Dodi mulyadi

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Dodi mulyadi

  1. 1. 1 Orientation Record of Events Collecting The Implementation of Teaching Recount Data-Understanding Data-Categorizing DataThe model in temporal sequence) (done of teaching recount writing Data Analysis Interpreting Data-Synthesizing Data in SMPN 8 Bandung Re-orientation (closure) IMPLEMENTASI PEMBELAJARAN TEKS RECOUNT ( Studi Kasus kelas VIII SMP N 8 Bandung) Artikel oleh Dodi Mulyadi, S.Pd, M.Pd PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH SEMARANG 2011
  2. 2. 2 The Implementation of Teaching Recount Writing (A Case Study to Grade Eighth of SMPN 8 Bandung) Implementasi Pembelajaran Teks Recount ( Studi Kasus kelas VIII SMP N 8 Bandung) ABSTRACT Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari dan mendeskripsikan implementasi dari pembelajaran teks recount di SMP N 8 Bandung dan untuk mencari tahu respons siswa yang muncul dari pembelajaran teks recount. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif yang menggunakan metode deskriptif. Peneliti menggunakan beberapa instrumen diantaranya dokumentasi, interview, dan angket dengan tahapan sebagai berikut: 1) Collecting Data; 2) Understanding Data; 3) Categorizing Data: 4) Interpreting Data; and 5) Synthesizing Data. Penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa secara umum guru menggunakan metode dalam pembelajaran teks reacount dengan menggunakan Audio Lingual Method, Direct Method, dan Community Language Learning with communicative approach. Teknik yang digunakan pada tahap pertama adalah persiapan guru sebelum mengajar dikelas, membuat lesson plan, menentukan metode, buku ajar dan media pembejaran. Guru mengajarkan materi dengan banyak latihan, contohcontoh nyata, menuliskan pengalaman mereka dan pemberian pekerjaan rumah. Secara teknis proses pengajaran teks recount, guru memberikan beberapa pendekatan yang menarik seperti mengaitkan pembelajaran grammar kedalam penulisan pengalaman mereka. Guru juga sebagai pembaca dari tulisan-tulisan yang dibuat siswa. Selain itu, respon siswa terhadap implementasi pembelajaran teks recount lebih menyenangkan dan membantu siswa menggali ide dan mengkostruksi teks recount secara individu dan kelompok. I A. INTRODUCTION The Background of the Problem Writing, which is important for a literate society can be an act of discovery, communication, and joy. It connects people to work, culture, society, existing knowledge, and the meaning of our life. Written language provides meaning of conveying and evaluates one’s writing and others so that it can lead into “read like researchers” (Byrne, 1988). In this case, writing is the learning process of shaping experiences that is expressed. It allows the researcher to discover, develop, clarify, and communicate thoughts and feelings. Therefore, it requires and supports the development of thinking skills. In addition to this, it brings its learners into the literate society. The learners play as active participants
  3. 3. 3 in the conversation. Thus, writing is a catalyst of expressing people’s ideas or thoughts. The definition of writing has long been a matter of discussion. Writing may take a form of diary, short massage service (SMS), brochure, journal, article, and many else. Styles in writing vary according to its genre. For example, a personal trip to Bali can be reported in a recount while a brochure of travel agency could be written in a description. However, writing is not only a matter of composing paragraphs, but it is a form of thinking that facilitates thought and helps peoples to think critically. Furthermore, it enable people to perceive social relationship, deepen perception, solve problems, and give order to people to experience. Thus, writing is perceived more than a way of communication among people. A research conducted by Ismail (Sundusiah, 2005:6) revealed that there is motivation of writing among Indonesians. The research showed that Indonesian high school students wrote about 2-6 articles per year, while Malay students wrote about 36-72 articles. The same situation experienced among Indonesian junior high students, they wrote about 2-6 articles per year, whereas junior highs students in Kuala Kangsar Malay wrote 36 articles. The reason for writing negligence, as well as reading is often considered as a difficult skill to possess. Therefore, a researcher has to look at proportionally on multiple issues, such as content, organization, purpose, audience, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization when he or she does a research on writing skills. It is not surprising that writing in academic setting has been considered more difficult, boring and tiring work. It brings many difficulties not only for the students and for the teachers as well. Leo (2007: 24) states that writing as a process of expressing ideas or thoughts in words could be done at leisure time. It is due to enjoyable activity as long as ideas and the objectives of the writing is achievable. Furthermore, teachers also can perceive academic writing as the most difficult subject because they have lack of writing skills. Theories about writing are discussed more in front of classrooms than in practice itself. Therefore,
  4. 4. 4 negative attitudes on writing develop among students, especially in generating ideas for their piece of writing. There are various different genres in writing, such as recount, spoof, reports, narrative, anecdote and others (Pardiyono, 2007:14). This different genre types are competence of mastering genre, understanding and producing some pieces texts. Among different kinds of texts, writing recount text is one of the writing forms that students feel difficulty of doing it. Students find difficulties in expressing their ideas, and sometimes get trouble when they jot down their ideas. Therefore, it needs teacher’s skills in teaching recount so that students can improve their skills in writing. Thus, a researcher is interested in observing and building a model of teaching writing. He chooses this matter because he wants to know its application to students’ life and its suitability with the content of recent curriculum (KTSP 2007). Specific to this subject, recount is one of material learned in junior high school, included in SMPN 8 Bandung. Moreover, this recount material is a focus of my research. The researcher chooses SMPN 8 Bandung as his field study for many reasons. It is one of favorite vocational school in Bandung. This school also has attracted students come to this school. It is due to not only high quality and quantity of students, but having complete facilities that include teaching and learning process and manner of discipline as well. Furthermore, it has a strategic location so that people anywhere can visit it. Therefore, the researcher is attracted to analyze the implementation of teaching recount writing at this school. Because it is one of favorite vocational schools in Bandung. Thus, he formulates his research entitled: “The Model of Teaching Recount Writing (A Case Study at the Eight Grade of SMPN 8 Bandung)”. B. Statement of Research Question Based on explanation above, this research is conducted to find answers at the following questions: 1. How is the teaching of recount implemented in SMPN 8 Bandung? 2. How is the teaching of recount improves students’ writing ability in SMPN 8 Bandung?
  5. 5. 5 C. Purpose and Significance of Research The purposes of this research are: 1. To find out the implementation of teaching recount in SMPN 8 Bandung. 2. To find out the impact of teaching recount in improving writing skills in SMPN 8 Bandung. In line with the purpose above, the research will be significant as follow: 1. Finding out the process of teaching recount especially, the method and its techniques of improving students’ writing skills. 2. Analyzing the effectiveness of teaching recount methods used by the teachers. 3. Framing the implementation of teaching the methods of recount in relation to writing skills referred by the recent curriculum (KTSP 2007). D. Rationale All four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing are taught communicatively and comprehensively. Writing skills are significant to transfer messages and ideas in the form of texts. Therefore, the students are directed to be able to express their own ideas and feeling freely. According to Leo (2007:01), writing as a process of expressing ideas or thoughts in words should be done at leisure time. It does not mean that writing is the most difficult subject to be learned. He says that all students can be taught to express their ideas clearly and correctly. One worth noting is that students can learn writing effectively when teachers give them encouragement to express their ideas, thoughts, experience and feeling into written language. In addition, he states that writing actually encourages thinking and learning when students view writing as a recursive process of their experience. In this case, a teacher is important factor in education that is encouraged developing the teaching learning process. Furthermore, Brown (1994: 160) states that a good teacher has to be able to make the classroom livelier. He has to conduct some efforts to employ various
  6. 6. 6 methods and techniques, utilize some media and motivate his students in learning English including writing skills effectively and efficiently. There are many kinds of writing types, such as descriptive, recount, narrative, exposition, procedure, anecdote, news item, and discussion. One of them is recount. Recount is the text telling the reader what happened. It retells a past event. It begins by telling the reader who was involved, what happened, where this event took place and when it happened (Pardiyono, 2007: 63). At an Online Education Journal, writing recount is said that it may be a reorientation at the end. It summarizes the event. Writing recount has a purpose to list and describe past experiences by retelling events in the order of phases (chronological order). Recount is written to retell events with the purpose of either informing or entertaining their audience (or both). Therefore, recount text is one of the writing forms, which the students feel difficult in learning this form. The students sometimes get trouble when they express their idea s in writing this form. It needs the ability of teacher in solving the problem. Thus, the following diagram shows that the research would analyze the model of teaching recount writing related to the implementation of teaching recount in SMPN 8 Bandung.
  7. 7. 7 TEACHING RECOUNT • The material • Approach or method • Using media or facilities • Evaluation Figure 1. THE PROCESS OF RESEARCH E. Research Steps 1. Source of data a. Primary Data
  8. 8. 8 The primary data is taken from the students of Eight Grade of SMPN 8 Bandung and a related teacher. There are nine classes; the researchers took only one class as sampling. He uses random sampling purposively to know about the deep understanding of implementation in teaching recount writing. To this purpose, he just takes ten students and one teacher as participants in this research. The sampling technique is further elaborated in Chapter III. b. Secondary Data The secondary data is about theoretical backgrounds from some books and websites so that the researcher can get some theoretical background to support writing his paper. 2. Research Method This research conducts descriptive qualitative. According to Moleong (2005: 288-289), the researcher analyzes the data from documentation, observation and interview with following steps: 1) Collecting Data. 2) Understanding Data. 3) Categorizing Data. 3) Interpreting Data. 4) Synthesizing Data. This descriptive qualitative is used to analyze the implementation of teaching recount writing. The documentation of students’ achievement in writing skills is related to implementation of teaching recount will be analyzed by using Rating scale (Sugiyono, 2006:97). Rating scale analyzes the raw data gained from observation in numbers form, and then it is interpreted in qualitative meaning. a. Techniques of Collecting Data The researcher uses certain techniques for collecting data. Those are written test, observation, and interview. Brief descriptions are given as follows. 1) Documentation Operationally, the research will use documentation to know about implementation of the teaching recount toward students’
  9. 9. 9 achievement in writing. The researcher gathers the documents such as the students’ result of test given by their English teacher and the situation of teaching writing process by using photo, video, or MP5 recorder. Then, these data are analyzed. 2) Observation The researcher also uses the observation technique. This technique is to collect data by observing field study directly and accurately. It is used to know the implementation of teaching recount well and the ways of using media, facilities and the documents of students’ achievement in writing. 3) Interview The researcher applies interview technique. This technique is used to collecting data directly from respondents/ participant. The delivers some designed questions to be answered. Interview is a common and effective way to get representative information. It takes important questions globally from things related to situation of teaching recount. It refers to that important role of the school circumstance such as students, the teacher, and the headmaster. F. Limitation of Research In order to avoid extensive impact resulted from this the study, the researcher will emphasize on implementation of teaching recount in building the model of teaching writing, with specific reference of recount. II LITERATURE REVIEW A. Writing 1. The Definition of Writing
  10. 10. 10 Many experts have opinion that meaning of writing differently. Therefore, the ideas about writing are various. Byrne (1988: 1) in “Teaching Writing Skill” states that: “Writing can be said to be the act of farming these symbol making marks on a flat surface of some kind. However, writing is clearly much more than the production of graphic symbols, just as speech is more than the production of sound. The symbols have to be arranged, according to convention, to form word, and word have to arranged to form sentences” According to Norrish (1983) says that writing is more difficult than speaking. It is the language skill with which native speaker has most problems and one which is not mastered at all by some of them. It means that writing is not simply speech written on paper. In fact, it is more complicated than speech. It is not easy to practice though. Therefore, a writer needs some knowledge about writing and must practice it regularly. 2. The Function of Writing Writing has function as a mean of communication, giving information, and sharing knowledge to other persons. Writing cannot be separated from human life. It involves the encoding of message of some kinds that is people translate their thoughts into language. On personal level, most of people writing have function to make note of something, to keep record of things they to remember, to send the message and write a letter to someone and a view of them keep diaries. Most of people have to fill in the form from time to time (especially application and insurance for example). A part from this the amount of writing they do regularly will relate to their professional life. Some might spend a good deal of time writing letters, instruction, report etc. For others this will only be occasionally activity. 3. Form of Writing
  11. 11. 11 According to KTSP 2007, based on Genre-Based Approach there are five forms of writing. They are as follows: Narrative, Descriptive, Recount, Report, and Procedure. a. Narrative A narrative is a story. Mostly narrative are imaginary stories but sometimes narrative can be factual too. Narrative includes fairy stories, fables, mystery, stories, science fictions, romance, horror, etc. Structure of the text: 1. Orientation : Introduce the character, place and time 2. Complication : Develop a conflict. 3. Resolution : End of the conflict. 4. Coda : (if any) shows the change that happens to the characters and the moral value of story. b. Description A description is a text describes the person things or place, even of units, times of day, or season. Study the structure of the text: → 1. Definition / Classification introduce the person, thing, or place that will be described. → 2. Description picture of the characters of person, the thing or place that talk about. Mostly, a description uses simple present tense but sometimes it uses simple past tense when the person, thing or place that is talked about longer exists. c. Recount Recount is a report of even or activity in the past. It is to inform or to entertain the readers.
  12. 12. 12 Structure of the text: → 1. 2. Report of event or activity (in chronological order) d. Orientation give information about who, what, when and where. Report Report is a text describes the way of things are, with reference, to arrange of natural, man made and social phenomena in our environment. Structure of the text: 1. General statement, which explain treatment of the subject and classification. 2. Descriptive (describes the way of the things are, with reference, to arrange of natural, manmade and social phenomena in our environment ) e. Procedure Procedure is a text describes how something is accomplished through a sequence of action or steps. Structure of the text: 1. The goal 2. The material (not required for all procedural text). 3. Step (goal followed by a series of steps oriented to achieving the goal). 4. Writing Evaluation According to Harris (1969:68-69), there are at least, five general component of writing ability. These five elements are: a. Content; the substance of writing, the ideas expressed b. Form; the organization of the content c. Grammar; the employment of grammatical forms and syntactical patterns d. Style; the choice of structure and lexical item to gives a particular tone of flavor to the writing e. Mechanic; the use of the graphic conventions of the language.
  13. 13. 13 Concerning his abilities, Brown (1994; 342) gives wider description about element of writing as follow: a. Content. It included thesis statement, related ideas development of ideas through personal experience, illustration, facts opinions, using of description, cause/effect, comparison/contrast, and consistent focus. b. Organization. It concluded effectiveness of introduction, logical sequence of ideas, conclusion, and appropriate of length. c. Discourse. It concluded topic sentences, paragraph unity, transitions, discourse markers, cohesion, rhetorical conventions, reference, fluency, economy, and variation. d. Syntax e. Vocabulary f. Mechanics. It concluded spelling, punctuation, citation of reference (if applicable), neatness, and appearance. 5. Characteristics of Written Language According to Brown (1994:278-288) students already literate in their native languages will of course be familiar with the broad, basic characteristics of written language; however, some characteristics of English writing, especially certain rhetorical conventions, may be so different from their native language that reading efforts are blocked. The characteristics listed below will also be of some helps: a. To diagnose certain reading difficulties arising from the idiosyncrasies of written language. b. To point your techniques toward specific objectives c. To remind students of some the advantages of the written language over spoken. Furthermore, Brown (1994:325-327) states in detail some characteristic of written language of a writer's view: a. Permanence
  14. 14. 14 One something is written down and delivered in its final from to its intended audience, the writer abdicates a certain power: power to emend, to clarify, and to withdraw. b. Processing or production time The good news of writer is that, given appropriate stretches of time, a writer can indeed become a "good" writer by developing efficient processes for achieving the final project. The bad news is that many educational contexts demand student writing within time limits, or 'writing for display', (examination writing, for example) c. Distance One of the thorniest problems writer face is anticipating their audience. That anticipation ranges from general audience characteristics to how specific words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs are going to be interpreted. Writers need to be able to predict the audience general knowledge, cultural and literary schemata, specific subject-matter knowledge, and very importantly, how their choice of language will be interpreted. d. Orthography Everything from simple greetings to extremely complex ideas is captured through the manipulation of a few dozen letters and other written symbols. e. Complexity Writers must learn how to remove redundancy (which may not be with their first language rhetorical tradition), how to combine sentence, how to make reference to other elements in a text, how to create syntactic and lexical variety and much more. f. Vocabulary Writing places a heavier demand on vocabulary use than does speaking. Good writers will learn to take advantages of the richness of English vocabulary.
  15. 15. 15 g. Formality Writing is quit frequently more formal than speech. Formality refers to prescribed forms that certain written message must adhere to. We have rhetorical, or organizational formality in essay writing that demands a writer's conformity to conventions like paragraph topics, logical order for, say, comparing and contrasting something, opening and closings, preference for non-redundancy and subordination of clauses, etc. for ESL students, the most difficult and complex conventions occur in academic writing where students have to learn how to describe, explain, compare, contrast, illustrate, defend, criticize, and argue. 6. Types of Classroom Writing Performance While various genres of written texts around, classroom writing performance is, by comparison, limited. Brown (1994:327-330) states about types of classroom writing performance as follow: a. Imitative, or writing down. At the beginning level of learning to write, students will simply "write down" English letters, words, and possibly sentences in order to learn the conventions of the orthographic code. Dictation can serve to teach and test higher order processing as well. Dictation typically involves the following steps: 1) Teacher reads a short paragraph one or twice at normal speed. 2) A teacher reads a short paragraph in short phrase units of three or four words each and each unit is followed by a pause. 3) During the pause, students write exactly what they hear. 4) Teacher reads the whole paragraph one more at normal speed, so students can check their writing. 5) Scoring of students' written work can utilize a number of rubrics for assigning points. Usually spelling and punctuation errors are not considered as serve as grammatical errors. b. Intensive or controlled
  16. 16. 16 Writing is sometimes used as a production mode for learning, reinforcing, or testing grammatical concept. This intensive writing typically appears in controlled, written grammar exercises. Guided writing loosens the teacher's control, but still offers series of stimulators. For example the teacher might get students to tell a story just viewed on videotape by asking them a series of questions. Yet another from of controlled writing is a dicto-comp. here, paragraph is read at normal speed; then the teacher puts key words from the paragraph from the best of their recollection of the reading, using the words on the blackboard. c. Self writing A significant proportion of classroom writing may be devoted to selfwriting or writing with only the self in mind as an audience. The most salient instance of this category in classrooms is note taking where students take notes during a lecture for the purpose of later recall. Other note taking may be done in margins of books and on old scraps of paper. Diary or journal writing also falls into this category. However, in recent years more and more dialogue journal writing takes place, where students write thoughts, feeling, and reactions in a journal and an instructor reads and responds in which case the journal while ostensibly written for oneself, has two audiences. d. Display writing For all language students, short answer exercises, essay examination, and even research report will involve an element of display. For academically bound ESL students one of the academic skills that they need to master is a whole array of display writing techniques. e. Real writing According to Brown (1994:330) there are three subcategories illustrate how reality can injected: 1) Academic. The language experience approach gives groups of students' opportunities to convey genuine information to each other.
  17. 17. 17 2) Vocational/technical. Quite a variety of real writing can take place in classes of students studying English for advancement in their occupation. 3) Personal. In virtually any ESL class, letters, post card, notes, personal message, and other informal writing can take place, especially within the context of an interactive classroom. While certain tasks may be somewhat contrived, nevertheless the genuine exchange of information can happen. 8. Principles for designing writing technique Out of all those characteristics of this written word, along with micro skill and research issues, a number o specific principles or designing writing techniques emerge. Brown (1994:331-338) states a number of principles for designing writing techniques as follows: a. Incorporating practices of "good" writer Furthermore, Brown (1994:33) explains the various thing that efficient writers for example, good writer: 1) Focus on a good or main idea in writing 2) Perceptively gauge their audience 3) Spend some time (but not too much)planning to write 4) Easily let their first ideas flow onto the paper 5) Follow a general organizational plan as they write 6) Solicit and utilize feedback on their writing 7) Are not wedded to certain surface structures 8) Revise their work willingly and efficiently 9) Patiently make as many revision as needed b. Balancing process and product A good deal was said about the process approach. The application of the process principles does not detract from a careful focus on the product as well. c. Accounting for cultural/literary backgrounds
  18. 18. 18 The technique does not assume that the students know English rhetorical conventions. d. Connecting reading and writing By reading and studying a variety of relevant types of text, students can gain important insight both about how they should write and about subject matter that may become the topic of their writing. e. Providing as much authentic writing as possible Writing that is shared with other student in the class is one way to add authenticity. Publishing a class newsletter to people outside of class, writing a script for a skit or dramatic presentation, writing a resume, writing advertisement-all these can be seen as authentic writing. f. Framing techniques in terms of free-writing, drafting, and revising stages Process writing approaches tend to be farmed in three stages of writing. According to Brown (1994:334), the prewriting stage encourages the generation of ideas, which can happen in numerous ways: 1) Reading (extensively) a passage 2) Skimming and/or scanning passage 3) Conducting some outside research 4) Brainstorming 5) Listening (in writing-individually) 6) Discussing a topic or question 7) Instructor-initiated questions and probes 8) Free-writing 9) Clustering (begin with a key word then add other words, uses three association) Furthermore, he states several strategies and skill that apply to the drafting/revising process in writing: 1) Getting started (adapting the free-writing technique) 2) "Optimal" monitoring of one's writing (without premature editing and diverted attention to wording, grammar, etc.)
  19. 19. 19 3) Peer-editing (accepting/using classmates' comment) 4) Using the instructor's feedback 5) "Read aloud" technique (in small groups or pairs, student read their almost-final drafts to each other for final check on errors, flow ideas, etc.) 6) Proofreading g. Techniques should be as interactive as possible Writing techniques that focus on purpose other than composition (such as letters, forms, memos, directions, short report) are also subject to the principles of interactive classroom. Group collaboration, brainstorming, and analyzing, are as easily and successfully a part of many writing-focused techniques. h. Sensitively applying methods of responding to and correcting your students' writing In the case of writing, error correction must be approached in a different manner, because writing, unlike speaking, often includes an extensive planning stage, error treatment can begin in the drafting and revising stages, during which time it is more appropriate to consider errors among several features of the whole process of responding to students writing. i. Clearly instructing students on rhetorical formal conventions of writing According to Brown (1994:338), some of the features of English rhetorical discourse for academic writing that writers use to explain, propose solutions, debate, and argue are as follow: 1) A clear statement of the thesis, topic, or purpose 2) Use of main ideas to develop or clarify the thesis 3) Use of supporting ideas 4) Supporting by "telling:" describing 5) Supporting by "showing:" giving evidence, facts statistics, etc
  20. 20. 20 6) Supporting by linking cause and effect 7) Supporting by using comparison and/or contrast j. Making final evaluation of student writing consistent with your overall approach Evaluation is based on the material that has been delivered and based on the approach and method used. B. Recount 1. The Meaning of Recount Recount is the text telling the reader what happened. It retells a past event. It begins by telling the reader who was involved, what happened, where this event took place and when it happened (Pardiyono, 2007: 63). At an Online Education Journal, writing recount is said that it may be a reorientation at the end. It summarizes the event in the order in which they happened (chronological order). Recount is written to retell events with the purpose of either informing or entertaining their audience (or both). 2. Purpose Derewianka (2004: 18) states that the purpose of a recount is to list and describe past experiences by retelling events in the order in which they happened (chronological order). To achieve its purpose, the text will move through a different set of stages: a) an orientation letting the reader knows who is involved, where, when, etc. b) the retelling of a series of events in chronological sequence. Recounts are written to retell events with the purpose of either informing or entertaining their audience (or both). Frequent use is made of words, which link events in time, such us next, after, when then, after, before, first, at the same time. It describes events, so plenty of use is made of verbs (action words), and of adverbs (which describe or add more details are often chosen to add interest or humor to the recount). 3. Types of Recount a. Personal Recount
  21. 21. 21 These usually retell an event that the writer was personally involved in. b. Factual Recount Recording an incident, e.g. a science experiment, police report. c. Imaginative Recount Writing an imaginary role and giving details of events, e.g. A day in the life of a pirate. 4. Features of Recounts and Conventions The recount has a title, which summarizes the text. Past tense verbs are used, and frequent use is made of words which link events in time, such as next, later, when, then, after, before, first. Recounts describe events, so plenty of use is made of verbs (action words), and of adverbs (which describe or add more detail to verbs). 5. Structure The recount has a title, which usually summaries the text specific participants (Mum, the crab). The basic of recount consist of three parts: a. The setting or orientation – background information answering who? when? where? And why? b. Events are identified and described in chronological order. c. Concluding comments express a personal opinion regarding the events described.
  22. 22. 22 6. The Example of Recount Text The sample text of Recount such as Newspaper reports, diary entries, interviews, conversation, letters. This sample recount is labelled to show you the structure and language features of a recount text. (source:Derewianka, 2004: 16” Exploring How Texts Work”).
  23. 23. 23 III THE RESULTS OF STUDY As the result of investigation and study about the implementation of teaching recount writing at the Eight Grade of SMPN 8 Bandung, the writer concludes that: 1. The study showed that generally, the teacher used methods in teaching recount are Audio Lingual Method, Direct Method and Community Language Learning with communicative approach. Technically, the teacher's preparation, at the first step, are the preparation of the teacher before teaching in the classroom, making lesson plans, deciding methods, a handbook, and supporting media. Furthermore, the teacher carried out and reinforced the materials with several exercises and task for homework, gave the factual examples and drills in order to make lesson easier and more understandable, developed students' capacity to write their experiences and elicit their knowledge. And he also used media in comprehending grammar and tenses when they compose recount, besides the teacher helped students to provide creating attractive process in learning English. The teacher evaluated the students' comprehension in writing recount. 2. Moreover, students' responses to the implementation of teaching recount shows that teaching recount runs more joyful and helps the students to dig their ideas and construct the text more easily both in-group and individually. B. Suggestion
  24. 24. 24 Considering the significance of the implementation of teaching recount writing, the writer suggests some points that should be taken in action by an English teacher and students as follows: 1. Generally review for junior high school students: a. Students need to learn more grammar to facilitate them in writing recount b. The most important thing is students should throw away their thinking that English is difficult. Students should be aware that English is knowledge, which is as fun as what they learn at junior high school. c. Students should practice to write recount by writing their, experience in diary or making journals. 2. Generally review for teachers: a. It is better for English teachers to make their students realize that English materials related to recount is much easy to be learned. The teachers can use some media and factual examples in order to make situation of learning more attractive and understandable. b. In teaching recount, the teacher should explain more about recount writing such as the types of recount including personal recount, factual recount, and imaginative recount and explain about text elements of recount. REFERENCES Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1996. Prosedur Penelitian. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Brown, H. Douglas. (1994). Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New Jersey/United State of America: Prentice Hall Regents, Inc. Derewianka, Beverly. (2004). Exploring How Texts Work. Australia: Primary English Teaching Association. Donn, Byrne. 1988. Teaching writing skill. London: Longman group ltd.
  25. 25. 25 Harris, P, David. 1969. Testing English as A Second Language. New York. Megrawa Hill book Company. Joachim and Sallie. 2005. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education. London. (http:www.definition/writing/htm9/9/021) Leo, dkk. 2007. English for Academic Purpose: Essay Writing. Yogyakarta: C.V Andi Offset. Margono. 2004. Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Pardiyono. 2007. Pasti Bisa!! Teaching Gendre-Based Writing. Yogyakarta: C.V Andi Offset. Sokolik, Maggie. 2003. Practical English Language Teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill Sudjana, Nana. 2005. Dasar-dasar Proses Belajar Mengajar. Bandung: Sinar Baru Algesindo. Sugiyono, 2007. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R & D. Bandung: Alfabeta. Surahmad, winarno. 1985. Pengantar Penelitian Ilmiah. Bandung: Tarsito. Tompkins and Hoskisson. 1991. Language Arts Content and Teaching Strategies. Canada: Macmillan Publishing Company. www.lmpc.edu.au/resources/Science/research_projects/text_types/2_recount.html http://infocenter.sybase.com/help/index.jsp? topic=/com.sybase.dc35892_1500/html/instalibm/BA

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