• Wenden (1986) found that learners were able to discuss their beliefs about the effective ways to learn a second language, the language itself, and the selection of strategies.• Researchers (Abraham and Van, 1987; Horwitz, 1987, 1988; Wenden, 1986, 1987) argued that learners’ beliefs about language learning provide an explanation for their selection of specific LLSs. Learners’ beliefs about language itself and how it is learned seem to affect their use of strategies.
•“Believe that life is worth living and yourbelief will help create the fact.” – William James
• Ramirez (1986) after identifying successful strategies employed by 105 learners of French at three levels of study (grade 8, grade 9-10 and grade 10-11) in two high schools in New York concluded that successful learning behaviours were dependent on the task, and that years of study influenced LLS use. The study also showed that certain strategies were employed more than others at different levels of study.• White (1993) studied LLS use by specific age groups of learners of French and Japanese in New Zealand and found that learners aged over thirty used metacognitive self-management strategies more than those who were younger.
• Several studies of strategy use found that females reported a greater use of strategies than males. Ehrman and Oxford (1988) studied seventy-eight subjects and found that females used more strategies than males on four SILL factors: general strategies, authentic language use, searching for and communicating meaning, and self-management strategies.• On the other hand, other studies show that males had a greater use of certain strategies than females. Tran’s (1988) study of immigrant Vietnamese aged from 40 to 92, in the USA revealed that males made greater use of strategies to learn and to improve their English language skills (e.g. taking English courses, practicing English with American friends and watching television or listening to the radio in English).
• Motivation of language learners is said to be influential on the selection and use of strategy in various studies. Politzer and McGroarty (1985) indicated that the goal of the English language learning is a major topic in any discussion of language learning strategies. Oxford (1989) argued that learners learn target languages for different reasons and purposes and this could have an effect on their choice of learning strategies.
Level of Proficiency
• O’Malley et al. (1985a) found that ESL school beginners reported using more strategies than did the students from the intermediate level. In another study conducted on school learners of Spanish and Russian, O’Malley and Chamot (1990) found that beginners reported less use of strategies than did those from the intermediate level.• Collecting data by means of verbal reports from 36 school learners of French in Canada, Anderson and Vandergrift (1996) found that the dominance of cognitive strategy use among all students declined as the level of proficiency increased. They also found that whenever levels of proficiency increased so did the use of metacognitive strategies.