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  • 1. Low Positive Emotionality in Preschool-Aged Children and Risk for Depressive Disorders Daniel N. Klein Stony Brook University
  • 2. Collaborators
    • C. Emily Durbin
    • Elizabeth Hayden
    • Stewart Shankman
    • Thomas Olino
    • Lea Dougherty
    • Gerard Bruder
    • Craig Tenke
    • Gabrielle Carlson
  • 3. Temperament and Risk for Depression
    • Theorists have long hypothesized that temperament predisposes to depression
    • Clark & Watson: low PE and high NE
    • Others have also emphasized the role of low PE-like constructs, such as hypohedonia (Meehl), and decreased activity in the approach system (Davidson) or the behavioral activation/facilitation system (Depue & Iacono; Gray; Fowles)
  • 4. Stony Brook Studies of Child Temperament and Risk for Depressive Disorders
    • Pre-school aged children: temperament stabilizes around age 3; depression is rare before middle childhood
    • Emphasis on observational measures of temperament/emotional style
    • Community sample to enhance generalizability
  • 5. Nomological Net: Low PE and Risk for Depressive Disorders
    • Maternal history of mood disorder
    • Hypercortisolemia
    • EEG asymmetries
    • Depressotypic cognitions
    • Prediction of later depressive symptoms
  • 6. Sample 1
    • 100 families with a 3-year old child
    • 53% male; 85% white
    • Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB; Goldsmith) – 12 episodes
    • Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) to assess parental lifetime psychopathology
  • 7. PE and NE Composites
    • Positive Emotionality
    • Positive affect (facial, vocal, bodily)
    • Engagement/interest
    • Negative Emotionality
    • Sadness (facial, vocal, bodily)
    • Fear (facial, vocal, bodily)
    • Anger (facial, vocal, bodily)
  • 8. Stability of Lab Assessed PE and NE from Ages 3-7
    • Re-evaluated 64 children at age 7
    • PE and NE coded from videotapes of three laboratory tasks
    • Correlations between ages 3 and 7 were .46 for PE and .45 for NE
    Durbin et al. (2007) Emotion
  • 9. Temperament and Maternal History of Mood Disorder
    • Cox Proportional Hazards Model, simultaneous entry
    • DV = time to onset of Mood Disorder in mothers
    • Lifetime prevalence = 32%
    • Age 3 Positive Emotionality
    • HR = .79 (95% CI = .66 - .94), p = .009
    • Age 3 Negative Emotionality
    • HR = .44 (95% CI = .09-2.25), p = .32
    Durbin et al. (2005) J Abnorm Psychol
  • 10. Sample 2: Morning Cortisol
    • Hypersortisolemia – state marker of depression
    • AM cortisol – may be trait marker
    • Greater heritability; elevated in recovered depressed patients and persons with a family history of depression; predicts onset of MDD
    • 98 three-year old children from a larger study
    • Collected salivary cortisol sample at home 30 minutes after waking and 30 minutes before bed
    Bhagwagar et al. (2003); Harris et al. (2002); Mannie et al. (2007)
  • 11. Increased Morning Cortisol in Children with Low PE r= .25,p <.05 Dougherty et al. (in preparation)
  • 12. EEG Asymmetries at Age 5 (Sample 1)
    • Relative decrease in resting left frontal alpha activity in depressed individuals, remitted depressives, and infants of depressed parents (Davidson)
    • Relative decrease in resting right posterior alpha activity in depressed individuals and offspring of two depressed parents (Bruder)
    • At age 5, we assessed resting EEG in 46 children from top and bottom quartiles of PA at age 3
  • 13.  
  • 14. Information Processing Biases at Age 7 (Sample 1)
    • Best-established information processing abnormality in depression: memory biases for negative information and against positive information
    • Followed up 64 children at age 7
    • Self Referent Encoding Task (SRET) after sad mood induction: positive and negative adjectives endorsed and recalled
  • 15. Predicting Age 7 Depressotypic Memory Biases From Age 3 PE Hayden et al (2006) Develop Psychopathology .25 * PE age 3 4 .04 NE age 3 3 -.06 Depression age 7 2 .14 PPVT age 3 1 SRET Positive Processing (partial r) Variable Step
  • 16. Depressive Symptoms at Age 10 (Sample 1)
    • Followed up 53 children at age 10
    • Mothers completed Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach), and Child Symptom Inventory-4 (Gadow & Sprafkin)
    • CBCL DSM depression (Lengua) and CSI depression scales correlated .59, hence were aggregated
    Dougherty et al. (under review)
  • 17. Predicting Depressive Symptoms at Age 10 Dougherty et al. (under review) -.31 * PE age 3 -.03 .07 NE age 3 2 .46 ** CBCL anx/depr age 3 .06 Gender -.09 .25 Age 1 Partial r R 2 change Variable Step
  • 18. Summary and Conclusions Low PE Age 3 EEG asymmetry AM cortisol Maternal MDD Depressive symptoms age 10 Depressive cognitive biases age 7
  • 19. Further Questions
    • Does PE predict the onset of depressive disorders?
    • Nature of PE-depression association (e.g., precursor or vulnerability factor?)
    • Moderators (e.g., NE or effortful control; candidate genes; parental criticism/hostility; gender)
    • Mediators (e.g., information processing biases; stress reactivity; interpersonal deficits)