Baby pigs at birth have 4 pairs of sharp teeth on each jaw called needle teeth. These are of not any use to piglet and may cause injury to mother’s udder. These should be clipped by plier. Care should be taken not to injure gum of the piglet.
a) Piglet anaemia - Nutritional anaemia in suckling pigs. It’s a highly fatal disease of suckling pigs caused by marked decrease in Hb and fatty degeneration of liver. Causes: lack of Copper salts and Iron in sows kept in indoor, or on concrete floor and limited milk diet from sow.
Start feeding piglet with creep feed at 2-3 weeks of age for proper growth and development. Area for creep feed should be partitioned so that all piglets have access to feed.
Mortality of piglets
Survival rate between birth and weaning is important factor which determines the economic viability of sow enterprise. Even in a well managed farm 25-30% of piglets born never reach weaning age (56 days). While the pre-weaning piglet mortality raises to 20-30% depending upon managemental condition. Post-weaning mortality is about 3%.
Concentration of sperms – 50-200 million/ml of semen.
Care and Management of brood mare
Trying of mare and detection of heat
Mares are polyoestrum and heat varies according to climate and season.
Breeding season, confined twice a year.
o Spring breeding season – February – June.
o Autumn breeding season – Sep, Oct-Nov
The breeding in spring season is considered to be best, because the heat in mare is regular and invariably accompanied by functional ovulation. The stallions are more prolific and the conception rate is high.
Autumn breeding season may be used for breeding of problamatic mares after the treatment.
He must not be led up to the mare unless he is quite ready and the penis is fully drawn and erect.
The impact of the stallion on mare is considerable and her tendency quite naturally is to move a step forward before she has steadied herself and for the stallion getting a good grip on her flanks in order to cover her easily.
It is further better that the mare should not hear the cries of her foal which generally upsets her and distracts her from stallion.
It will be ensured that the stallion has ejaculated which is indicated by flagging of the tail, contraction of anus and rythmic pulsation in urethra.
Normally one service can be enough. The stallion normally ejaculates close to cervix.
The individual variation of feed requirement and body condition must be given due consideration for planning the feeding regimen of the horses. Some horses perform best while being trimmed or empty stomach whereas other horses exhibit their best when their body condition is optimum.
The growth, development and expectations from the horse regarding its performance will determine the extent of feeding especially in early days.
Both over-feeding and Under-feeding are harmful to horses.
Therefore the diet has to vary as per the requirement of horse and its physiological status.
A source of salt or complete mineral mixture should be always available to horse at all time which gives them opportunity to take minerals depending on their requirements.
The feed of the horse must contain roughages otherwise the heavy feed concentrates are likely to pack the stomach. However feeds too high in fiber may also cause discomfort or digestive disturbance especially in race horses.
The feed of their greedy eaters should be thinned out in the feed box.
Oral hygiene and dental care should receive due attention as teeth problems limit the horse’s ability to chew.
Weighing the horses to find out gain or loss in the condition is a valuable parameter to desire the response of the feed and effect changes in feed schedule, if required.
Horses should be fed in groups according to age, growth or development stage to prevent over-feeding or under-feeding which may occur if horses of varying sizes and age are fed together.
The foals should be allowed access to creep feed so that they achieve maximum for their growth and bone development as the mare’s milk falls short of all essential nutrients.
Regular deworming and health inspection are important to keep the horses healthy.
The digestive tract of horses is limited in size and feeding large quantity of grain and concentrate feeds at one time results in higher frequency of colic and grain founder. Therefore, high performance horses, which requires large amount of energy from grain or concentrate sources, should be fed 3-4 times daily instead of 2 times.
The grain portion of the diet of high performance horses should be reduced if they are not being exercised. The roughage portion should be suitably increased. This is essential to prevent azoturia or Monday morning sickness which causes muscles spasms or tetany.
The diet of horses must contain roughage to provide fibre or bulk. This will reduce the incidence of vices such as wood chewing and mane biting. It will also reduce the incidence of digestive disorders.
Horses should not be exercised after feeding as the stomach contents are likely to cause pressure on the diaphragm leading to laboured breathing due to restriction in the lung expansion. Secondly, the absorption of nutrients is also affected as blood circulation is also diverted from splanchnic blood vessels around the intestine to vital organs, reducing the absorptive processes.
The forage level can be from 0.5 –1 % of body weight.
Higher level of forage reduces the chances of disgestive disturbances colic and other disturbances.
Level of activity is very important to determine the level of concentrate and forage feeding.
High level performance horses need more energy and therefore the diet should not contain more roughage which may cause distended digestive tract resulting in discomfort when they are exercised or worked heavily.
Lactating mares, nursing foals, weanlings and the horses undergoing intense work consume the least amount of forage. As such, the concentrate level are higher in diet to meet high requirement of energy.
Idle horses require least amount of concentrates in their diet and can do well on high quality of forage alone.
Following considerations besides the physiological status of the horse, will determine the level of forage and concentrates feeding.
Highly digestible feed such as grain require less water for its excretion.
Dehydration through sweating causes a loss of both water and electrolytes (Na+, Cl - are lost). After work, very dehydrated animal should be given about 4.5 litres every minute preferably containing 30 gms of electrolytes.
After normal hardwork, a horse should be cooled by gentle exercise of muscles through walking but access to grazing or hay should not be ruled out.
After this relaxation of 1-1½ hours, good quality water should be given before the light meal of concentrates.
Oats is a very important component in horse diet. It is known for low density and high fibre content which helps to avoid over feeding and at the same time its grain size is more appropriate for chewing.
Mouldy oat- should not be fed, since they cause colic as well as heaves.
The most important period of feeding of pregnant mare is last 90 days
The dietary requirement of breeding mare can be arbitrarily divided into 3 stages:
o Requirement up to 8 months of gestation
o Requirement during last 3 months of gestation
o Lactation up to 4 months of post parturition.
In the last quarter of pregnancy, foetus occupying increase in proportion of mare abdominal cavity. Accordingly, her capacity for bulky feeds decline during the period in which nutrient requirement increases.
The quality of hay should improve during the last 3 months of gestation.
The diet in the period should contain concentrate mixture with 16%protein upto 25-35% of the diet which can increase or decrease depending upon the condition of mare, its response to feed, the quality of hay and pasture used.
Provide more energy, Vitamin, protein, minerals by feeding higher level of concentrate in the diet.
The concentrate and roughage can be in equal proportion during this period. However, the level of concentrates can increase or decrease depending upon the quality of forage, condition of stallion and number of services required weekly.