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Laura O'Brien capstone for Argosy University Laura O'Brien capstone for Argosy University Presentation Transcript

  • 1
    Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio
    Laura O’Brien
    BA Psychology, 2011
  • Personal Statement
    At the tender age of 11, my sexual abuse began. There was nowhere for me to turn as questions, depression, and feelings of self-hate enmeshed my formative teen years. I experienced symptoms consistent with PTSD, seldom diagnosed in children particularly in the 1970’s and 80’s.
    I had repressed memories of the more severe episodes of my abuse, which needed to be brought to light in order for me to heal properly. This may seem a simple idea, but it took me most of my life to understand how my life was truly patterned through a path of denial and unresolved pain.
    Over the years, my professional life was in built in the banking industry. I found I had great customer service skills, and a penchant for all aspects of banking. I ended my banking career of 27 years, and turned to children once more when my first child was born. I built a phenomenal business caring for hundred’s of children over a span of 15 years.
    As my own children got older, and my business was running smoothly, I turned my attention back to some other goals I wanted to achieve. I discovered a non-profit organization in my area that helped survivors of trauma. It was then that I became California State certified in sexual assault/rape trauma, and thus began my counseling work with rape survivors for 4 years. The training I received for this certification was incredibly therapeutic, and brought me full circle to my true path: psychology and sociology.
  • Another path that I began to follow took place in 2004. I joined a chorus of women who sing in four-part harmony. My life has forever been changed with this fulfilling, and therapeutic “sport” of singing and dancing. We compete on a Regional level, and once first place has been awarded, we go on to represent the Region on the International level. This has allowed me to travel to cities all around the United States, and Canada. I also have the unique and distinct pleasure in joining my voice in harmony with women from all over the world.
    The choruses I belong to are part of a non-profit organization, and as such, we need to be self-sufficient. Part of giving back to this organization comes jobs within the chorus. I have done managerial work, welcome and train new members, along with being a leader in various rolls. I have, thus, been able to synch my skills and experience.
    Continuing my education, combined with my personal history, will allow me to reach out, and be available to the community in which I live. I will be able to maintain my resolution of being there for someone in need after a traumatic experience. I will be able to touch lives in a positive, meaningful way. I will hear, and empathize, and know from a personal and scholarly perspective a survivor’s story.
    With a BA in Psychology, obtained with a 3.8 GPA, I plan to go forth into the field, as the market allows, and continue my education by pursing my Masters Degree, as I continue to sing and dance, and find the joy in life.
  • Resume
    Laura O'Brien Dunn
    (address and phone numbers provided upon request)
    lauraob.isdunn@yahoo.com
    Education
    BA Psychology, Argosy University, anticipated graduation date 4/23/11 (GPA 3.8)
    Sexual Assault/Rape Trauma Counseling, State of California, San Mateo, CA 2004- 11/2009
    AA Psychology, Cape Cod Community College, Barnstable, MA 1981-83
    Pre-Med/Psychology with an English minor, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 1980-81
    Professional Skills and Experience
    Sexual assault/rape trauma counselor
    Legal and forensic advocate for rape survivors
    Hot-line crisis counseling
    Individual and group therapy
    California State licensed child care business owner and provider
    Private scholastic tutoring with a focus on reading and English for ESL students
    20+ years in the banking industry
  • employment
    6/2010 to present US Bank
    Highlands Ranch, Colorado
    Banking
    1999-11/2009 Laura's Child Care -owner
      San Mateo, California
    CHILD CARE PROVIDER
    • Provided a nurturing, educational environment in a home setting to children of all ages. Emphasis was placed on tolerance, education, manners, and expression.
    • Supplemental classes were taken in: caring for Special Needs children, Asthma, nutrition, and Pediatric First Aid and CPR.
    • Member of the Child Care Coordinating Counsel.
    • Worked closely with social workers, lawyers, and the Court for at risk teens while providing a loving atmosphere of acceptance and normalcy for the children.
    • Provided interviews for the County to improve services.
    1982-1999, 2010-present Various banking positions
      California, Massachusetts, and Colorado
    BANKING INDUSTRY
    Experience in all aspects of the banking industry are part of my expertise including, but not exclusive: loan officer, vault teller, call center, training new employees, new accounts, bookkeeping, assistant manager, conducting audit meetings, teller work, customer service, reviewing applications for potential employees, auditing documents, and having ATM responsibilities
  • Volunteer work and credentials
    2005-11/2009 Rape Trauma Services
    San Mateo, California
    Sexual Assault Counselor-volunteer
    • Hot-Line counselor providing assessment of critical nature of calls i.e. suicide, safe location. As well as providing expert resources for specific issues pertaining to the caller.
    • Legal advocate for survivors providing emotional support, legal, and forensic information during questioning and examination at the hospital.
    • Counseling provided as follow-up for all cases including significant others and family members.
    • Facilitated in healing and the prevention of violence through counseling
    Credentials
    • State Certified and licensed Child Care Provider and business owner
    • First Aid and CPR Certification
    • California State Certified Sexual Assault and Trauma Counselor
    • Extensive academic classes in all aspects of Psychology including: Abnormal, Child, Industrial/Organizational, Human Sexuality, Diversity, Psychology of Women, Cognition and Learning, Forensic, Behavioral, & Substance Abuse to name a few
  • Self analysis/reflection
    When I graduated high school in 1980, I was certain that I wanted to be a psychiatrist. I had always been fascinated with the field of psychology and medicine. I was also certain, at the ripe age of 17, I wanted to be a Mommy. However, with the feminist movement of the 1970’s, it was taught that it was demeaning to aspire to be a mother, and one should reach for higher goals than any man. It was with this mixture that I began my scholarly course, only to discover that unresolved childhood trauma would put roadblocks up until I tended to personal self-care.
    Thirty years later, having experienced motherhood, therapy, and many other things that fill ones life, I came full circle to finish the degree I began when I was 17. I feel that achieving this milestone sets a great example for my children, and reinforces the thought that I have always been true to myself. I, basically, have always wanted the same thing: to help people cope and understand, with a special focus on children.
    Attending Argosy University’s online program was one of the best decisions I ever made. I have been able to achieve my goal, and not be bound to attending school on a campus. I brought the school with me when I needed to travel, and even move from one State to another.
    My tenure at Argosy University has sharpened my cognitive abilities in critical thinking, and taught me how to thoroughly research any given topic. I am able to communicate my researched materials in a variety of ways: through discussion, a presentation, or in a written scholarly paper.
    With globalization, cultural diversity, a very needed area of concentration, was a field that Argosy thoroughly covered. In fact, just being in the same discussions with people from all over the United States, who may have been from other areas of the world prior, was a learning experience. I was very fortunate to have lived in Northern California for my adult life, so diversity and acceptance is already a way of life for me.
    Increasing my knowledge in the field of psychology by taking various classes, I discovered aspects of the field that I didn’t know existed to be fascinating giving me a greater appreciation and opening new windows for thought. I/O and Forensic psychology were perhaps my greatest discoveries. Of course, I delighted in studying all aspects, but particularly enjoyed applying theories to case studies.
    Finally, I feel that with my experience at Argosy, combined with my work as a Sexual Assault counselor, being a mother, running a child care business, and going through my own personal experiences, I have honed my interpersonal effectiveness skills. I feel that Argosy has polished me, and got me ready for my next venture.
    I look forward to obtaining a position in my field, and then continuing my education. Why would I stop now?
  • Table of Contents
    • Research Skills...Sexual Assault and PTSD
    • Sexual Assault & PTSD power point presentation
    • Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy…Analysis: Patty Heart, a power point presentation
    • Ethics and Diversity Awareness…cultural diversity power point presentation
    • Foundations of Psychology
    • Applied Psychology…scenarios
  • Research
    Sexual Assault and PTSD
    Laura A. O’Brien
    Argosy University
  • abstract
    This paper will correlate sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder henceforth written as PTSD. It will show regardless of the age or gender of the survivor, trauma occurs. The extent of this trauma, in most cases, lead to PTSD. In a very few cases, rape is treated as trauma when the assault occurs. Therefore, if sexual assault is recognized as a traumatic event, PTSD can be avoided. This paper will also investigate the statistical phenomenon of survivors who are raped will be raped more than once increasing the odds of developing PTSD.
  • Having gathered peer-reviewed research containing empirical statistics, not one article was found that negates the concept that sexual assault and PTSD are related. In fact, the more recent the studies, the findings seem to relate PTSD as a result as opposed to simply naming some of the symptoms, such as depression. “Across all types of abuse, women were more than twice as likely to develop PTSD as men. The sex difference was greatest among sexual abuse victims. Female victims' greater revictimization explained a substantial proportion (39%) of the sex differences in PTSD risk” (Koenen & Windom, 2009).
  • It is extremely relevant to understand the vicious cycle to abuse and sexual assault. Understanding all aspects of an issue can lead to earlier recovery and end the cycle (Sarkar & Sarkar, 2005; Ullman et al, 2007; Read et al, 2007). Attaining the true diagnosis of all sexual assault survivors is imperative. Recognizing sexual assault causes PTSD will help in the dealing with mental health issues early on. Secondly, having studies and statistical data regarding how men/boys respond to sexual assault can only give a clearer understanding in combating this violence as well as helping these male victims get the help and healing they deserve which is so critical.
  • It is recognized more research is needed in the area of men/boys and sexual assault. There are few studies regarding the victimization of males, such as Moore (2006) and Spencer & Dunklee (1986), as opposed to the plethora found regarding women/girls. However, Koenen and Widom (2009) propose that women are twice as likely as men to develop PTSD. Their assertion comes from documented reported childhood sexual abuse: girls have a higher history than boys of sexual victimization, sexual assault and rape. Their studies show over 20% of men and over 40% of women met lifetime criteria for PTSD relating to childhood sexual abuse. An important notation regarding these findings is the sample used for the study was taken only from the mid-Western part of the United States from 1960-1970 and therefore may not be generalized, however compelling.
  • A comprehensive study conducted by Widom, Dutton, Czaja, and DuMont in 2005, correlates a person’s lifetime trauma and victimization (LTVH) using an interview technique of 896 people that were a mixture of documented histories of abuse, and those without documented victimization. In all, 11,850 traumas or victimization were reported. It should be noted that sexual abuse is just one of the components constituting trauma in this study.
  • Olatunji, Elwood, Williams, & Lohr (2008) determined feeling unclean or dirty was felt by victims of rape, in addition to other symptoms such as “general negative view of self, perceived permanent change, alienation from self and others, hopelessness, negative interpretation of symptoms, self-trust, self-blame, trust in other people, and [living in an] unsafe world” (Olatunji et al, 2008). The three prevalent factors relating to PTSD in this study are negative feelings regarding self and the world along with experiencing self-blame.
  • “Sexual abusecharges varied from relatively nonspecific charges of ‘assault and battery with intent to gratify sexual desires” to more specific charges of “fondling or touching in an obscene manner,’ rape, sodomy, incest, and so forth” (Widom, Dutton, Czaja, and DuMont, 2005).
    The following statistics, gender specific of children between 0-11 years, reported by Widom et al (2005) pertinent to this paper are:
    “Description Men (%) Women (%) Odds ratio
    Coerced into unwanted sex
    12.9 42.5 4.99
    Attempted forced sex 11.0
    21.4 2.20
    Private parts touched
    4.8 13.8 3.15”
  • Further developing studies on children may benefit their healing process and help to avoid dysfunctional personal perceptions as they grow older, and if recognized early enough can spare triggering a trauma response that may last a life time until recovery steps are taken.
  • .
    However, the study conducted by Fortier, DiLillo, Messman-Moore, Peugh DeNardi & Gaffey (2009) is particularly tuned into the theory of childhood sexual assault (CSA) and adult revictimitzation. Specifically, the CSA severity was conceptualized as leading to the use of avoidant coping, which was then thought to lead to maintenance of trauma symptoms, which in turn, impact severity of revictimization indirectly. Coping strategies of children are known to be resilient, but are not alike in all children, so the degree of the abuse and the individual child, as a victim, are extremely relevant. Fortier et al (2009) sought to prove coping strategies are amenable to change and thus represent viable targets for intervention among individuals dealing with the negative effects, such as PTSD, of abuse. Coping strategies used by individuals during childhood included attempts to stop the abuse, avoidance, psychological escape, and compensation, while adult strategies involved breaking away from the past, cognitive coping, self-discovery, and revisiting the past.
  • General psychological distress is the most commonly examined outcome of abuse found in the coping literature, followed closely by psychosocial outcomes such as PTSD, dissociation, depression, and interpersonal problems including sexual dysfunction and revictimization as discussed in the research article Psychotic Experiences in People who have been Sexually Assaulted by Kilcommons, Morrison, Knight, & Lobban (2008) which closely ties sexual assault and PTSD.
  • In conclusion, future research questions would be two-fold; one would broaden the scope of studies to include males. There are studies that acknowledge that those who have survived sexual assault, as a child will go on to become an abuser (Moore, 2006). In addition, further developing studies on children may benefit their healing process and help to avoid dysfunctional personal perceptions as they grow older, and if recognized early enough can spare triggering a trauma response that may last a life time until recovery steps are taken.
    However, studies relate that more men are abusers than women, therefore a hypothesis would be women will “act in” by becoming depressed and suffering from PTSD, and men will “act out” and victimize as a means to deal with their trauma which needs to be studied more fully with greater detail.
  • references
    Fortier, M. A., DiLillo, D., Messman-Moore, T. L., Peugh, J., DeNardi, K. A., & Gaffey, K. J. (2009). Severity of child sexual abuse and revictimization: theme-diating role of coping and trauma symptoms. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33(3), 308-320. Doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01503.x. Retrieved March 16, 2011 from: http://content.ebscohost.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org/pdf23
    Kilcommons, A. M., Morrison, A. P., Knight, A., & Lobban, F. (2008). Psychotic experiences in people who have been sexually assaulted. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(8), 602-611. doi:10.1007/s00127-007-0303-z
    Koenen, K., & Widom, C. (2009). A prospective study of sex differences in the lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among abused and neglected children grown up. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(6), 566-574. doi:10.1002/jts.20478
    Moore, P. (2006). Boys who have abused: Psychoanalytic psychotherapy with victim/perpetrators of sexual abuse. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(13), 865-866. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
    Olatunji, B. O., Elwood, L. S., Williams, N. L., & Lohr, J. M. (2008). Mental pollution and PTSD symptoms in victims of sexual assault: A preliminary examination of the mediating role of trauma-related cognitions. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 22(1), 37-47. Doi:10.1891/0889.8391.22.1.37
  • Rauch, S. M., Grunfeld, T. E., Yadin, E., Cahill, S. P., Hembree, E., & Foa, E. B. (2009). Changes in reported physical health symptoms and social function with prolonged exposure therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 26(8), 732-738. doi:10.1002/da.20518
    Read, J., Os, J., Morrison, A., & Ross, C. (2005). Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: a literature review with theoretical and clinical implications. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112(5), 330-350. Doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00634.
    Sarkar, N. N., & Sarkar, R. (2005). Sexual assault on woman: Its impact on her life and living in society.Sexual & Relationship Therapy, 20(4), 407-419. Doi:10.1080/14681990500249502
    Spencer, M. J., & Dunklee, P. (1986). Sexual abuse of boys. Pediatrics, 78(1), 133. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
    Ullman, S., Filipas, H., Townsend, S., & Starzynski, L. (2007). Psychosocial correlates of PTSD symptom severity in sexual assault survivors.Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(5), 821-831. Doi:10.1002/jts.20290
  • Ullman, S. E., Townsend, S. M., Filipas, H. H., & Starzynski, L. L. (2007). Structural models of the relations of assault severity, social support, avoidance coping, self-blame, and PTSD among sexual assault survivors. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31(1), 23-37 doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00328.x
    Widom, C., Dutton, M., Czaja, S. J., & DuMont, K. A. (2005). Development and validation of a new instrument to assess lifetime trauma and victimization history.Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(5), 519-531. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
    Yaeger, D., Himmelfarb, N., Cammack, A., & Mintz, J. (2006). DSM-IV Diagnosed posttraumatic stress disorder in women veterans with and without military sexual trauma.JGIM: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21S65-S69. Doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00377.x
  • Sexual Assault and PTSD
    Laura A. O’Brien
    Argosy University
  • Abstract
    • This presentation will correlate sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD.
    • It will show regardless of the age or gender of the survivor, trauma does occur.
    • The extent of this trauma, in most cases, leads to PTSD.
    • In a very few cases, rape is treated as trauma when the assault occurs.
    • Therefore, if sexual assault is recognized as a traumatic event, PTSD can be avoided.
  • Peer reviewed research and empirical statistics
    • Support correlation between sexual assault and PTSD
    • Women more likely to develop PTSD as men (Koenen & Widom, 2009)
  • Relevance of correlation
    • Understanding the vicious cycle of abuse and sexual assault
    • Understanding leads to quicker recovery
    • Imperative to attain true diagnosis of rape survivors
    • Recognizing signs of PTSD
    • Studies & statistical data regarding how men/boys respond to sexual assault can only give a clearer understanding in combating this violence as well as helping male victims (Sarkar & Sarkar, 2005; Ullman et al, 2007; Read et al, 2007)
  • Prevalent factors
    • Rape survivors report feeling dirty or unclean (Olatunji, Elwood, Williams, & Lohr (2008).
    • “General negative view of self, perceived permanent change, alienation from self and others, hopelessness, negative interpretation of symptoms, self-trust, self-blame, trust in other people, and [living in an] unsafe world” (Olatunji et al, 2008)
    • Factors relating to PTSD in this study are negative feelings regarding self & the world along with experiencing self-blame.
  • Research by Widom, Dutton, Czaja, and DuMont (2005)
    “Sexual abuse charges varied from relatively nonspecific charges of ‘assault and battery with intent to gratify sexual desires, to more specific charges of fondling or touching in an obscene manner, rape, sodomy, incest, and so forth.”
    “The following statistics, gender specific of children between 0-11 years, are reported by Widom et al (2005):
    Description Men (%) Women (%) Odds ratio
    Coerced into unwanted sex 12.9 42.5 4.99
    Attempted forced sex 11.0 21.4 2.20
    Private parts touched 4.8 13.8 3.15”
  • Coping strategiesFortier, DiLillo, Messman-Moore, Peugh DeNardi & Gaffey (2009)
    • Children use various coping strategies when dealing with abuse or trauma
    • CSA (childhood sexual assault)conceptualized as leading to the use of avoidant coping, which was then thought to lead to maintenance of trauma symptoms, which in turn, impact severity of revictimization indirectly
    • Depending upon the resiliency of the individual will determine future PTSD
  • Strengths and Weaknesses of all Studies
    • There is a plethora of research and empirical data regarding children, in particular, girls.
    • There are more current studies concerning women and girls.
    • It is difficult to find research regarding boys, and there is far less to be found on men.
    • Some studies that relate compelling statistics can not be generalized due to sample population.
  • Conclusion
    Future research questions:
    • Addressing the need to broaden the scope of studies to include males
    • Further developing studies on children to facilitate their healing process
    • The hypothesis women will “act in” by becoming depressed, and suffering from PTSD, and men will “act out” and victimize as a means to deal with their trauma.
  • References
    Fortier, M. A., DiLillo, D., Messman-Moore, T. L., Peugh, J., DeNardi, K. A., & Gaffey, K. J. (2009). Severity of child sexual abuse and revictimization: theme-diating role of coping and trauma symptoms. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33(3), 308-320. Doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01503.x
    Koenen, K., & Widom, C. (2009). A prospective study of sex differences in the lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among abused and neglected children grown up. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(6), 566-574. doi:10.1002/jts.2047
    Moore, P. (2006). Boys who have abused: Psychoanalytic psychotherapy with victim/perpetrators of sexual abuse. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(13), 865-866. Retrieved from EBSCOhost
  • Olatunji, B. O., Elwood, L. S., Williams, N. L., & Lohr, J. M. (2008). Mental pollution and PTSD symptoms in victims of sexual assault: A preliminary examination of the mediating role of trauma-related cognitions. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 22(1), 37-47. Doi:10.1891/0889.8391.22.1.3
    Rauch, S. M., Grunfeld, T. E., Yadin, E., Cahill, S. P., Hembree, E., & Foa, E. B. (2009). Changes in reported physical health symptoms and social function with prolonged exposure therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 26(8), 732-738. doi:10.1002/da.2051
    Read, J., Os, J., Morrison, A., & Ross, C. (2005). Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: a literature review with theoretical and clinical implications. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112(5), 330-350. Doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00634
    Sarkar, N. N., & Sarkar, R. (2005). Sexual assault on woman: Its impact on her life and living in society.Sexual & Relationship Therapy, 20(4), 407-419. Doi:10.1080/1468199050024950
    Spencer, M. J., & Dunklee, P. (1986). Sexual abuse of boys. Pediatrics, 78(1), 133. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
  • Ullman, S., Filipas, H., Townsend, S., & Starzynski, L. (2007). Psychosocial correlates of PTSD symptom severity in sexual assault survivors.Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(5), 821-831. Doi:10.1002/jts.202
    Ullman, S. E., Townsend, S. M., Filipas, H. H., & Starzynski, L. L. (2007). Structural models of the relations of assault severity, social support, avoidance coping, self-blame, and PTSD among sexual assault survivors. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31(1), 23-37 doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00328.
    Widom, C., Dutton, M., Czaja, S. J., & DuMont, K. A. (2005). Development and validation of a new instrument to assess lifetime trauma and victimization history.Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(5), 519-531. Retrieved from EBSCOhost
    Yaeger, D., Himmelfarb, N., Cammack, A., & Mintz, J. (2006). DSM-IV Diagnosed posttraumatic stress disorder in women veterans with and without military sexual trauma.JGIM: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21S65-S69. Doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00377.x
  • Cultural Diversity in the Workplace
    Laura O’Brien
    Argosy University
    Ethics and Diversity Awareness
  • The Global Demographic Trends Impacting Diversity
    • Population trends
    • Working-age population movements
    • Racial and ethnic trends
    • Sexual-orientation trends
    • Gender trends
    • What the potential impact of the changes are on the firm
    • What measures the firm should implement to sustain a diverse workforce.
  • Role of Diversity
    From Argosy University (2011):
  • Population Trends
    • “From 1990 to 2013, Latino purchasing power is projected to grow by 560 percent, while white purchasing power during the same period is only projected to grow by 211 percent (Selig Center for Economic Growth).
    • From 1990 to 2007, the nation's Black population increased by 27 percent, compared with 15 percent for the white population and 21 percent for the total population (American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau)
    • In 2007, the Black share of total buying power was 8.4 percent, up from 7.4 percent in 1990. This was expected to rise to 8.7 percent by 2012, which accounts for nine cents out of every dollar spent nationwide (Selig Center for Economic Growth).
    • About 78 percent of LGBT people and their friends and relatives would switch brands to companies that are known as being LGBT-friendly
(Witeck-Combs/Harris Interactive).
    • All of The Diversity Inc Top 50 Companies for Diversity have LGBT employee-resource groups versus 30 percent five years ago (DiversityIncBestPractices.com).
    • Over a 12-year period, from 1995 to 2007, the purchasing power of people with disabilities increased by 26 percent, the equivalent of $45 billion (U.S. Census Bureau).
    • In August 2009, the unemployment rate of people with a disability was 16.9 percent, compared with 9.3 percent for people with no ADA-defined disability (Department of Labor/Bureau of Labor Statistics)
    • Six million veterans have disabilities, including loss of hearing and hypertension
    • (U.S. Census Bureau).
    • Since the Iraq/Afghanistan wars, 9,100 veterans have been diagnosed with traumatic brain injuries (U.S. Pentagon)
    • Between 2005 and 2016, college enrollment for U.S. Latinos is expected to increase by 45 percent, compared with 17 percent for the general population(U.S. Census Bureau).
    • Approximately 2.4 percent of Fortune 500 CEOs are women, up from 0.6 percent in 2000 (Fortune).
    • Twenty percent of the highest-paid employees at Fortune 500 companies are women (Catalyst)” (Diversity Inc. (2010).
  • Population trends continued
    According to Workforce 2020, Hudson Institute (GilDean Group, 2006)
  • Working age population movement
    • Technology has increased healthy human longevity.
    • The older generations bring experience and wisdom along with years of talent.
    • The younger generation infuses new thoughts and fresh, innovative ideas (Argosy, 2011).
  • Racial and ethnic trends
    • Scientists are beginning to dismiss the concept of “race” as it has no scientific basis. It is believed that people are mixed with a least 2 or more “races” (Argosy, 2011)
    • Racial discrimination is not only illegal, but creates negative energy rather than celebrating differences.
    • Ethnicity “refers to groups within a larger society that are distinguishable” such as religion, language, cultural values and activities.
    • Ethnic differences are not racial differences, but focuses on how a “race” may offer different cultural values.
  • Sexual orientation trends
    • Sexual orientation describes a person’s sexual preference regardless of their gender, or their sexual behavior
    • It needs to be recognized that both genders have both masculine and feminine traits
    • Those that are of a different sexual orientation need to be tolerant of such differences, and not make assumptions.
    • Discrimination is illegal.
  • Potential impact of changes
    • Understanding & accepting diversity in the workplace:
    • Developing awareness of one’s own cultural assumptions, values, and biases.
    • Understanding, both cognitively and emotionally, the worldview of culturally different people.
    • Acquiring appropriate skills, intervention strategies, and techniques for working with culturally different clients. 

    • Acquiring the ability to develop treatment plans based on cultural understanding (ACA, 2005).
    • Such training will help formulate cohesive and enriching experiences for all employees on a personal and work environment level
    • Happy employees are productive employees!
  • Cultural Diversity and Multiculturalism
    Cultural diversity refers to the dynamics resulting from culturally different people coexisting. In other words, multiculturalism describes the landscape — multiple cultures within society, and cultural diversity is what we strive to do within that landscape, namely, coexist respectfully. Further, the overall goal of cultural diversity is not only to tolerate those who are different from us, but also to allow the differences of others to enrich our view of the world and to learn to work cooperatively with them.
    What this means is that all people should strive to understand and accept one another for their sameness, and their differences. With such awareness, acceptance, and tolerance, we should be able to peaceably co-exist in harmony and that is multiculturalism at it’s best (Robinson-Wood, 2009)!
  • Measures to ensure diversity
    • “Define diversity in broad terms including all dimensions of diversity instead of in more narrow, rigid terms
    • Integrate diversity management principles throughout the organization into all aspects of the business, including organizational structures and organizational systems
    • Focus on establishing and serving diverse market segments and a diverse customer base
    • Manage the global aspects of the business, including strategizing global positioning and geocentric attributes of operation” (Argosy, 2011).
    • Offer constant and consistent diversity training within the workplace.
  • References
    ACA, American Counseling Association, (2010). Ethics. 2005 ACA Code o
    Ethics. Article retrieved March 16, 2011 from:
    http://www.counseling.org/Resources/CodeOfEthics/TP/Home/CT2.aspx
    Argosy University (2011). Cultural Diversity in the Workplace, Module 2. Retrieved March 14, 2011 from:http://myeclassonline.com/re/DotNextLaunch.asp?courseid=4891007
    Diversity Inc. (2010). Diversity Management. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from: http://www.diversityinc.com/department/168/Diversity-Facts/
    GilDean Group (2006). Diversity Statistics. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from: http://www.diversityhotwire.com/business/diversity_statistics.html#gl
    Lieberman, S., Simons, G., and Berardo K. (2004). Putting Diversity to Work: How to Successfully Lead a Diverse Workforce. Retrieved March 14, 2011 from: http://www.axzopress.com/downloads/pdf/1560526955pv.pdf
    Robinson-Wood, T. (2009); The Convergence of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender 3rd Ed., Pearson Education Inc.; Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • Forensic Psychology
    The Trial of Patricia Hearst
    Laura O’Brien
    Argosy University
    Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
  • The Case Against Patricia Hearst
    • Kidnapped or willing participant?
    • Raped or willing lover?
    • Brainwashed or acting?
    • Forced to commit crime or saving her life?
    • Traumatized or a true SLA member?
    • Video tapes & audio tapes under scrutiny
    • Body language during trial suspicious
    • Pleading 5th for 52 questions
    (Linder, 2007)
  • In Patricia’s Favor
    • **no prior political ties
    • **no prior violent rebelliousness
    • **happily engaged to be married & settling into adulthood
    • **a “young woman of society” known to not care for “hippies”
    • Kidnapped in hostile take over while fiance was brutally beaten
    • Held hostage in a closet for 52 days
    • Repeatedly raped
    • Constant verbal assault and abuse
    (Ramsland, 2011)
  • Optimal Jury for the Defense
    • Survivors of similar abuse, such as kidnapping, rape, or have been abused by partners in a co-dependent relationship
    • Mental health specialists who have studied survivors of war, particularly, POW’s
    • Those that have been forced to comply or die
    • Gender not relevant, however, upbringing is
  • Factors Against Patricia Hearst
    • Prior live experiences, such as her sex life
    • Video footage of bank robbery
    • Convincing audio messages to her parents denouncing her name, and stating her new political agenda
    • Assisting in a robbery while in a van, shooting a gun, nearly killing the store owner to save her “comrades”
    • Declaring she loved Wolfe, the man who repeatedly raped her, in other statements
    • Exercising her right to remain silent during testimony not shedding further light on to her case to help her cause.
    (Ramsland, 2011)
  • Incriminating evidence?Image 1: Patricia Hearst posed with a gun in front of the SLA symbolImage 2: Taken during the Hibernia Bank robbery, where she shouts she is “Tania”
    Images courtesy of: www.famouspictures.org/ mag/images/0/02/PattyHearst
  • Optimal Jury for the Prosecution
    • Any one that has been a victim of crime/robbery
    • Bankers
    • Police officers, law enforcement
    • People that may feel “giving in” would be weak and inexcusable (trained military)
  • Choosing a Jury
    • A Forensic Psychologist is trained the the areas to help choose the optimal jury for the defense in this case.
    • Forensic Psychologists “possess invaluable information about expert testimony” (Argosy University, 2011).
    • Forensic Psychologist and Behavioral Analysts will/can administer extensive testing to narrow down and eliminate those that may have unknowing prejudices, or ones that they are trying to hide. Some tests can have 100’s of questions.
    • Such specialists are experts in reading body and facial language that may belie their verbal communication.
  • References
    Argosy University (2011). Forensic Psychology, Module 3. Retrieved January 28, 2011 from: http://myeclassonline.com/re/DotNextLaunch.asp?courseid=4773195
    Linder, D. (2007). Patty Heart Trial (1976). Retrieved January 28, 2011 from: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hearst/hearstdolaccount.html
    Ramsland, K., (2011). Tru Crime Library. Hearst, Soliah, and the S.L.A. Retrieved January 27, 2011 from: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/terrorists_spies/terrorists/hearst/1.html
    Images 1 and 2: Famous Pictures: The Magazine. Retrieved January 28, 2011 from: www.famouspictures.org/ mag/images/0/02/PattyHearst
  • Applied Psychology
    Physiological Psychology
    Laura O’Brien
    Argosy University
  • Scenario
    Sally is a 33-year old European American woman who says that she has been depressed and anxious since her adolescence. During the intake, you ask if she experienced any depression or anxiety prior to her adolescence, and she says she doesn't know because she has almost no memory of her childhood prior to age 13. She has taken a variety of antidepressants including Tricyclics, SSRIs, Welbutrin, and Effexor; however, none of these have helped much. She has refused psychotherapy in the past, saying she doesn't want to think about things that have happened to her. She reports having frequent nightmares but refuses to elaborate further. She gets startled easily and has many fears. As she experiences increasing suicidal ideation, she is entering the hospital to participate in the therapeutic milieu. You refer her to a psychologist for her inpatient stay, again suggesting that this kind of service might be helpful to her. Later the psychologist who is treating her discusses her case in a hospital staffing. You are invited to attend her staffing as a member of her treatment team. When she came into the hospital, she signed an informed consent agreement that explained that hospital employees that were involved with her care would be discussing her progress. The psychologist explains that Sally has disclosed to him a history of sadistic child abuse along with the experience of losing time and significant memory loss. Because you are a trainee, the psychologist is also interested in asking your opinions about this case. 

The psychologist asks you to explain: 
  • 1.What might be the cause of her memory problems?
    It is quite possible, and probable, to believe that Sally has suppressed memories that were too difficult for her to emotionally handle at the time they were happening. Many survivors of violence or traumatic experiences suffer from PTSD, or post-traumatic stress syndrome. A natural protection, or defense, that the mind has created for Sally has been for her to not remember horrible events until she is ready to do so. This self-preservation is called disassociation.
    AACAP (2009) states: “child with PTSD may also re-experience the traumatic event by:
    having frequent memories of the event, or in young children,  play in which  some or all of the trauma is repeated over and over
    having upsetting and frightening dreams
    acting or feeling like the experience is happening again
    developing repeated physical or emotional symptoms when the child is reminded of the event”
  • 2. Why have the antidepressants not helped her much?
    In Sally’s case, the root of her problem has not been addressed. She doesn’t have a chemical imbalance causing her to be depressed, but rather, she has terrible issues that she must deal with for the depression to recede.
    What Sally needed when she was younger was to be able to feel safe and be in a supportive environment allowing her to cope with her trauma.
  • Your supervisor asked you to review the work that you have done thus far as trainee for the patient education program of the neurology, psychiatry, and neurosurgery service. 

She asks you to address the following issues:
  • 4.Explain to what degree sensitivity to diversity is an ethical issue.
    In order to properly help a person, one must be sensitive to differences and be versed in diverse backgrounds. Unintentionally hurting someone due to ignorance could cause further damage, or trauma to that person.
    In Sally’s case, understanding that she is suffering from PTSD, and not further traumatizing her would be imperative as she needs most of all to feel safe and a sense of nurturing as well as control.
  • 5. Explain your understanding of informed consent and why it is important for the patients to fill out this form.
    It is imperative that each person understands his or her rights as a patient. They need to understand that everything is confidential between the therapist and client unless the client is threatening to hurt another person or themselves. In this case, Sally is suicidal and is formulating plans of how to commit suicide, so she needs to understand that as a therapist, in order to save her life, confidentiality will be broken.
  • 6. Analyze the patient confidentiality associated with medical care. 
    Since Sally has signed a consent form that allows hospital staff working on her case to discuss the case amongst themselves, then this team is behaving in an ethical manner with Sally’s best interest in mind. Horn (2009), feels that the updated DSM-V, with updated ethics and confidentiality rules, will allow professionals to collaborate and help guide one another for proper treatment of a patient.
  • 7.Assess the circumstances under which you can release information about hospital patients to someone else.
    As stated above, it is unethical to disclose any information given by a patient to anyone. The only time, with the consent form signed, it is ethical to release information is if the patient is hurting another, is threatening to hurt another person, or is suicidal. Again, Sally has authorized the hospital staff to have conferences regarding her case. She has ultimately given them permission to disclose her private sessions with others that are directly working on her case.
  • References
    AACAP, American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry (2009): Facts for Families: PTSD. Article retrieved June 28, 2010 from: http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/posttraumatic_stress_disorder_ptsd
    Horn, P. (2009); Psychiatric Ethics Consultation in the Light of DSM-V. Volume 20, Number 4 / December, 2008. DOI 10.1007/s10730-008-9082-5. Article retrieved June 28, 2010 from: http://www.springerlink.com/content/33711gu476284h34/
  • My Future in Learning
    Learning is a lifelong process. It is a process that I completely embrace. Early childhood lessons gave me the fortitude I would need later in life when faced with other challenges.
    Adding to life’s personal experiences, I have a history of various jobs beginning with babysitting and paper routes, the banking industry, restaurants, customer service, and ultimately working with children and trauma survivors.
    The next chapters in my life have brought me singing and dancing on stage. As well, they have brought me back to scholarly learning and being able to pour my personal experiences into academics. I find this to be a true treasure.
    At present, I am completing my BA in Psychology, but I will not stop with this degree. As I intend to continue learning new music and dance steps, I will continue my education in life and academics. I have plans to begin a Master’s program in the fall.
    The future is filled with hope and things yet to be discovered and discussed. I feel very fortunate!
  • Contact Me
    Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.
    For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below.
    lauraob.isdunn@yahoo.com