Irish

669 views
566 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
669
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Irish

  1. 1. History of Meteorology<br />
  2. 2. Meteorology - is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and short term forecasting (in contrast with climatology). Studies in the field stretch back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the eighteenth century. <br />
  3. 3. History of Meteorology<br />Research of visual atmospheric phenomena<br />In 1021, (Alhazen) wrote on the atmospheric refraction of light. verification needed. He showed that the twilight is due to atmospheric refraction and only begins when the Sun is 19 degrees below the horizon, and uses a complex geometric demonstration to measure the height of the Earth's atmosphere as 52,000 passuum (49 miles (79 km)),verification needed[not in citation given,which is very close to the modern measurement of 50 miles (80 km). He also realized that the atmosphere also reflects light, from his observations of the sky brightening even before the Sun rises.<br />
  4. 4. Atmospheric composition research<br />In 1648, Blaise Pascal rediscovers that atmospheric pressure decreases with height, and deduces that there is a vacuum above the atmosphere. In 1738, Daniel Bernoulli publishes Hydrodynamics, initiating the kinetic theory of gases and established the basic laws for the theory of gases.In 1761, Joseph Black discovers that ice absorbs heat without changing its temperature when melting. In 1772, Black's student Daniel Rutherford discovers nitrogen, which he calls phlogisticated air, and together they developed the phlogiston theory. In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier discovers oxygen and develops an explanation for combustion.<br />
  5. 5. Research into cyclones and air flow<br />The westerlies and trade winds are part of the Earth's atmospheric circulation<br />Main articles: Coriolis effect and Prevailing winds<br />In 1494, Christopher Columbus experiences a tropical cyclone, leads to the first written European account of a hurricane.] In 1686, Edmund Halley presents a systematic study of the trade winds and monsoons and identifies solar heating as the cause of atmospheric motions. In 1735, an ideal explanation of global circulation through study of the Trade winds was written by George Hadley.] In 1743, when Benjamin Franklin is prevented from seeing a lunar eclipse by a hurricane, he decides that cyclones move in a contrary manner to the winds at their periphery.Understanding the kinematics of how exactly the rotation of the Earth affects airflow was partial at first. Gaspard-GustaveCoriolis published a paper in 1835 on the energy yield of machines with rotating parts, such as waterwheels. In 1856, William Ferrel proposed the existence of a circulation cell in the mid-latitudes with air being deflected by the Coriolis force to create the prevailing westerly winds. Late in the 19th century the full extent of the large scale interaction of pressure gradient force and deflecting force that in the end causes air masses to move alongisobars was understood. By 1912, this deflecting force was named the Corioliseffect.Just after World War II, a group of meteorologists in Norway led by VilhelmBjerknes developed the Norwegian cyclone model that explains the generation, intensification and ultimate decay (the life cycle) of mid-latitude cyclones, introducing the idea of fronts, that is, sharply defined boundaries between air masses. The group included Carl-GustafRossby (who was the first to explain the large scale atmospheric flow in terms of fluid dynamics), Tor Bergeron (who first determined the mechanism by which rain forms) and Jacob Bjerknes.<br />
  6. 6. Observation networks and weather forecasting<br />Cloud classification by altitude of occurrence<br />See also: History of surface weather analysis<br />In 1654, Ferdinando II de Medici establishes the first weather observing network, that consisted of meteorological stations in Florence, Cutigliano, Vallombrosa, Bologna, Parma, Milan, Innsbruck, Osnabrück, Paris and Warsaw. Collected data was centrally sent to Florence at regular time intervals. In 1832, an electromagnetic telegraph was created by Baron Schilling.[ The arrival of the electrical telegraph in 1837 afforded, for the first time, a practical method for quickly gathering surface weather observations from a wide area. This data could be used to produce maps of the state of the atmosphere for a region near the Earth's surface and to study how these states evolved through time. To make frequent weather forecasts based on these data required a reliable network of observations, but it was not until 1849 that the Smithsonian Institution began to establish an observation network across the United States under the leadership of Joseph Henry.<br />
  7. 7. Observation networks and weather forecasting<br />In 1654, Ferdinando II de Medici establishes the first weather observing network, that consisted of meteorological stations in Florence, Cutigliano, Vallombrosa, Bologna, Parma, Milan, Innsbruck, Osnabrück, Paris and Warsaw. Collected data was centrally sent to Florence at regular time intervals.[37] In 1832, an electromagnetic telegraph was created by Baron Schilling.[38] The arrival of the electrical telegraph in 1837 afforded, for the first time, a practical method for quickly gathering surface weather observations from a wide area.[39] This data could be used to produce maps of the state of the atmosphere for a region near the Earth's surface and to study how these states evolved through time. To make frequent weather forecasts based on these data required a reliable network of observations, but it was not until 1849 that the Smithsonian Institution began to establish an observation network across the United States under the leadership of Joseph Henry.[40] Similar observation networks were established in Europe at this time. In 1854, the United Kingdom government appointed Robert FitzRoy to the new office of Meteorological Statist to the Board of Trade with the role of gathering weather observations at sea. FitzRoy's office became the United Kingdom Meteorological Office in 1854, the first national meteorological service in the world. The first daily weather forecasts made by FitzRoy's Office were published in The Times newspaper in 1860. The following year a system was introduced of hoisting storm warning cones at principal ports when a gale was expected.<br />
  8. 8. Invention of weather instrument<br />Weather Instruments<br />In today's world of modernized weather forecasting, there are a lot of different weather instruments and technologies that can be used by anyone, from children to professional meteorologists. <br />
  9. 9. A perfect example of weather instrument's advancement is the thermometer. After being used for hundreds of years, the invention of the thermometer has been credited to people such as Avicenna, Cornelius Drebbel, Robert Fludd, Galileo Galilei or SantorioSantorio. The thermometer is most likely one of the most popular weather instrument still being used today. However, we are unsure of how to assign this invention to any person in particular because the thermometer was not a single invention, it was development.<br />
  10. 10. Thermometer: There are actually several types of thermometer which can be used for many purposes. There are both primary thermometers and secondary thermometers. Most commonly, however, people use the basic around-the-house thermometer for measuring air temperature. These are usually glass tubes containing mercury or alcohol. As the air temperature rises, the liquid moves up the scale to reflect the current temperature. Barometer: This weather instrument is used to measure the air pressure. As such, a rising barometer reflects sunny and dry weather conditions. On the other hand, if the barometer falls, this means that is likely to have stormy and wet weather conditions in the forecast. This weather instrument was inve<br />
  11. 11. Rain Gauge: These weather instruments, the rain gouge, are used to measure the amount of rain water that has fallen over a specific period of time. Like the thermometer, there are several different kinds of rain gauges. Most rain gauges measure the precipitation in inches or centimeters, but only in restricted areas. Some of the types of rain gauges include graduated cylinders, weighing gauges, tipping bucket gauge, and simple buried pit collectors.<br />
  12. 12. Hydrometer: Hydrometers are weather instruments that measure the humidity or water content in the air. This weather instrument is most commonly used green houses, industrial spaces, saunas, humidors and museums. The simplest form of a hygrometer is made of two thermometers. In order for this weather instrument to work, one of the thermometers must constantly be kept wet. Evaporation from the bulb lowers the temperature so that this thermometer shows a lower temperature. Humidity is then computed by comparing the difference in temperature between the "dry bulb thermometer" and the "wet bulb thermometers".<br />
  13. 13. Anemometer: This weather instrument uses very simple technology to measure the wind speed. Each cup captures the blowing wind which turns the dial attached to the instrument. This dial then shows the rate at which the wind is currently moving. The weather instrument, otherwise known as the cup-anemometer, was invented by John Thomas Romney Robinson in 1846.<br />
  14. 14. Barometer: The first mercury barometer was devised by Evangelista Torricelli, a student of Galileo, in 1644. This technology is still being used to measure the atmospheric pressure. A barometer is used for weather predictions such as increasing pressure which assumes fair climate and weather forecasts. Alternatively, decreasing pressure predicts heavy weather fronts such as thundershowers or snowstorms.<br />
  15. 15. Weather satellites: By definition a satellite is a device which orbits another object. This, more advanced weather instrument and technology, are able to photograph and track large-scale air movements. Once this information is gathered, meteorologists compile and analyze the data with the help of computers in order to predict certain weather conditions and forecasts. <br />
  16. 16. Weather balloons: The weather balloon is a fun and creative weather instrument which can measure weather conditions higher in the atmosphere. Once the data is transmitted by the balloon, meteorologist can place all of that information on to a weather map by using certain symbols; a single weather map can indicate atmospheric conditions above a large portion of the earth's surface.<br />
  17. 17. In conclusion, all of the above weather instruments represent only a small portion of the technology which has been made available for us to use in studying the weather. Just remember, if all else fails, don't forget that you still have eyes to see for yourself. Always keep and eye to the sky and you won't have to depend on such weather instruments to do the job for you.<br /> <br />

×