Creating a common language in technology Exploring and defining the task involves the activities students undertake to identify and explore a need or opportunity, taking into consideration the user, the client, the available resources and social, ethical and environmental issues.
Generating and developing ideas involves students exploring options, considering existing solutions, generating alternatives, representing and refining those ideas and deciding upon options. Students identify, explore and select resources such as techniques, materials and equipment that will best achieve the solution for their decisions and actions
Producing solutions involves students finalizing design decisions completing final design representations such as production drawings or storyboards sequencing the step-by-step actions for production managing safety risks practicing and refining techniques and completing the production of the solution Students reflect on the success of the solution, the process and the learning.
Planning, managing and evaluating Ongoing evaluation, related to the criteria of success, informs the students’ decision making at each phase the evaluation at the conclusion of the project involves reflection and learning about the process used and the success of the solution. It is an essential component of each of the above phases. Management decisions made by students involve planning and reviewing milestones and implementing and monitoring time, actions and financial plans.
The TPACK model This model attempts to capture some of the essential qualities of knowledge required by teachers for technology integration into their teaching, whilst addressing the complex, multi-faceted and situated nature of teacher knowledge.
Other elements related to different types of knowledge included in the TPACK model :
Teaching with technology
An examination of each component raises a set of issues that we need to consider in order to make technology integration as successful as possible. The students The instructor Course content Technology tools
We need to think carefully about our students, their exposure and access to technology as well as their preferred learning styles. Finally, we can turn to the technology itself and analyze it according to its functions. This approach to teaching and learning with technology assumes that the four component parts are integrated and that changes in one part will require adjustments to the other three in order to achieve the same goals.
Learning, Teaching, and Technology Example 1 A four-year-old girl sits at a computer with her mother, exploring Just Grandma and Me, an electronic storybook. When she clicks on a word, the computer says it aloud. The child repeats the word. After clicking through the text one word at a time, she says the whole sentence aloud, turns to her mother, and exclaims, "I can read!" Example 2 At the Harvard Literacy Lab, students with reading and writing difficulties willingly compose autobiographies, stories, and poems for personal home pages posted on the Lab's Web site. When e-mail responses to their writing arrive from other parts of the country and from as far away as Japan and Australia, they proudly mark the location of the sender on a map of the world.
These two examples illustrate how computers are changing the way children are learning to read and write. They show the potential of new technology to revitalize reading instruction and to make reading more relevant to the lives of children growing up in the electronic age.
Technology is now being widely used in the classroom to enhance and enrich teaching and learning. The availability of new information technology is contributing to many innovations in classroom activities.
Strategies and techniques Strategies/techniques now used to support technology in teaching and learning enable teachers to work collaboratively with students while the students themselves become more immersed in their own learning.
New information technologies are increasingly being adapted and integrated into the educational process. The growing use of these technologies in teaching and learning activities has given rise to numerous questions.
Are the new technologies changing the traditional approach to classroom activities?
How much are the technologies changing the strategies/techniques used in the delivery of instruction?
Are the technologies changing the quality of interpersonal relations in our classroom?
Technology of one kind or the other has always been used in the educationalenvironment.Devices utilized in the teaching and learning process : The printed page Chalk and chalkboard Overhead projectors Filmstrips 35mm films
The emergence of newer forms of technology Computers, Computer discs interactive (CD-i) Videodiscs DVD Desktop videoconferencing, Internet These forms have created a renewed interest for their use in supporting teaching and learning activities. These technologies are also capable of promoting educational activities (synchronous or asynchronous) which are not confined to specific time and/or place.
Education and training activities are increasingly employing the use of a variety of technologies to support pedagogy and learning.
Are being utilized as tools in supporting teaching and learning.
THE CHANGING CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT Teachers respond to their use in the classroom setting in a number of ways. There are those teachers who fear using any form of technology apart from those with which they are very comfortable. (e.g., chalk/chalkboard and printed page). Others make use of some form of technology even if they do so infrequently (e.g., overhead projector and videotapes) during class presentations. Some teachers maximize the use of different technologies sometimes to the point of overuse during classroom activities. The infusion and integration of technology in the education process have presented new avenues by which teachers can enrich and enhance teaching and learning activities.
Strategies The increasing application of technology to support teaching and learning provide a basis by which some teachers reconsider the strategies they use in instructional activities. Different strategies are being employed in conjunctionwith the more familiar ones to accomplish the necessary learning objectives.
Students and their role Many students are more familiar with some of the technologies employed in the educational environment. They also show a high level of resourcefulness in determining different ways by which the technologies available might be used to support teaching and learning activities. Working together in this new learning environment, teachers and students become teams of 'knowledge explorers' who translate textbook knowledge into new exciting presentations, using the different technologies learning for many students become more exciting as they are actively involved in the process.
The infusion and integration of technology D'Ignazio (1990a) indicated, The infusion and integration of technology in classrooms will increase the use of strategies such as thematic teaching, guided inquiry apprenticeship, group problem solving, and critical thinking.
Lane (1994) The use of electronically mediated instruction (EMI) to duplicate the traditional face-to-face classroom has resulted in a shift from teacher centered to learner-centered classes. the responsibility for learning is shifted to the student and the teacher facilitates the learning by acting as a coach, resource guide, and companion in learning. Instructional technology does not only encourage teachers and students to work collaboratively but also results in more cooperative learning activities among the students.
The introduction of new information technology in teaching and learning hasimpacted the traditional classroom activities. The various technologies generate a greater level of interaction between and among teachers and students.
Technology use in the classroom should only be considered appropriate if it is used for specific purposes in the teaching and learningprocess Employing technology of any kind in the instructional process becomes valuable only when they are seen merely as elements in a well-constructed learning environment (D'Ignazio, 1989). The use of technology, therefore, should be driven by specific objectives related to instruction and learning with direct linkages to the curriculum.