Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

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R.A. 10121 …

R.A. 10121
THE PHILIPPINE DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM MAY 27, 2010
An Act Strengthening The Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System, providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework, and Institutionalizing the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan, appropriating funds therefor and for other purposes (DRRM Act 2010)

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  • In parallel to this shift in disaster management, the health sector is recognizing that better health within a community cannot be achieved through the provision of health care alone. The health sector is looking to models of population health and health promotion to address the determinants of health just as disaster management has evolved from treating the harmful agent to strengthening the community’s resilience to harm.
  • Tropical Storm “Ondoy” {Ketsana} was quickly followed by Super Typhoon “Pepeng” {Parma} (affected Northern Luzon October 2 – 10, 2009).
  • Super Typhoon “Pepeng” {Parma}affected Northern Luzon October 2 – 10, 2009.
  • Based your presentation with your observation and experiences from previous disasters Demand driven vs. donors driven means relief or assistance extended by fit the requirements of the victims and not according to the desire of the donor
  • Preparedness cycle helps in the development/improvement of a plan.The advantage of continuous training or the execution of the preparation cycle is that it becomes part of their (the participants) routine and reflex.
  • 72-Hour Survival Kit depends on the needs of a family or an individualThe kit is should be good for 72-hours (3 days) or longerNote the word “needs” and not wants
  • DRR is a systematic approach and application of policies, strategies and practices to minimize vulnerabilities and disasters in the community-To avoid (prevent) or limit (mitigate and prepare) the adverse impacts of hazards -DRR policies 2 fold aims: to be resilient to natural hazards while ensuring that development efforts do not increase vulnerability to these hazards
  • Institutionalize Local Disaster Risk Reduction & Management Office. The establishment of this independent body or office to ensure continuity of the programs on disaster management and strengthened the effective coordination of the various institutions for more efficient management. Likewise, the office will serve as a venue for disaster management seminars and trainings, and conduct of drills and exercise due to the availability of facilities and resources and competent staff.
  • 90% of the Cordillera consists of mountain slopes, the steeper the slope it is more vulnerable to mass movement DENR-MGB CAR has recommended that 150 mm of rainfall observed within 24 hours would already trigger evacuation of communities in high risk areas)The Oct 2009 incident will serve as the bench mark for the susceptibility of the region from massive slides.Baguio City received an average 17 mm normal rainfall everyday if the span of 24 hours 685 mm of rainfall will already trigger slides
  • Risk avoidanceThis includes not performing an activity that could carry risk. An example would be not buying a property or business in order to not take on the Legal liability that comes with it. Another would be not be flying in order to not take the risk that the airplane were to be hijacked. Avoidance may seem the answer to all risks, but avoiding risks also means losing out on the potential gain that accepting (retaining) the risk may have allowed. Not entering a business to avoid the risk of loss also avoids the possibility of earning profits. Hazard PreventionHazard prevention refers to the prevention of risks in an emergency. The first and most effective stage of hazard prevention is the elimination of hazards. If this takes too long, is too costly, or is otherwise impractical, the second stage is mitigation.Risk reductionRisk reduction or "optimization" involves reducing the severity of the loss or the likelihood of the loss from occurring. For example, sprinklers are designed to put out a fire to reduce the risk of loss by fire. This method may cause a greater loss by water damage and therefore may not be suitable. Holon fire suppression systems may mitigate that risk, but the cost may be prohibitive as a strategy.Acknowledging that risks can be positive or negative, optimizing risks means finding a balance between negative risk and the benefit of the operation or activity; and between risk reduction and effort applied. By an offshore drilling contractor effectively applying HSE Management in its organization, it can optimize risk to achieve levels of residual risk that are tolerable.  Modern software development methodologies reduce risk by developing and delivering software incrementally. Early methodologies suffered from the fact that they only delivered software in the final phase of development; any problems encountered in earlier phases meant costly rework and often jeopardized the whole project.  Outsourcing could be an example of risk reduction if the outsourcer can demonstrate higher capability at managing or reducing risks. For example, a company may outsource only its software development, the manufacturing of hard goods, or customer support needs to another company, while handling the business management itself. This way, the company can concentrate more on business development without having to worry as much about the manufacturing process, managing the development team, or finding a physical location for a call center.Risk sharingBriefly defined as "sharing with another party the burden of loss or the benefit of gain, from a risk, and the measures to reduce a risk."The term of 'risk transfer' is often used in place of risk sharing in the mistaken belief that you can transfer a risk to a third party through insurance or outsourcing. In practice if the insurance company or contractor go bankrupt or end up in court, the original risk is likely to still revert to the first party. As such in the terminology of practitioners and scholars alike, the purchase of an insurance contract is often described as a "transfer of risk." However, technically speaking, the buyer of the contract generally retains legal responsibility for the losses "transferred", meaning that insurance may be described more accurately as a post-event compensatory mechanism. For example, a personal injuries insurance policy does not transfer the risk of a car accident to the insurance company. The risk still lies with the policy holder namely the person who has been in the accident. The insurance policy simply provides that if an accident (the event) occurs involving the policy holder then some compensation may be payable to the policy holder that is commensurate to the suffering/damage.Some ways of managing risk fall into multiple categories. Risk retention pools are technically retaining the risk for the group, but spreading it over the whole group involves transfer among individual members of the group. This is different from traditional insurance, in that no premium is exchanged between members of the group up front, but instead losses are assessed to all members of the group. Risk retentionInvolves accepting the loss, or benefit of gain, from a risk when it occurs. True self insurance falls in this category. Risk retention is a viable strategy for small risks where the cost of insuring against the risk would be greater over time than the total losses sustained. All risks that are not avoided or transferred are retained by default. This includes risks that are so large or catastrophic that they either cannot be insured against or the premiums would be infeasible. War is an example since most property and risks are not insured against war, so the loss attributed by war is retained by the insured. Also any amount of potential loss (risk) over the amount insured is retained risk. This may also be acceptable if the chance of a very large loss is small or if the cost to insure for greater coverage amounts is so great it would hinder the goals of the organization too much.

Transcript

  • 1. DISASTER RISK REDUCTION & MANAGEMENT Supplemented by Ryann U. Castro
  • 2. SCOPE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 2 DEFINITION OF TERMS • HAZARD • EXPOSURE • VULNERABILITY • CAPACITY • RISK • DISASTER BAGUIO CITY: EFFECTS OF DISASTERS • EARTHQUAKE • TROPICAL CYCLONE • TRASHSLIDE PHILIPPINES RISK PROFILE PREPAREDNESS NEW FRAMEWORK ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION & MANAGEMENT SALIENT PROVISION OF R. A. 10121 (DRRM ACT OF 2010) STRENGTHENING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION EMERGENCY/DISASTER OPERATIONS CENTER • SITUATIONAL ISSUES • INCIDENT MANAGEMENT
  • 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • 4. HAZARD • Is a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihood & services, social & economic disruption or environmental damage... • Could be a potentially damaging phenomenon • It could be natural or human-induced. 4
  • 5. EXPOSURE • The degree to which the element at risk are likely to experience hazard events of different magnitude. 5
  • 6. VULNERABILITY • Is the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard. • This may arise from environmental factors. 6 various physical, social, economic &
  • 7. VULNERABILITY …Continued VULNERABILITY HAS BEEN RELATED TO THE FOLLOWING FACTORS:  Social Integration  Ethnicity  Age  Gender  Location  Status  Wealth  Income  Education  Family type  Psychological & Physiological  Locus of control  Disability  Coping-style  Individual’s perception  Lifestyle  Agility  Mobility  Experience Britton and Walker 1991 7
  • 8. CAPACITY • Is the combination of all strengths and resources available within the community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk or effects of a disaster. 8
  • 9. RISK • Is the combination of Probability of an event to happen and its negative consequences... R= 9 HAZARD x VULNERABILITY (exposure) CAPACITY
  • 10. DISASTER • A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. A disaster can be ostensively defined as any tragic event stemming from events such as earthquakes, floods, catastrophic accidents, fires, or explosions. It is a phenomenon that can cause damage to life and property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of people. • In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk. These risks are the product of a combination of both hazard/s and vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability will never become disasters, as is the case in uninhabited regions. 11
  • 11. DISASTER …Continued 12 CLASSIFICATIONS Natural Disaster  A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural hazard affects humans and/or the built environment. Human vulnerability, and lack of appropriate emergency management, leads to financial, environmental, or human impact. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster: their resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability". A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability.
  • 12. DISASTER …Continued 13 CLASSIFICATIONS Man-made or Human Induced Disaster  Man-made disasters are the consequence of technological or human hazards. Examples include stampedes, fires, transport accidents, industrial accidents, oil spills and nuclear explosions/radiation. War and deliberate attacks may also be put in this category. As with natural hazards, man-made hazards are events that have not happened, for instance terrorism. Man-made disasters are examples of specific cases where man-made hazards have become reality in an event
  • 13. …Continued WHEN IS AN EVENT A DISASTER? 1. At least 20% of the population are affected & in need of emergency assistance or those dwelling units have been destroyed. 2. A great number or at least 40% of the means of livelihood such as bancas, fishing boats, vehicles and the like are destroyed. DISASTER 3. Major roads and bridges are destroyed and impassable for at least a week, thus disrupting the flow of transport and commerce. 14 4. Widespread destruction of fishponds, crops, poultry and livestock, and other agricultural products, and 5. Epidemics NDCC Memo Order No. 4, dated 04 March 1998
  • 14. …Continued WHY ARE DISASTER IMPACTS INCREASING? 1. Increased in population DISASTER 2. Climate change 15 3. Increased vulnerability due to: • Demographic changes • Increased concentration of assets • Environmental degradation • Poverty • Rapid urbanization and unplanned development
  • 15. BAGUIO CITY EFFECTS OF DISASTERS
  • 16. EARTHQUAKE July 16 1990 Ms=7.8 DEAD – 1,666 INJURED – 3,500 17
  • 17. …continued Hyatt Terraces 18
  • 18. University of BAGUIO FRB Hotel Nevada Hotel Siesta Inn 19
  • 19. Park Hotel Royal Inn 20 St. Vincent Hilltop Hotel
  • 20. Baguio Cathedral EPZA/PEZA 21 Aurora Theater Loakan Airport
  • 21. Burnham Park 22
  • 22. JULY 16, 1990 EARTHQUAKE …Continued Aftershocks of the 1990 July 16 earthquake Ms=7.8 PHIVOLCS data First 14 hours Many aftershocks found west of Baguio City, not along fault trace 23
  • 23. SUPER TYPHOON “PEPENG” {PARMA} (September 30 – October 10, 2009) Max Center Wind: 195 kph Gustiness: 230 kph Speed: 9-26 kph Baguio City received 640 mm of rain during the 12hour period starting 8:00 am on October 8 24
  • 24. EFFECTS ST “PEPENG” {PARMA} a) Affected Population Population affected in 5,486 barangays, 334 municipalities, and 33 cities in 27 provinces in Regions I, II, III, V, VI, CAR and NCR – 954,087 families / 4,478,284 persons Breakdown per Region The total number evacuated inside 54 evacuation centers were 3,258 families / 14,892 persons b) Casualties Reported deaths in CAR were mainly due to landslides while those in other regions were due to drowning (same figure in previous report)  465 Dead  207 Injured  47 Missing 25
  • 25. EFFECTS ST “PEPENG” {PARMA} …Continued c) Damages The total number of damaged houses were 61,869 (6,807 totally / 55,062 partially) The estimated cost of damage to infrastructure and agriculture were PhP27.297 Billion (infrastructure to include school buildings and health infrastructure PhP6.799 Billion; agriculture PhP20.495 Billion and private property PhP 0.003 Billion Agricultural area of 428,034 hectares incurred losses of 1,052.993 MT of crops (rice, corn, high value commercial crops, abaca and irrigation facilities) Education facilities damaged in Regions I, II, III, V and CAR: were 1,531 schools (1,280 Elementary and 251 High Schools) amounting to PhP767.45 Million 26
  • 26. EFFECTS ST “PEPENG” {PARMA} INCIDENTS …Continued TOTAL ERODED RIPRAP FALLEN TREE / IN DANGER OF FALLING 19 SOIL EROSION / LANDSLIDE 97 FLOOD BAGUIO 25 41 VEHICULAR ACCIDENT 1 CASUALTIES: A) Deaths 1) Landslide 2) Accident 58 2 B) Missing 5 C) Injured 27 Note: Incidents received, monitored and recorded by CDRRMC-DOC 28
  • 27. CITY CAMP FLOODING Date: October 8, 2009 Reported: 2:55 PM Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall could not be contained by the drainage. 29
  • 28. CRESENCIA VILLAGE LANDSLIDE Date: 08 October 2009 Reported: 8:00 PM Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall saturated the soil. Casualties: 23 30
  • 29. MARCOS HIGHWAY ROAD CUT Date: October 8, 2009 Reported 9:31 PM Caused Closure of the Highway 31
  • 30. MARCOS HIGHWAY ROAD CUT Date: October 8, 2009 Reported 9:31 PM Caused Closure of the Highway 32
  • 31. KENNON ROAD Fallen rocks and Mudslides 33
  • 32. PINSAO PROPER LANDSLIDE Date: October 9, 2009 Reported: 8:30 AM Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall saturated the soil. Casualties: 1 34
  • 33. ↑ ROCK QUARRY LANDSLIDE Date: October 9, 2009 Reported: 6:30 AM Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall saturated the soil. Casualties: 4 35
  • 34. ↓ KITMA LANDSLIDE Date: October 9, 2009 Reported: 9:56 AM Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall saturated the soil. Casualties: 8 36
  • 35. PUROK 1, IRISAN LANDSLIDE Date: October 9, 2009 Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall saturated the soil. Casualties: 16 37
  • 36. 38 SIMULTANEOUS INCIDENTS
  • 37. TRASHSLIDE August 26 – September 7, 2011 DEAD – 6 39
  • 38. 40
  • 39. 41
  • 40. 42
  • 41. PREVIOUS DISASTERS IN C.A.R. 43 LESSONS LEARNED         LGU as the first line of defence Early warning devise or equipment are vital in saving life Without communication support warning and the evacuation fails Early warning and evacuation system to attain Zero Casualty Pre-positioning of organic resource capability for quick response Building-back better not building-back-elsewhere DRR measures to protect economic investments Help must be linked to initiative. Protracted relief could breed mendicancy, inhibit or hold back local initiative and suppress native creativity  Demand driven vs. donors driven  Disaster Risk Reduction Plan must be considered basic input in the Regional Development Master Plan
  • 42. RISK PROFILE
  • 43. 45 RISK PROFILE
  • 44. …Continued The country is considered one of the most disaster-prone. It ranks 12th among 200 countries most at-risk for tropical cyclones, floods, earthquakes, and landslides in the 2009 Mortality Risk Index of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction RISK PROFILE  Located along the typhoon belt in the Pacific making it vulnerable to typhoons and tsunami. 47  Average of 20 typhoons yearly (7 are destructive).
  • 45. RISK PROFILE …Continued 48 1851-2006 TYPHOON SEASON Tracks and Intensity of Tropical Cyclones, 1851-2006 TD TS 1 2 3 Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Intensity Scale 4 5
  • 46. RISK PROFILE …Continued 49 1980-2005 TYPHOON SEASON
  • 47. RISK PROFILE …Continued 50 1980-2005 TYPHOON SEASON
  • 48. 51 RISK PROFILE …Continued
  • 49. RISK PROFILE …Continued 52 AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO LANDSLIDE, FLOODING, AND SUBSIDENCE DUE TO KARST DEVELOPMENT
  • 50. RISK PROFILE …Continued 54 The Philippines, given its location on the earth is prone to various types of Natural Disasters.  Located along the Pacific Ring of Fire, between two Tectonic plates (Eurasian and Pacific) which are volcanic and earthquake generators.  22 active volcanoes (5 most active).
  • 51. RISK PROFILE …Continued 55 Fact: The Philippine Archipelago has a complex tectonic setting with several trenches and many active faults
  • 52. 56 RISK PROFILE …Continued
  • 53. 57 RISK PROFILE …Continued
  • 54. Northwest segments of the Philippine Fault Zone (PFZ):  Digdig Fault  San Manuel Fault  Tebbo Fault  Tuba Fault  Bangui Fault  Abra River Fault Source: Phivolcs 50 100 km N South China Sea Pacific Ocean Abra River RISK PROFILE …Continued EARTHQUAKE GENERATORS WITHIN CORDILLERA Manila Trench 58 0 Baguio City
  • 55. …Continued 0 2 SEISMIC GENERATORS NEAR BAGUIO CITY RISK PROFILE Source: Phivolcs South China Sea Pacific Ocean Abra River 59 Tebbo Fault  located approximately 10 km Southeast of Baguio City  70 km long  could generate a Ms 7.4 earthquake max 100 km N Manila Trench Tuba Fault  West of Baguio City, approximately 5 km away, NW trending  50 km long  could generate a Ms 7.25 earthquake max 50 Baguio City
  • 56. …Continued 0 Burnham Fault 100 N LEGEND: RISK PROFILE Mirador Fault 60 Fault San Vicente Fault Tuba Fault Bued Fault Loakan Fault Source: Office of the City Planning & Development Coordinator 300 km
  • 57. RISK PROFILE …Continued 61 HISTORICAL SEISMICITY The PHIVOLCS earthquake and catalogue seismicity maps shows so far, seven (7) historically and instrumentally recorded destructive earthquakes (Intensity VII-IX in the adapted Rossi-Forel scale) have affected Baguio City for the past 356 years (1645-2001). This roughly translate into a return period of at least one destructive earthquake (Intensity VII to IX) for every 50 years. In addition, there were four very destructive earthquakes during the 356-year period for a return period of at least one very destructive earthquake (Intensity VIII to IX) for every 89 years. In comparison, regional probabilistic seismic hazard calculations by Thenhaus (1994) yielded annual probability rates of Ms: • 6.4 to <7.0 (1 in 23 years) • 7.0 to <7.3 (1 in 62 years) • Ms <8.2 (1 in 166 years)
  • 58. RISK PROFILE …Continued 63 The Philippine Archipelago occupies the western ring of the Pacific Ocean (Western Segment of the Pacific Ring of Fire), a most active part of the earth that is characterized by an ocean-encircling belt of active volcanoes and earthquake generators (faults).
  • 59. …Continued ACTIVE, INACTIVE AND POTENTIALLY ACTIVE VOLCANOES OF THE PHILIPPINES RISK PROFILE  300 volcanoes  22 active  7 inactive in CAR 64
  • 60. …Continued VOLCANOES OF THE CORDILLERA REGION Benguet Province: Kalinga Province: 1. Santo Tomas, Baguio City 4. Bumabag, Batong Buhay 2. Daclan, Bokod 5. Podakan, Batong Buhay 3. Pulag, Kabayan 6. Ambalatungan, Batong Buhay RISK PROFILE 7. Binuluan 65 All of the above volcanoes are inactive or has no record of eruption during historic times.
  • 61. PREPAREDNESS A PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY
  • 62. MAKE A DIFFERENCE… PREPAREDNESS  Changing attitudes… 67  Knowing hazards…  Doing something to minimize the hazards.
  • 63. PREPAREDNESS …Continued 68 WHAT IF?! Are we prepared?
  • 64. PREPAREDNESS …Continued 69 CRITICAL CONCERNS 1. Does your institution have an existing Disaster Response Team / Safety Committee? 2. If yes, is it functional? 3. Do we conduct emergency / disaster drills regularly? 4. Do we have Emergency Response Plan? 5. Do we have a Preparedness / Contingency Plan in the event of any disaster? 6. Are there personnel / employees trained in first aid, fire fighting or rescue? 7. Does the institution have any rescue equipment and other emergency paraphernalia? 8. Do we have an institutionalized warning system? 9. Are there identified evacuation areas within the premises of the institution?
  • 65. …Continued PREPAREDNESS CYCLE PREPAREDNESS Evaluate/ Improve 70 Plan Organize & Equip Exercise Train
  • 66. PREPAREDNESS …Continued 71 72-HOUR SURVIVAL KIT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Food Clothing Communications Documents Medicines Other Essential Needs Emergency Money *Kit depends on the number of family members, health status, gender and age.
  • 67. R.A. 10121 THE PHILIPPINE DRRM SYSTEM
  • 68. THE PHILIPPINE DRRM SYSTEM DRRM  Disaster legislation in the Philippines dates back in 1978, primarily reactive approach to disasters, focusing heavily on preparedness and response. Other relevant legislation for mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction into development includes land-use controls and building codes. However, building codes are not strictly enforced and zoning ordinances which are reported to have been relaxed over time. 73  With the approval of the DRRM (Republic Act No. 10121) expect that there would be a paradigm shift emphasizing disaster management to a disaster risk management approach, with much greater importance given to reducing risk. The RA was approved on 27 May 2010, and the Implementing Rules and Regulations was crafted by the Task Force RA 10121 headed by the OCD.
  • 69. …Continued RISK REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT  Systematic process of using administrative decisions, organization, operational skills and capacities to implement policies, strategies and coping capacities of the society and communities  Setting of related goals and objectives in development and land use areas. DRRM  It involves the formulation of strategies and Plans, Programs and Activities (PPAs) 74
  • 70. …Continued WHAT MUST BE DONE TO REDUCE RISK  Institutionalize Local Disaster Risk Reduction & Management Office  Establish Early Warning System  Formulation of Communication Protocol  Formulation of Evacuation Procedures at the community level and establishments  Organize Local DRRMC and define the functional roles and responsibilities of the members and task units DRRM  Establish Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) 75  Hazard awareness seminars through Community-Based trainings and
  • 71. …Continued WHAT MUST BE DONE TO REDUCE RISK  Integrate disaster risk reduction into the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) and land use planning  Integrate hazard, risk and vulnerability assessment into the development plan  Cluster Approach on Recovery Program  Good working relationship with Warning Agencies and the Local Media DRRM  Installation of rain gauges on mountain slopes 76 (DENR-MGB CAR recommended that 150 mm of rainfall observed within 24 hours would already trigger evacuation of communities in high risk areas)
  • 72. …Continued WHAT MUST BE DONE TO REDUCE RISK  Strengthening of the LGU capabilities on disaster management;  Updating the hazard profile of all municipalities and to analyse data on human induced disasters for public safety studies DRRM  Effective flow of communication system to ensure that accurate flow of information before, during and after disasters 77
  • 73. DRRM …Continued 78 WHAT MUST BE DONE TO REDUCE RISK
  • 74. …Continued RISK REDUCTION METHOD In the following order 1. Identify, characterize, and assess threats 2. Assess the vulnerability of critical assets to specific threats 3. Determine the risk (i.e. the expected consequences of specific types of attacks on specific assets) 4. Identify ways to reduce those risks DRRM 5. Prioritize risk reduction measures based on a strategy 79
  • 75. …Continued POTENTIAL RISK TREATMENTS Once risks have been identified and assessed, all techniques to manage the risk fall into one or more of these four major categories: DRRM     80 Avoidance (eliminate, withdraw from the risk area) Reduction (optimize resources to mitigate effects ) Sharing (risk transfer or enrol in insurance) Retention (accept, plan - formulate ConPlan, Evac Plan, ICS and provision of budget)
  • 76. …Continued DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGY  A comprehensive disaster risk management strategy, actively involving stakeholders at all levels of government as well as the private sector, local communities and civil society, is required to implement the legislative framework and to provide coordination and monitoring mechanisms and arrangements. DRRM  Individual disaster risk reduction actions and programs need to be located within this strategy, rather than treated as discrete, individual measures. Moreover, the strategy needs to indicate specific entry points and mechanisms for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction concerns into both the broader development agenda and the design and implementation of individual development initiatives. 81
  • 77. DRRM …Continued 82 DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGY  Individual line agencies and local governments are legally responsible for implementing disaster management, as it is still commonly referred to in department circulars and executive orders, within their own areas of responsibility. In practice, some LGUs have yet to even establish their disaster coordinating councils (DCCs), while those DCCs that have been established vary in quality. In addition, reflecting Presidential Decree (PD) 1566’s reactive approach to DCC meetings are commonly held only on an ad hoc basis, in response to crisis situations, rather than on a more regular basis to discuss ongoing risk reduction initiatives, and DCCs’ risk reduction and mainstreaming capacity and capabilities are often very limited.
  • 78. …Continued RA NO. 10121 27 May 2010 14th Congress (2007-2010) 13th Congress (2004-2007) 12th Congress (2001-2004) R.A. 10121 11th Congress (’98-2001) 83 10th Congress (’95-’98) 9th Co2ngress (’92-’95) 8th Congress (’89-’92) PD 1566 June 11, 1978 • 21 years in the making • 7 Congresses • 4 Administration
  • 79. …Continued DRRMC ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORK NATIONAL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION & MANAGEMENT COUNCIL  17 REGIONAL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION & MANAGEMENT COUNCILS  80 PROVINCIAL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION & MANAGEMENT COUNCILS  117 CITY DISASTER RISK REDUCTION & MANAGEMENT COUNCILS R.A. 10121  1,496 MUNICIPAL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION & MANAGEMENT COUNCILS 84  41,945 BARANGAY DISASTER RISK REDUCTION & MANAGEMENT COUNCILS
  • 80. ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER 173 SERIES 2010 Mayor BAGUIO CITY City Administrator / Action Officer 85
  • 81. R.A. 10121 …Continued 86 THE PHILIPPINE DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM MAY 27, 2010  An Act Strengthening The Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System, providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework, and Institutionalizing the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan, appropriating funds therefor and for other purposes (DRRM Act 2010)
  • 82. …Continued DISASTER RISK REDUCTION …Continued The law which transforms the Philippines’ Disaster Management System from Disaster Relief and Response towards Disaster Risk Reduction. 87 Bottom-up and participatory disaster risk reduction Disasters as merely a function of physical hazards R.A. 10121 Top-down and centralized disaster management Disaster mainly a reflection of people's vulnerability Focus on disaster response and anticipation Integrated approach to genuine social and human development to reduce disaster risk and adoption of IT in DRM
  • 83. …Continued DISASTER RISK REDUCTION GUIDING PRINCIPLES  Institutional not personality oriented  Permanent solution not temporary or palliative R.A. 10121  Preemptive evacuation is better than rescue 88
  • 84. R.A. 10121 …Continued The enactment of the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 (also known as Republic Act 10121), aims to achieve a paradigm shift from reactive to proactive approach in disaster risk reduction and management.  One of the main objectives of Disaster Preparedness it to “Enhance the community with the necessary skills to cope with the negative impacts of a disaster”.  The state of readiness for PDRRMC, MDRRMC and CDRRMC is greatly determines the extent to which potential casualties and damages can be reduced. 89
  • 85. …Continued PARADIGM SHIFT Emergency/Disaster Management • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • / Public awareness Public commitment Community actions Education & Training Early Warning SOP & Plans ICS Development • • • • • • Executive/Legislative Agenda Environmental Management Comprehensive Land Use Plan Risk proofing Financial tools Hazard identification & Mitigation: Vulnerability Analysis Capacity Analysis Risk Reduction DANA Relief SAR Incident Command System Evacuation Health Preparedness Prevention R.A. 10121 Rehabilitation 90 • • • • • Response Livelihood Housing Lifelines Education Infrastructure REACTIVE
  • 86. 91 R.A. 10121 …Continued PARADIGM SHIFT
  • 87. …Continued PARADIGM SHIFT National Disaster Risk Reduction & Management Framework EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT Reactive Proactive R.A. 10121 Disaster Response 92 Disaster Risk Reduction Emergency Specialists Hazard Scientists Risks Specialists Economic Managers Development Planners
  • 88. …Continued PARADIGM SHIFT Emergency/Disaster Risk Management Mitigation: Risk Reduction /Prevention R.A. 10121 Preparedness 93 Rehabilitation Response PROACTIVE
  • 89. EMERGENCY/DISASTER OPERATIONS CENTER
  • 90. BAGUIO CDRRMC-DOC 95
  • 91. DISASTER OR EMERGENCY OPCEN • Is a central command and control facility responsible for carrying out the principles or functions of emergency / disaster preparedness and management at a strategic level in an emergency situation, and ensuring the continuity of operation of a company, political subdivision or other organization. • An Emergency / Disaster OPCEN is responsible for the strategic overview, or "big picture", of the disaster. • Used in varying ways at all levels of government and within private industry to provide coordination, direction and control during emergencies. 96
  • 92. DISASTER OR EMERGENCY OPCEN …Continued • The common functions of all E/D OPCEN is to collect, gather and analyze data; make decisions that protect life and property, maintain continuity of the organization, within the scope of applicable laws; and disseminate those decisions to all concerned agencies and individuals. • In most E/DOC's, there is one individual in charge, and that is the Emergency/Disaster Manager. 97
  • 93. DISASTER OR EMERGENCY OPCEN …Continued BRINGS TOGETHER THE VITAL ASPECT OF : SITUATION ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING SITUATION MONITORING DISSEMINATION of WARNING INFORMATION COLLECTION & ANALYSIS RESOURCE DISPATCH, TRACKING & REQUEST MEDIA & PUBLIC INFORMATION 98 Working 24/7 TASK ALLOCATION ACTIVATION of the BDRRMC responders & others With DISASTER MNGT FUNCTION COORDINATION & COMMUNICATION ACTION PRIORITIES
  • 94. ACTIVATION
  • 95. ACTIVATION UNDERSTANDING THE COLORED ALERT STATUS & DISASTER WARNING SYMBOLS NOTIFICATION - When an event/disaster occurs, notification is made to all partner agencies, and CDRRMC Disaster Operations Center support staff who needs to take actions as part of their pre-assigned tasks and responsibilities; BLUE ALERT (PARTIAL ACTIVATION) - An initial limited or a post Red Alert scaled down operational condition of the Disaster Operations Center (DOC). All field personnel go on stand-by, assets pre-positioned for easy deployment; RED ALERT (FULL ACTIVATION) - All primary and secondary support agencies of the CDRRMC are on active status/on-call, manning respective stations along with DOC staff, while directing-coordinating personnel/assets on a 24-hour basis during an ongoing event; DEACTIVATION - The DOC Chief as may be directed by the Chief Executive or Action Officer to deactivate the alert status and normal operations of the Disaster Operations Center resumes. 100 STAGES or LEVELS of ACTIVATION for DRRMCs
  • 96. ACTIVATION RED …Continued Full scale activation • Full scale activation. • Citywide activation of the BDRRMC’s & respective operations centers. • Focal members of the CDRRMC’s will be in the operations center for fast action, coordination & decision. • Convene a council meeting to address preparedness for response & other concerns. 101
  • 97. ACTIVATION BLUE …Continued Partial activation • Partial activation - whole members • Citywide activation of the BDRRMCs & respective operations centers • Convene a council meeting to address preparedness for response & other concerns 102
  • 98. ACTIVATION WHITE • 24/7 monitoring of AOR 103 …Continued Monitoring
  • 99. SITUATIONAL ISSUES THINGS TO CONSIDER
  • 100. SITUATIONAL ISSUES In any major situation, there are three (3) critical issues that usually arise, namely: 105
  • 101. SITUATIONAL ISSUES …Continued 106 TIME CONSTRAINT • • • • • • • • WARN PEOPLE EVACUATE THE PEOPLE SAVE LIVES CASUALTIES • INJURED • DEAD • MISSING IMPENDING HAZARDS UTILITY SHUT DOWN LOOTERS Others …Continued
  • 102. SITUATIONAL ISSUES …Continued 108 COORDINATION • • • • • • WHAT? WHERE? WHEN? WHO? HOW? Others …Continued
  • 103. INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SIX (6) BUILDING BLOCKS
  • 104. INCIDENT MANAGEMENT COMMAND & CONTROL LAW ENFORCEMENT 110 DANA SAR EMS FIRE SUPPRESION EVACUATION & RELIEF
  • 105. STRUCTURAL FIRE Tiong San Bazaar, 1:00 PM, April 2, 2008 Property and merchandise worth around P 200 million were lost in a 10-hour fire. 111
  • 106. STRUCTURAL FIRE …Continued COMMAND & CONTROL LAW DANA SAR EMS ENFORCEMENT FIRE SUPPRESION E R TS I F 112 EVACUATION & RELIEF
  • 107. LANDSLIDE Little Kibungan, Puguis, La Trinidad, Benguet The landslide buried more or less 25 houses 50+ residents. 113
  • 108. LANDSLIDE …Continued COMMAND & CONTROL LAW DANA SAR EMS ENFORCEMENT FIRE SUPPRESION AN NG LITTLE BU KI 114 EVACUATION & RELIEF
  • 109. VEHICULAR ACCIDENT Byron Bus 198 Accident May 11, 2005, Badiwan, Tuba, Benguet : 29 dead 115
  • 110. VEHICULAR ACCIDENT …Continued COMMAND & CONTROL LAW DANA SAR EMS ENFORCEMENT FIRE SUPPRESION WAY VA HIGH COS MAR 116 EVACUATION & RELIEF
  • 111. S.A.R. Flash Flood Victim SAR, September 30-October 5, 2012 Point of Origin: Crystal Cave, Baguio City – Point of Sighting: Sitio Pacac, Tuba, Benguet 117
  • 112. S.A.R. …Continued COMMAND & CONTROL LAW DANA SAR EMS ENFORCEMENT FIRE SUPPRESION FLOOD FLASH MISSING TO DUE 118 EVACUATION & RELIEF
  • 113. AIRCRAFT CRASH Crash Incident Presidential Chopper BELL 412 April 7, 2009, Brgy. Eheb, Tinoc, Ifugao : 8 dead 119
  • 114. AIRCRAFT CRASH …Continued COMMAND & CONTROL LAW DANA SAR EMS ENFORCEMENT FIRE SUPPRESION 2 1 CRASH 4 BELL 120 EVACUATION & RELIEF
  • 115. INCIDENT REPORTING / RECIEVING
  • 116. WHAT TO DO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (WHO) IDENTIFY YOURSELF (WHAT) IDENTIFY NATURE OF CALL (WHERE) EXACT ADDRESS/LOCATION (WHEN) STATE EXACT TIME AND DATE (HOW) ADDITIONAL INFORMATION THAT MAY BE RELEVANT *AFTER A CALL, ALWAYS DO VERIFICATION* 122
  • 117. INCIDENT PROFILING
  • 118. INCIDENT PROFILING Profile of the Incident:  What : _____________________________________ (Type of incident)  When : _____________________________________ (Date and time of occurrence)  Where : _____________________________________ (Estimated location)  Why : _____________________________________ (Probable cause of the incident) 124
  • 119. INCIDENT PROFILING …Continued  Who : _____________________________________ _____________________________________ (Affected population and responding agencies in the area)  How : _____________________________________ (How was the response carried out?) 125
  • 120. QUESTIONS? 126
  • 121. “We are not preparing for the world we live in - we are preparing for the world we find ourselves in.” – Michael Mabee Prepping for a Suburban or Rural Community: Building a Civil Defense Plan for a Long-Term Catastrophe 127
  • 122. THANK YOU! 128
  • 123. REFERENCES • Andrew Alex Uy OCD-CAR/CRDRRMC • Hazard http://www.backgroundalpha.com/Hazards.html • Risk http://bcalliance-international.com/select-services/risk-management-and-iso-31000/risk-management-services http://dilipchandra12.hubpages.com/hub/Risk-Treatment-Plan • Disaster http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disaster • Trashslide http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/i/MSNBC/Components/Photo/_new/pb-110828-garbage-cannon.jpg http://www.interaksyon.com/article/12111/mina-toll-rises-to-26-six-more-missing http://mghelman.tumblr.com/ http://www.sunstar.com.ph/baguio/local-news/2011/08/29/typhoon-mina-leaves-8-dead-cordillera-176058 http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/51141/state-of-calamity-declared-in-trash-swamped-baguio http://bulatlat.com/main/2013/06/25/baguios-garbage-woe-affects-classes/ http://richardbalonglong.wordpress.com/2012/10/03/wall-es-plant-2/ • Typhoon Parma http://www.typhoon2000.ph/stormarchives/2009/trax/pepeng09_16tx.gif • Climate Change http://mncgreens.blogspot.com/2012/02/event-australian-attitudes-to-climate.html http://www.climate-speakers.org.uk/ 129