Презентация на тему: Марк Твен Ученицы 6-3 класса МОУ гимназии №26 Шеметовой Ксении
Mark Twain (born Mark Twain, real name Samuel Langhorne Clemens (born Samuel Langhorne Clemens); November 30, 1835 Village of Florida (Missouri) - April 21, 1910, Redding (Conn.), is buried in Elmira (New York ) - a prominent American writer, journalist and public figure. His work spans many genres - realism, romanticism, humor, satire, philosophical fiction, journalism, etc., and all these genres, he has consistently taken the position of the humanist and democrat.
At his peak, he was probably the most popular figure in America. William Faulkner wrote that he was "the first truly American writer, and we have since - his heirs," and Ernest Hemingway wrote that "all modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called" The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn ". Russian writers of Mark Twain particularly warmly Maxim Gorky and Alexander Kuprin.
Clemens claimed the pseudonym "Mark Twain" (English. Mark Twain) was taken in his youth of the terms of river navigation. He was an assistant pilot on the Mississippi, and the term "Mark Twain» ( «mark twain», literally - "noted two [fathoms]") called the minimum depth, suitable for passage of river vessels (this is 2 fathoms, 365.76 cm).  In "Mark Twain" Clemens once in 1896, signed as "Sieur Louis de Conte" (born Sieur Louis de Conte, under that name, he published his novel "Personal recollections of Joan of Arc, Sieur Louis de Comte, its pages and the Secretary ").
Samuel Clemens was born November 30, 1835 in the small town of Florida (Missouri, USA); later, he joked that, having been born, has increased its population by one percent. He was the third of four surviving children of John and Jane Clemens. When Sam was still a child, the family in search of a better life moved to Hannibal (ibid., Missouri). It is this city and its inhabitants were later described by Mark Twain in his most famous works, especially The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876).
Clemens's father died in 1847 from pneumonia , leaving many debts. The oldest son, Orion, soon began to publish a newspaper, and Sam began to make its own contribution there as a printer, and sometimes as a writer. Some of the liveliest and most contentious articles of paper came from the pen of his younger brother - usually when Orion was out of town. Clemens also traveled to St. Louis and New York.
But the call of the Mississippi River, ultimately, brought Clemens to the career of a pilot on board. Profession, which is recognized by most of Clemens, he would deal with life, if civil war does not put an end to the private shipping company in 1861. So Clemens was forced to look for another job.
After a brief acquaintance with the people's militia (the experience he colorfully described in 1885), Clemens in July 1861 went to war in the west. Then his brother Orion had been appointed secretary Governor of Nevada. Sam and Orion two weeks riding the prairies in the coach to the mining town of Virginia, where in Nevada mined silver.
Opyt stay in the West, the U.S. formed Twain as a writer and became the basis of his second book. In Nevada, hoping to get rich, Sam Clemens became a miner and began to produce silver. He had long to live in the camp with his fellow prospectors - another mode of living he later described in the literature. But Clemens was unable to become a successful prospector, he had to leave the mining of silver, and he worked for the newspaper «Territorial Enterprise», also in Virginia. In this paper he first used the pseudonym "Mark Twain". And in 1864 he moved to San Francisco, California, where he began writing for several newspapers at the same time. In 1865, Twain came to the first literary success, his humorous story "The famous leaping frog of Calaveras" was reprinted across the country and was named "the best piece of comic literature, established in America at this point."
In the spring of 1866 Twain was sent by the newspaper «Sacramento Union» Hawaii. In the course of travels he had to write letters about their adventures. Upon returning to San Francisco these letters awaited resounding success. Colonel John McComb, publisher of the newspaper «Alta California», Twain offered to go on a tour of the state, reading the fascinating lectures. Lectures immediately became wildly popular, and Twain traveled the entire state, entertaining audiences and collecting a dollar from each student.
First success as a writer, Twain has a different journey. In 1867, he persuaded Colonel McComb sponsor his trip to Europe and the Middle East. In June, as a correspondent for "Alta California" in The New York Tribune, "Twain went on the steamer" Quaker City "in Europe. In August, he also visited and Odessa, Yalta and Sevastopol (in the "Odessa Gazette of 24 August put" Address "of American tourists, written by Twain ). Letters written by him on a journey to Europe, went and printed in the newspaper. And in return these letters formed the basis of the book "Innocents Abroad". The book was published in 1869, distributed by subscription and was a huge success. Until the very end of his life many knew it was Mark Twain as the author of "Innocents Abroad". During his writing career Twain to travel to Europe, Asia, Africa and even Australia.
In 1870, at the peak of the success of Innocents Abroad, Twain married Olivia Langdon and moved to the city of Buffalo, New York. From there he moved to the city of Hartford, Connecticut. During this period, he often lectured in the United States and Britain. Then he began to write a sharp satire, sharply criticizing the American public and politicians, this is especially evident in the book "Life on the Mississippi, written in 1883.
Twain's greatest contribution to American and world literature is the novel "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn". Many believe it is generally best literary works ever created in the United States. Also very popular "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court "and a collection of documentaries" Life on the Mississippi. Mark Twain began his career with humorous verses, and ended grim, almost profane chronicler of human vanity, hypocrisy and even murder.
Twain was a great orator. He helped create and popularize American literature as such, with its characteristic themes and striking unusual language. Receiving recognition and fame, Mark Twain, a lot of time to search for the young literary talents and helped them break through, using their influence and the acquisition of publishing company.
Twain took a great interest in science and scientific problems. He was very friendly with Nikola Tesla, they spent much time together in Tesla's laboratory. In his work "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court Twain introduced a journey through time, which resulted in many modern technologies have been presented in England's King Arthur. Technical details given in the novel, show a familiarity with the achievements of Mark Twain of contemporary science.
The other two most prominent passions Mark Twain were playing pool and smoking pipes. Visitors to the house Twain's sometimes said that in the study of the writer was so dense smoke, which the master himself was almost impossible to discern.
Twain was a prominent figure of the American Anti-Imperial League, which protested against the U.S. annexation of the Philippines. In response to the carnage, which killed nearly 600 people, he wrote "Incident in the Philippines, but the work was published only in 1924, 14 years after Twain's death.
Recently attempts to ban the novel "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" because of the naturalistic descriptions and verbal expressions that offend blacks. Although Twain was against racism and imperialism, and in their rejection of racism has gone much further than his contemporaries, but his books do contain elements that in our time can be perceived as racism. Expressions that were in general use in times of Mark Twain, is indeed sound like a racial insult.  Twain himself would probably belonged to censor c irony. When in 1885 the public library in Massachusetts has decided to withdraw from the fund of "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Twain wrote to his publisher:
They have expelled Huck from the library as "trash, fit only for the slums, because of this, we certainly sell a further 25 thousand copies of the book.
From time to time some of Twain's works banned American censors for various reasons. This is mainly due to active citizenship and social position of the writer. Some works that might offend the religious feelings of people, Twain did not publish at the request of his family. Example, the "mysterious stranger" remained unpublished until 1916. And the most controversial work of Mark Twain, perhaps, was a humorous lecture at the Paris Club, which was published under the title "Reflections on science masturbation. The central idea of the lecture was: "If you really want to risk their lives on the sexual front, do not masturbate too much". Essay was published only in 1943 a limited edition of 50 copies. A few anti-religious works remained unpublished until 1940-ies.
Mark Twain and Henry Rogers. 1908Uspehi Mark Twain gradually began to fade. Before his death in 1910, he suffered the loss of three of the four children, died and lovely wife Olivia. In his later years, Twain was in deep depression, but was still able to joke. In response to the erroneous obituary in the «New Yrk Journal» he uttered his famous phrase: "Rumors of my death are greatly exaggerated". Financial position Twain also deteriorated: his publishing company went broke, he put a lot of money into a new model of the printing press, which never was put into production; plagiarist stole the rights to several of his books.
In 1893, Twain was presented to the oil magnate Henry Rogers, one of the directors of the company «Standard Oil». Twain, Rogers helped to reorganize the financial affairs of benefits, and they became close friends. Twain often stayed with Rogers, they drank and played poker. Can say that Twain even became a member of the Rogers family. The sudden death of Rogers in 1909 deeply shocked Twain. Although Mark Twain repeatedly publicly thanking Rogers for salvation from financial collapse, it became clear that their friendship was mutually beneficial. Apparently, Twain significantly influenced the softening steep temper oil tycoon, who had the nickname "Cerberus Rogers". After the death of Rogers's papers showed that the friendship with the famous writer has made of ruthless miser this philanthropist and patron. During friendship with Twain, Rogers began to actively support education, organizing educational programs, especially for African Americans and talented people with disabilities.
Museum Mark Twain in HartfordeSam Twain died April 21, 1910 from angina pectoris (angina). A year before his death, he said: "I came in 1835 with Halley's comet, a year later, she flies again, and I expect to go along with it." So it happened.
In the city of Hannibal, Missouri, kept the house in which a boy played by Sam Clemens, and caves, which he studied in his childhood, and who were then described in the famous "Adventures of Tom Sawyer, there is now come the tourists. Mark Twain House in Hartford turned into his personal museum in the United States and declared a national historic treasure.
In honor of Mark Twain called a crater on Mercury.
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn"
Huckleberry Finn, along with the runaway slave Jim float on a raft on the Mississippi River. Some time later joined by rogues Duke and King, who will eventually sell Jim into slavery. Huck and acceded to the Tom Sawyer organize the release of prisoner.