Best practices in employment jan 24 2012


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Best practices in employment jan 24 2012

  1. 1. Towards an Understanding ofEffective Practices in EmploymentPrograms for People with Disabilitiesin Canada Cameron Crawford January 24, 2012 1
  2. 2. Objectives• Identify and analyze domestic best practices in programs, approaches or initiatives that support the participation of people with disabilities in the labour market• Show how people with disabilities can overcome barriers to labour market participation – Thereby allowing governments to draw lessons from effective and successful employment programs for people with disabilities and develop policy options to optimize labour market outcomes for this group 2
  3. 3. Research tasks• Review best practices based on relevant reports and literature on the situation in Canada• Consult with provinces and territories about their current labour market programs• Analyze existing evaluation findings• Identify and compare best practices that could be adopted 3
  4. 4. Scope• Employment programs, esp. active labour market measures related to people with disabilities‟ participation in the labour force – The research did not place a significant focus on income support and social service programs, although these could not be entirely overlooked 4
  5. 5. Data sources • Documents: – EBSM evaluations – LMAPD Annual Reports – Evaluation of the CPP-D Vocational Rehabilitation Program – Promising Practices in Employability assistance for People with Disabilities (EAPD) Funded Programs and Services – EI Reform and Persons with Disabilities – Summative Evaluation of the Opportunities Fund for Persons with Disabilities (2001 and 2008) – Journal articles and other scholarly publications from 2000 onwards and various other sources, e.g., employment organizations‟ websites • Interviews: – With government officials from all provinces and territories 5
  6. 6. The literature in general• EBSM evaluations – little that is specific to people with disabilities• LMAPD Annual Reports – high level descriptive information about programming but little in the way of analytical detail about factors that contribute to the effectiveness of programming• Difficult to achieve comparability in analysis of programs across jurisdictions 6
  7. 7. General challenges• Some improvement in the employment rate of people with disabilities in recent years – Yet, low employment rates persist – Only about half who are outside of the labour force feel completely prevented from working because of disability (534,190 ÷ 1,068,150) and many face social and economic barriers to obtaining employment 7
  8. 8. The employment rate of people with disabilities isconsistently lower than that of people withoutdisabilities, but has been improving (HALS & PALS) 90.0% employed in reference 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 week 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 86 (HALS) 91 (HALS) 01 (PALS) 06 (PALS) With disabilities Without disabilities 8
  9. 9. Explaining the issue:GENERAL SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS 9
  10. 10. The gap in employment for people withdisabilities has historically persistedacross gender lines, but is narrowing (PALS) 80.0 % FT employment all year 75.0 70.0 65.0 60.0 55.0 50.0 45.0 40.0 35.0 30.0 Men Women Men Women 2001 2001 2006 2006 With disabilities 44.9 38.5 54.1 48.9 Without disabilities 78.5 69.1 80.0 70.3 10
  11. 11. Employment levels vary by age…(butworsen in relative terms for people withdisabilities as they get older) (PALS 2006)100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% .0% 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 WO disability With disability Disability-No Disability Ratio 11
  12. 12. Employment rates increase withincreases in education level (PALS 2006) 90.0% 83.7% 82.6% 83.4% 80.0% 74.2% 70.0% 58.4% 59.4% 54.8% 51.5% 60.0% 44.8% 50.0% 40.0% 29.9% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% .0% Less than high High school Trades College University school certificate or diploma With disabilities WO disabilities 12
  13. 13. Highest level of educational certificationhas increased, showing disability status*(SLID, 1999, 2004, 2008) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 99 04 08 99 04 08 With disability Without disability University certificate 10.2 14.3 16.9 17.9 22.5 25.4 Non-university post-secondary certificate 27.1 31.3 30.9 28.2 30.1 29.9 Some post-secondary (no certificate) 13.2 13.0 14.3 15.9 16.2 16.4 High school diploma 16.7 16.3 14.4 17.6 15.3 13.8 Less than high school diploma 32.7 25.1 23.5 20.3 15.9 14.4 * Totals exclude missing cases (i.e., “not stated”) and have been rescaled to 100%. 13
  14. 14. Work-related training makes adifference• Training is associated with positive employment outcomes – Lack of work-related training is reported as one of the main barriers to employment by people with disabilities who are outside of the labour force • Various reports have pointed to the problem of lack of training for people with disabilities 14
  15. 15. Geography matters• The employment gap between people with and without disabilities has been longstanding in all jurisdictions – But the gap has tended to be largest from Quebec eastwards 15
  16. 16. The employment gap – 2001 and2006 (PALS) 16
  18. 18. Employment levels vary by whetherjob supports are needed (PALS 2006*) Employed 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% Job redesign Modified work hours Human support Technical aids Computer aids Communication aids Accessible workstation Modified chair Rails, ramps Appropriate parking Accessible elevator Accessible washroomAccessible transportation * People active in the labour force at some point from 2001-2006 18
  19. 19. Employment levels vary by whetherneeded job supports are available(PALS 2006*) .0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0%100.0% Job redesign Modified work hours Human support Technical aids Computer aids Communication aids Accessible workstation Modified chair Rails, ramps Parking Accessible elevator Accessible washroom Accessible transportation Supports available Supports not available * People active in the labour force at some point from 2001-2006 19
  20. 20. Marked differences in employmentrates by type of disability (PALS) 20
  21. 21. Employment levels decrease withseverity of disability (PALS)70.0%60.0%50.0%40.0%30.0%20.0%10.0% .0% Mild Moderate Severe Very Severe Employed Of not in the labour force, not feeling completely prevented because of disability 21
  22. 22. Employment levels also vary inrelation to• Public perceptions and attitudes towards disability• Cause of disability• Age at disability onset• A range of other factors 22
  24. 24. Little agreement in the researchand scholarly literature• Claims are often made that a practice is „best‟ without sufficient evidence for the claim• Some argue that approaches should be evidence-based or science-based, allowing the self-correcting nature of scientific enquiry sort out what is actually „best‟ in the long run• Some have argued that a causal approach should be adopted that ties specific inputs to predictable outcomes 24
  25. 25. „Promising practices‟ (HRDC) include:• Strong client focus • Facilitation of access to• Holistic approach to voluntary work and work assessment of clients‟ experience that leads to interests, strengths and remunerative employment needs • Dedication and leadership• Focus on ensuring by program staff appropriate education and • High levels of client /or training satisfaction• Education and awareness- • Provision of wage raising among employers subsidies in some cases• Partnerships between programs and employers 25
  26. 26. Selected other approaches• Common principles and practices (intellectual disability, brain injury and mental illness) tend to take into account: – Attitudinal barriers in the workplace (e.g., need for supportive employers and co-workers) – Ensuring employment and accommodations are congruent with the needs of the person, the demands of the job and the resources in the work environment – Meeting the need for the individual‟s access to ongoing support as required (professional or workplace-based) 26
  27. 27. Generally, „promising‟ or „effective‟practices• Focus on facilitating access to employment in the open labour market instead of in sheltered / segregated work• However, some push back – „Meaningful activity‟ a legitimate outcome for some? – And what about employment in the open labour market that is „precarious‟? 27
  28. 28. Effective practices in post-secondaryeducation and training?• Again, no consensus as to benchmarks• Therefore, “indirect, proxy and subjective indicators” (Canadian Council on Learning) revolve around: – Educational attainment – Participation rates – Public expenditures – Demographic trends and institutional capacity – Flexible alternate delivery – Credit transfer – Prior learning assessment and recognition – Public opinion polling 28
  29. 29. Characteristics of Effective Programming 29
  30. 30. Overview of service characteristics• Skilled staff with positive views about the employment potential of people with disabilities• Measures to strengthen individuals‟ self-confidence• Holistic, individualized, long-range employment planning• Employment-focused approaches (e.g., place and train)• Achieving a good fit between individual‟s interests and aptitudes and employment opportunities / employer needs• Coordinated approach (funding, supports, education / training, employment) 30
  31. 31. Staff expertise and values• Have finger on the pulse of the community, are well connected and aware of opportunities• Treat clients with dignity and respect, avoid labels and stereotypes and believe in individuals‟ employment potential 31
  32. 32. Specialization and diversification• A mix of providers – Serves people with a diversity of disabilities who meet various eligibility criteria (e.g., EI, social assistance) – Some organizations serve people with any disability and have developed the expertise to do this well – Some organizations specialize, e.g., in intellectual disability, learning disabilities, mental health, physical disability, acquired brain injury, deaf or hard-of-hearing 32
  33. 33. Building/strengthening self-confidence• Not so much an explicit program focus• Occurs as a result of individuals‟ participation in planning, training, post- secondary education, work experience, etc. – E.g., Students Exploring Through (SET) Mentoring (NL) helps youth explore post- school options with the support of adult mentors 33
  34. 34. Individualized, holistic, long-rangeapproaches• For counselling, planning, placement and follow-up• Individualized: – Attends to individual strengths, skills, interests and needs• Holistic – Takes into account other matters that may have to be addressed, e.g., children, housing, medications, etc. 34
  35. 35. Individualized, holistic, long-rangeapproaches• For counselling, planning, placement and follow-up• Long-range – Careers evolve and change – Premised on the assumption that people need to be „upskilling‟, networking and acquiring references on an ongoing basis – Helping the person to stay on the „career river‟ than simply helping to find a „boat‟ 35
  36. 36. Coordinated approach• Particularly important where an individual has a complex mix of programs and supports that has to be accessed and managed 36
  37. 37. Achieving the right „fit‟• Finding a match between what the employer needs and what the individual has (or has the potential) to offer• For some, social enterprise, self-employment, supported employment may be appropriate – E.g., Adapted Enterprises (QC), BIZ Futures (ON), Supported Employment Training Initiative (SETI – SK) 37
  38. 38. Overcoming barriers in theworkplace• Ensuring support is available: – Ongoing support to individuals with disabilities (human and technological supports; extended health benefits) • For people who experience factors that aggravate disability and place their job at risk • For people with late onset disability who are at risk of job loss 38
  39. 39. Overcoming barriers in theworkplace• Ensuring support is available: – Ongoing support to employers (problem-solving assistance) – Wage subsidies of varying durations to employers in some jurisdictions, e.g., Saskatchewan, Quebec, Manitoba, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario 39
  40. 40. Overcoming barriers in theworkplace• Providing employer education / awareness-raising – About the employment potential of people with disabilities – Business case for hiring and retaining people with disabilities – About how to accommodate – Various Employers‟ Forums are doing this kind of work – Other: BC‟s 10 by 10 Challenge, Alberta‟s Employment Innovation Project for Persons with Disabilities, Saskatchewan‟s Supported Employment Month, Ontario‟s Don‟t Waste the Talent campaign 40
  41. 41. Overcoming barriers in education• Furthering post-secondary education and / or training is key to increasing the employment chances of people with disabilities – Need to ensure that supportive measures are in place, including human and technical support, accessible transportation and educational / training facilities, funding for tuition, books and supplies, modified curricula, mix of classroom training and work experience, support for longer- term rather than short-term programming, access to literacy and numeracy upgrading where required 41
  42. 42. Organizational networking andcollaboration• Effective organizations: – Are well-connected to employers, governments, educators / trainers and other stakeholders – Share experiences and best practices – Examples • Branches of the Canadian Association for Supported Employment, Ontario Disability Employment Network, New Brunswick Disability Executive Network 42
  43. 43. Future directions• Facilitate access to post-secondary education and training and the supports needed to succeed, there• Facilitate transitions from school to work, and ensure necessary supports are available• Implement individualized, client focused, well- coordinated approaches• Attend to issues facing youth, learn about what works well and continue to build on successes with upcoming cohorts of young people 43