •
  • 8. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Organization Chart Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-8
  • 9. continued Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-9 reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Common Types of Organization Structure
  • 10. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Common Types of Organization Structure Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-10
  • 11. Process Chart • shows the flow of inputs and outputs from the job under study. Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-11 reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Process Chart
  • 12. Step 2: Select Jobs to be Analyzed Necessary when there are a number of similar jobs • the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific job Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-12 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. Job Design
  • 13. The Evolution of Jobs and Job Design Job Specialization • work simplification • industrial engineering • job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment, team based job design Ergonomic Aspects • physical needs of workers Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-13 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. Behavioural Aspects
  • 14. • Competencies: demonstrable characteristics that enable performance of a job • shift from job-specific duties to competencies in job descriptions; emphasis on employee capabilities • examples of competencies: • general (reading, writing, mathematics) • leadership (strategic thinking, motivating) • technical competencies for specific jobs Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-14 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. Competency-Based Job Analysis
  • 15. Competency Based Job Analysis • Use of competency analysis is becoming more common: • it encourages workers to learn and rotate among jobs • supports performance management process Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-15 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • more strategic approach to defining jobs
  • 16. Step 3: Collect Job Analysis Information • Interviews (individual, group, supervisory) • Questionnaires • Participant diary/log • National Occupation Classification (NOC) Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-16 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • Observations
  • 17. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample Questionnaire Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-17 continued
  • 18. continued Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-18 reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample Questionnaire
  • 19. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample Questionnaire Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-19 continued
  • 20. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample Questionnaire Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-20
  • 21. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-21 continued
  • 22. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-22
  • 23. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample NOC Job Description continued Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-23
  • 24. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample NOC Job Description Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-24
  • 25. Step 4: Verifying Information • Verify with: • Increases validity and reliability • inconsistencies/concerns can be addressed • participants will be more honest Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-25 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • workers currently performing the job • supervisors
  • 26. Step 5: Writing Job Descriptions and Job Specifications • job description • job specifications • statement of requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-26 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • statement of duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, and working conditions of the job
  • 27. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample Job Description continued Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-27
  • 28. continued Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-28 reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample Job Description
  • 29. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample Job Description Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-29
  • 30. Human Rights Legislation Considerations • not legally required but highly advisable • the only criteria examined should be knowledge, skills, and abilities required for the essential duties of the job • when an employee cannot perform an essential duty because of reasons related to a prohibited ground, reasonable accommodation to the point of undue hardship is required Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-30 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • essential job duties should be clearly identified
  • 31. Job Specifications • answers the question “What human traits and experience are required to do this job?” • unjustifiably high educational/experience requirements may lead to systemic discrimination • qualifications of incumbents should not be confused with the minimum requirements • for entry-level jobs, identify actual physical and mental demands Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-31 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • all listed qualifications are bona fide occupational requirements (BFORs)
  • 32. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Physical Demands Analysis Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-32 continued
  • 33. continued Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-33 reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Physical Demands Analysis
  • 34. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Physical Demands Analysis Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-34
  • 35. continued Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-35 reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample Job Specification
  • 36. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample Job Specification Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-36
  • 37. Step 6: Communication and Preparedness for Revisions • communicate to all relevant stakeholders • • • • restructuring new product development technological changes competitors Designing and Analyzing Jobs | 4-37 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • anticipate modifications