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Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
Tutorial&info,networks basics
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Tutorial&info,networks basics

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Tutorial&info,networks basics

Tutorial&info,networks basics

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  • 1) Physical Connection
  • 2) Logical Connection (Protocols = representation of communication forms)
  • Ping-Pong
  • 3) Application that interpret the data and display the information
  • Network Address  Network Mask Host Address
  • End User Devices Network Devices
  • كل ادارة تخاطب ما يناظرها
  • Physical  Bits Data Link  Frames Network  Packets Transport  Segments Session, Presentation, Application  Data  ( تلميحة على ضم ادارات مخرجاتها نفس المخرجات – TCP Model)
  • Insulators Conductors Semi
  • Cable Types : Coaxial Cable Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
  • TX = Sender , RX = Receiver
  • External USB Wireless NIC
  • ديباجة Preamble =
  • Transcript

    • 1. Networking Basics For : Level 1 – Networks and Computer Science Diploma Deanship of Community Services and Continuous Education - Imam University Based on : Cisco Networking Academy – Exploration 1 Instructor : Mahmoud Rabie
    • 2. Grading <ul><li>15 for Attendance and Participation </li></ul><ul><li>35 for the Take-Home Open-Book Exam </li></ul><ul><li>50 for the Final Exam </li></ul>
    • 3. Topics <ul><li>Introduction to Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Networking Fundamentals </li></ul><ul><li>Networking Media </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating over the Network </li></ul><ul><li>Application Layer Functionality and Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet and Link Layer Addressing </li></ul>
    • 4. Introduction to Networking Objectives
    • 5. Requirements for Internet Connection
    • 6. Network Interface Card (NIC)
    • 7. TCP/IP Description and Configuration
    • 8. Testing Connectivity with Ping
    • 9. Web Browser and Plug-Ins
    • 10. Troubleshooting Internet Connections
    • 11. Network Math <ul><li>ISA will be covered well, by Dr. Baha </li></ul>
    • 12. IP Addresses and Network Masks
    • 13. Networking Fundamentals Objectives
    • 14. Data Networks
    • 15. Networking Devices
    • 16. Network Topology
    • 17. Network Protocols
    • 18. Local-area Networks (LANs)
    • 19. Wide-area Networks ( WANs )
    • 20. Storage - Area Networks (SANS)
    • 21. Virtual Private Networks (VPN s )
    • 22. Importance of Bandwidth
    • 23. Bandwidth Pipe Analogy
    • 24. Bandwidth Highway Analogy
    • 25. Bandwidth Measurements
    • 26. Bandwidth Limitations
    • 27. Using Layers to Analyze Problems
    • 28. Using Layers to Describe Data Communication
    • 29. OSI Model
    • 30. OSI Layers
    • 31. OSI Layers <ul><li>Provides connectivity and path selection between two host </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Logical address </li></ul><ul><li>No error correction, best effort delivery. </li></ul>
    • 32. OSI Layers
    • 33. OSI Layers
    • 34. OSI Layers
    • 35. OSI Layers
    • 36. OSI Layers
    • 37. Peer-to-Peer Communication
    • 38. TCP/IP Model
    • 39. Networking Media Objectives
    • 40. Voltage
    • 41. Resistance and Impedance
    • 42. Current Flow
    • 43. Circuits
    • 44. Coaxial Cable
    • 45. Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable (STP)
    • 46. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
    • 47. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
    • 48. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
    • 49. Single Mode Fiber
    • 50. Multimode Fiber
    • 51. Optical Media
    • 52. Wireless LAN Standards
    • 53. Internal Wireless NIC
    • 54. Wireless USB Adapter
    • 55. Modulation
    • 56. Communicating over the Network
    • 57. Network Structure <ul><li>Define the elements of communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 common elements of communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>message source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>message destination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Define a network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data or information networks capable of carrying many different types of communications </li></ul></ul>
    • 58. Network Structure <ul><li>Describe how messages are communicated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is sent across a network in small “ chunks ” called segments </li></ul></ul>Multiplexing
    • 59. Network Structure <ul><li>Define the components of a network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hardware </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>software </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 60. Network Structure <ul><li>End Devices and their Role in the Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End devices form interface with human network & communications network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of end devices: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>client </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>both client and server </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 61. Network Structure <ul><li>Identify the role of an intermediary device in a data network and be able to contrast that role with the role of an end device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of an intermediary device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides connectivity and ensures data flows across network </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 62. Network Structure <ul><li>Define network media and criteria for making a network media choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>this is the channel over which a message travels </li></ul></ul>
    • 63. Network Types <ul><li>Define Local Area Networks (LANs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- A network serving a home, building or campus is considered a Local Area Network (LAN) </li></ul></ul>
    • 64. Network Types <ul><li>Define Wide Area Networks (WANs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LANs separated by geographic distance are connected by a network known as a Wide Area Network (WAN) </li></ul></ul>
    • 65. Network Types <ul><li>Define the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The internet is defined as a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>global mesh of interconnected networks </li></ul></ul>
    • 66. Network Types <ul><li>Describe network representation symbols </li></ul>
    • 67. Function of Protocol in Network Communication <ul><li>The importance of protocols and how they are used to facilitate communication over data networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A protocol is a set of predetermined or formal rules </li></ul></ul>
    • 68. Function of Protocol in Network Communication <ul><li>Explain network protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network protocols are used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to allow devices to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>successfully </li></ul></ul>
    • 69. Function of Protocol in Network Communication <ul><li>Define different protocols and how they interact </li></ul>
    • 70. Function of Protocol in Network Communication <ul><li>Technology independent Protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Many diverse types of devices can communicate using the same sets of protocols. This is because protocols specify network functionality, not the underlying technology to support this functionality. </li></ul></ul>
    • 71. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model <ul><li>Explain the benefits of using a layered model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assists in protocol design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fosters competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>changes in one layer do not affect other layers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides a common language </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 72. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model <ul><li>Describe TCP/IP Model </li></ul>
    • 73. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model <ul><li>Describe the Communication Process </li></ul>
    • 74. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model <ul><li>Explain protocol data units (PDU) and encapsulation </li></ul>
    • 75. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model <ul><li>Describe the process of sending and receiving messages </li></ul>
    • 76. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model <ul><li>Explain protocol and reference models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A protocol model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides a model that closely matches the structure of a particular protocol suite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A reference model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides a common reference for maintaining consistency within all types of network protocols and services. </li></ul></ul>
    • 77. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model <ul><li>Define OSI </li></ul>
    • 78. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model <ul><li>Compare OSI and TCP/IP model </li></ul>
    • 79. Addressing and Naming Schemes <ul><li>Explain how labels in encapsulation headers are used to manage communication in data networks </li></ul>
    • 80. Addressing and Naming Schemes <ul><li>Describe examples of Ethernet MAC Addresses, IP Addresses, and TCP/UDP Port numbers </li></ul>
    • 81. Addressing and Naming Schemes <ul><li>Explain how labels in encapsulation headers are used to manage communication in data networks </li></ul>
    • 82. Application Layer Functionality and Protocols
    • 83. Applications – The Interface Between Human and Data Networks <ul><li>Explain the role of applications, services and protocols in converting communication to data that can be transferred across the data network </li></ul>
    • 84. Applications – The Interface Between Human and Data Networks <ul><li>Define the separate roles applications, services and protocols play in transporting data through networks </li></ul>
    • 85. <ul><li>Describe the role protocols play in networking and be able to identify several message properties that can be defined by a protocol </li></ul>Applications – The Interface Between Human and Data Networks
    • 86. The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication <ul><li>Describe the roles of client and server processes in data networks </li></ul>
    • 87. The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication <ul><li>List common Application Layers services and protocols </li></ul>
    • 88. The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication <ul><li>Compare and contrast client server networking with peer-to-peer networking and peer-to-peer applications </li></ul>
    • 89. Features, Operation, and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services <ul><li>Describe the features of the DNS protocol and how this protocol supports DNS services </li></ul>
    • 90. <ul><li>Describe the features of the HTTP protocol and how this protocol supports the delivery of web pages to the client </li></ul>Features, Operation, and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services
    • 91. Link Layer Addressing
    • 92. MAC Addresses and ARP <ul><li>32-bit IP address: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>network-layer address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used to get datagram to destination IP subnet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MAC (or LAN or physical or Ethernet) address: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to get datagram from one interface to another physically-connected interface (same network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>48 bit MAC address (for most LANs) burned in the adapter </li></ul></ul>
    • 93. LAN Addresses and ARP Each adapter on LAN has unique LAN address Broadcast address = FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF = adapter <ul><li>MAC address allocation administered by IEEE </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturer buys portion of MAC address space (to assure uniqueness) </li></ul>1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD 58-23-D7-FA-20-B0 0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98 71-65-F7-2B-08-53 LAN (wired or wireless)
    • 94. ARP: Address Resolution Protocol <ul><li>Each IP node (Host, Router) on LAN has ARP table </li></ul><ul><li>ARP Table: IP/MAC address mappings for some LAN nodes </li></ul><ul><li>< IP address; MAC address; TTL> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TTL (Time To Live): time after which address mapping will be forgotten (typically 20 min) </li></ul></ul>1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD 58-23-D7-FA-20-B0 0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98 LAN 237.196.7.23 237.196.7.78 237.196.7.14 237.196.7.88 Question: how to determine MAC address of B knowing B’s IP address?
    • 95. ARP protocol: Same LAN <ul><li>A wants to send datagram to B, and B’s MAC address not in A’s ARP table. </li></ul><ul><li>A broadcasts ARP query packet, containing B's IP address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dest. MAC address = FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all machines on LAN receive ARP query </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B receives ARP packet, replies to A with its (B's) MAC address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frame sent to A’s MAC address (unicast) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A caches (saves) IP-to-MAC address pair in its ARP table until information becomes old (times out) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>soft state: information that times out (goes away) unless refreshed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ARP is “plug-and-play”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nodes create their ARP tables without intervention from net administrator </li></ul></ul>
    • 96. Star topology <ul><li>Nowadays, star topology prevails ( يسود ) </li></ul><ul><li>Connection choices: hub or switch </li></ul>hub or switch
    • 97. Ethernet Frame Structure <ul><li>Sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or other network layer protocol packet) in Ethernet frame </li></ul><ul><li>Preamble: </li></ul><ul><li>7 bytes with pattern 10101010 followed by one byte with pattern 10101011 </li></ul><ul><li>used to synchronize receiver, sender clock rates </li></ul>
    • 98. Ethernet Frame Structure – Cont. <ul><li>Addresses: 6 bytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If adapter receives frame with matching destination address, or with broadcast address (eg ARP packet), it passes data in frame to net-layer protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise, adapter discards frame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type: indicates the higher layer protocol (mostly IP) </li></ul><ul><li>CRC: checked at receiver, if error is detected, the frame is simply dropped </li></ul>
    • 99. Hubs <ul><li>Hubs are essentially physical-layer repeaters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bits coming from one link go out all other links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at the same rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no frame buffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapters not Hub detect collisions </li></ul></ul>hub
    • 100. Interconnecting with hubs <ul><li>Backbone hub interconnects LAN segments </li></ul><ul><li>Extends max distance between nodes </li></ul><ul><li>But individual segment collision domains become one large collision domain </li></ul>hub hub hub Backbone hub
    • 101. Switch <ul><li>Link layer device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stores and forwards Ethernet frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>examines frame header and selectively forwards frame based on MAC destination address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when frame is to be forwarded on segment, uses CSMA/CD to access segment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transparent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hosts are unaware of presence of switches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plug-and-play, self-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>switches do not need to be configured </li></ul></ul>
    • 102. Forwarding <ul><li>How do determine onto which LAN segment to forward frame? </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like a routing problem... </li></ul>1 2 3 hub hub hub switch
    • 103. Self Learning <ul><li>A switch has a switch table </li></ul><ul><li>Entry in switch table: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(MAC Address, Interface, Time Stamp) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stale entries in table dropped (TTL can be 60 min) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Switch learns which hosts can be reached through which interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when frame received, switch “learns” location of sender: incoming LAN segment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>records sender/location pair in switch table </li></ul></ul>
    • 104. Filtering/Forwarding <ul><li>When switch receives a frame: </li></ul><ul><li>index switch table using MAC dest address </li></ul><ul><li>if entry found for destination then{ </li></ul><ul><li>if dest on segment from which frame arrived then drop the frame </li></ul><ul><li>else forward the frame on interface indicated </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul><ul><li>else flood </li></ul>forward on all but the interface on which the frame arrived
    • 105. Switch Example <ul><li>Suppose C sends frame to D </li></ul><ul><li>Switch receives frame from from C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>notes in bridge table that C is on interface 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>because D is not in table, switch forwards frame into interfaces 2 and 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frame received by D </li></ul>address interface A B E G C 1 1 2 3 1 hub hub hub switch A B C D E F G H I 1 2 3
    • 106. Switch Example <ul><li>Suppose D replies back with frame to C. </li></ul><ul><li>Switch receives frame from from D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>notes in bridge table that D is on interface 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>because C is in table, switch forwards frame only to interface 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frame received by C </li></ul>address interface A B E G C D 1 1 2 3 1 2 hub hub hub switch A B C D E F G H I
    • 107. Switch: Traffic Isolation <ul><li>Switch installation breaks subnet into LAN segments </li></ul><ul><li>Switch filters packets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>same-LAN-segment frames not usually forwarded onto other LAN segments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>segments become separate collision domains </li></ul></ul>collision domain collision domain collision domain hub hub hub switch
    • 108. Switches: Dedicated Access <ul><li>Switch with many interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts have direct connection to switch </li></ul><ul><li>No collisions; full duplex </li></ul><ul><li>Switching: A-to-A’ and B-to-B’ simultaneously, no collisions </li></ul>switch A A’ B B’ C C’
    • 109. Switches vs. Routers <ul><li>Both store-and-forward devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>routers: network layer devices (examine network layer headers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>switches are link layer devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routers maintain routing tables, implement routing algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Switches maintain switch tables, implement filtering, learning algorithms </li></ul>Switch
    • 110. Summary Comparison

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