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  2. 2. Abstract: Is autonomous car a myth or As you go about the affair of reality?living, you put your life safe and luxurious There are many paradigm shiftswith all the available resources .Now days we taking place due to information explosion andall are entrenched with computers and almost the concept of autonomous vehicle is one shift.all depended on them. Devices with The car, which is embedded, can simulate theintelligence rule the world. Imbibing human driver completely and direct the vehicleintelligence to these devices is through a on the road. Autonomous vehicle has been thesystem dream of scientists for long. Now their dreamcalled “EMBEDDED SYSTEM”. Its has come true as with drastic changes inapplications provide marvelous opportunitiesfor ingenious use of computertechnology. Almost all every systemintroduced into the market is anexample of Embedded System. Anembedded device finds applicationsin all segments of industrial andcommercial marketplace. Homeappliances, mobile phones, PersonalDigital Assistants (PDA), cars, tinymicrochips and avionics are all usingembedded technology. technical brilliance and developments in The current topic different fields with EMBEDDEDSYSTEM “Automation of car” that we are going as pioneer. to present is one of the fine examples of Embedded System.
  3. 3. and turn the car on, while we remain seated carefree on the rear seats. Then its all the job of the „unknown‟ to drive it on the roads, bridges, thought the bazaars, past the crossings to the destination, without getting challenged even once for traffic ruleIntroduction: violations. A fully computerized car capable The term embedded system is of doing almost every thing a car lover wouldquite a complex one. Simply it is a want to. Seems like fantasy but a day is not farcombination of hardware and software that when almost all automobiles will interact withforms the component of a larger system, this computer on dashboards. From ordering pizzain turn is programmed to perform a range of to booking tickets at the nearest theatre, thingsdedicated functions usually with a minimal would be as easy as giving orders to youroperator intervention. In embedded systems servant. As a matter of fact, vehicles all overthe hardware is normally unique to a given the world are now fitted with intelligentapplication, computer chips are embedded devices that make the vehicles to respond tointo the control electronics to manage the various factors –be it climate control, suddenproducts functionality. accelerations or braking or even self-repair of Embedded systems are rapidly modules.becoming a catalyst for change in computing There are trends where the fingerdata communications, telecommunications, print technologies are also have beenindustrial control and entertainment sectors. introduced which gives the followingNew innovative applications in these as well reliabilities You could one day be able to enteras other areas such as home networking and and start your car with the touch of a infotainment will roll out in the near And that same touch, with your fingerprintfeature. acting as a key, would trigger a check of the mirrors, steering wheel, radio and temperatureThe fine art of automation: to ensure that theyre the way you like them. Just imagine. We load the code of The convenience of fingerprint recognitionour destination in the dashboard computer technology comes with heightened security.
  4. 4. Unlike personal identification numbers, sensitive actuators simulate a human driver passwords and keys, each persons unique completely and direct the vehicle on the road. fingerprints cant be duplicated, lost or The vehicle transmitter broadcasts its position forgotten. and velocity to other immediate participants for collision-avoidance and lane changing manoeuvres. Forward and reverse motions and Description: u-turns are precisely achieved as per route Asstated above that a vehicle can guidance requirements. Furthermore, anrun by itself with out the intervention of human accurate steering control is obtained usingbeings by the embedded intelligence in it. For Pulse Code Modulation technique andthis purpose Global Positioning System acceleration/braking control is successfully(G.P.S) using satellites can provide positioning implemented using learning adaptive system.information and proves to be a versatile all- The simplest form of vehicletime. For still higher accuracy wide area navigation employs a heading sensor, velocitydifferential GPS is used, which offers a robust sensor and a processor. Typically a navigationsystem that readily deals with selective system requires an input of initial position and itavailability errors and satellite clock errors. self-initializes the heading sensor with respect to An error level of north. The processor then integrates the velocitydecimeter/centimeter is guaranteed by sensor output to determine distance traveled andWADGPS. Which satisfies the ground vehicle resolves the heading sensor data to calculate acontrol algorithm. Human intervention is new position. This reckoning navigationcompletely eliminated by using of reliable requires additional vision sensors, routesensors and actuators. Making the overall guidance and map-matching algorithms forperformance of transporting system both making the driving tasks fully automatic.congestion-free and collision incorporate the The remarkable advances in microelectronicsconcept of WADGPS they‟re –free, besides and data processing technology have mademaking it cost effective. possible the miniaturization of sensors the The models for GPS also include integration and combination of data from aaiding sensors, e.g. dead reckoning, radar and number of sensors. Television cameras, chargecamera. A computer is simply required to feed coupled device (CCD) type sensors, laser radardestination into a dashboard computer. Highly and infrared sensors ma be used.
  5. 5. The reliability, efficiency and cost and overtaking. The key to all these drivingeffectiveness of an autonomous vehicle depend tasks is collision avoidance.mainly on how judiciously its navigation The Master Control Stationsensors, perception unit and computer control (MCS) receives the positioning informationis incorporated and how well theirperformance meets today‟stransportation needs. Quite of ten ahuman driver is forced to maintainattention for long periods of timeand commit to unpredictablecontingencies on the free waystogether with traffic jams. All thisleads to fatigue and hypovigilianceat the wheel and consequently tomore frequent collisions and congestion. from the satellite by employing WADGPS The drivers activity is influenced by concept. The MCS is linked to GPSseveral factors that depend on driver itself and instrumented position location systems (PLS)is environment such as traffic density, traffic installed on the autonomous vehicles through astatus, time of travel and weather. Thus the data link sub system (DLS). The DLS candriving activity deals with a combined driver either use VHF or UHF or L-band,vehicle-environment system shown in figure incorporating time division multiple access The vehicle is required to blend protocol to handle on the roads. A blockits environmental perception capabilities with forward error correction code is employed toits intelligent controls in order to affect optimal protect and maintain the message integrity.path-planning strategies that not only avoid The vehicle route guidance systemsobstacles but also minimize criteria such as gave maturity to the point of practical usefulnesstime of travel, fuel consumption, exposure to as well as cost effectiveness. Such a system ispollution/danger, etc. however basic driving responsible for selecting optimal routes in afunctions consists of lane-keeping, safe given road network and for providing digitizeddistance maintenance, timely lane changing directions to a human driver and or an autonomous system, emphasizing the path of
  6. 6. least resistance with consumption of minimum of the autonomous vehicle embedded system.fuel or minimum exposure to pollution /danger The digital road maps, available on CD-criteria ROM‟s have substantially increased safety of Figure below shows a series of interconnected automobiles. These maps along with GPSfunctional subsystems of hardware by software navigation provide a feasible solution tocomponents autonomous vehicle system. The expert system technologies are integrated with digital maps along with the CCD camera images, magnetic compass, and the GPS system, for obtaining a real time intelligent The desired destination and decision support navigation package. Thestarting position of the vehicle together with integration of GPS and communicationthe time of travel, manifest an optimal route on suggests an efficient transportation system forthe road network. Once the vehicle commences increasing the road traffic safety smoothhe journey the sensors continuously keep track driving without traffic jams and a comfortableof the direction and displacement of the driving environment. Further more thevehicle initial calibration is a little crucial for autonomous vehicle relies on such intelligentdead reckoning performance; how ever a feed system integration that leads to completeback calibration indicated in fig 2 suggested to collision free in time of real time situation.obtain distance accuracy better than 99.9 The vehicle transmitting systempercent. continuously provides information about its The new generation position and velocity to its participants. A safemicroprocessors promises further increase in distance with respect to its immediatesystem capabilities while simultaneously surroundings is maintained byshrinking both volume and power consumption acceleration/brakes and steering controls. The
  7. 7. internal platform and rate gyro and autonomous vehicle embedded softwareaccelerometer package keeps the vehicles mission finally yields the estimates for throttlecentral processing unit (CPU) well informed and heading angle increments for a safe andabout the incremental changes in the vehicles accident free Manoeuvre. The following figureparameters. The wheel odometers provide the gives an indication of all the technologies usedvehicle traveling distances by multiplying the in a carnumber of electronically generated pulses by aconstant, depending upon wheels perimeterAs the actual tyre size is influenced by vehicles . hybrid automobile is envisagedspeed, tyre pressure play load and atmospheric at the juncture, which has heat engineconditions, appropriate corrections are maid by propulsion (options for switching over tothe CPU. The atmospheric data system keeps electric devices with intelligent brakes andcontinuous record of outside atmospheric acceleration) And computer for optimal routetemperature, pressure and differential pressure. selection, map matching and collision- The information concerning avoidance. The reduced cost of GPS augmenteddeviation from the road center is obtained by vehicles using the off-the-shelf equipmentmagnetic as well as optical sensors, and fed to would lead to an intelligent transportationthe CPU. The GPS receiver updates the system with substantial share of electronicallyvehicles position and velocity to controlled next generation vehicles. It is hopedcentimeter/decimeter levels as required for the that hybrid electric vehicles shall be readilylateral or longitudinal control actions. The accepted by our information-based society. A dv an ta ge
  8. 8. s and comforts: set to the nearest police station and the owner informing them about the thief.1. The adoptive cruise control ACC 4. Some designs now include so-called "pre-technology used in the cars from automobile safe" systems, which sense possible collisionsmakers keeps advancing to new levels of in advance based on emergency braking,safety. In microwave radar unit there is a laser skidding, and sudden evasive maneuvers. Theytransceiver, fixed on the front of the car to will prepare a car by automatically moving thedetermine the distance and relative speed of front seat either backward or forward for theany vehicle in its path, which keeps safe safest distance from the instrument panel,distances from other vehicles on the busy adjusting the seat belt for the correct tension,roads. The driver can set the speed of his car and even closing the sunroof in case of aand the distance between his and other cars. potential rollover. The idea is to "cradle" theWhen traffic slows down vehicle speed is cars occupants for maximum safety.altered using moderate braking to maintain aconstant distance between his and other cars.2. In advanced systems just in the case the Indian efforts in embeddeddriver over speeds or suddenly falls over and system development: -guides the car to a safe halt. And if you have Our India too entered into the field of embeddedprogrammed it right, the GPS in the car would systems and had great developments in thistake you to your destination .so, right from field. It got marvelous results in the field ofbrakes to automatic traction control to air bags “Telematics” which is a part of technology usedand fuel-air mixture control, the intelligence in cars. The description about it was discussedtakes over Total telematics experience is what3. A few advanced car prototypes with they are looking for simply put telematics is theembedded systems have been tried and tested vehicles capability to communicate with thewhere even if a smart thief has managed to outside world and or the vehicle operator. It is abreak in through the car, the car doesn‟t start combination of telecommunication andup even if it does the computer I the car would computinglock the steering wheel and cutoff the fuel Imagine when you are busyinjection supply … in the mean time a signal is negotiating through rush hour traffic, you get a
  9. 9. call on your mobile. You know the call is from hears the voice of the speaker without anyyour office but can‟t attend to it. out side interference. Conclusion:“How nice it would have been if somebodywould answer your phone call and at the same With the heights of the technologytime guide you systematically through the autonomous car is no more a myth. It‟s atraffic?” reality! We would like topresent that there must be Mistral software, which was further developments in this technology to makedeveloped in India, has text-to-speech and autonomous car more common all over thespeech recognition technologies to give the car world.This can be happened by making theoccupants the ultimate comfort. So whenever autonomous easy to operate for the user and thethere is a call on your mobile. You need not designers should concentrate more in producingget jump at the very onset of the call. Relax the autonomous cars, which should not cost a lot,computer in the cars dashboard would do the they should in the vicinity of customers budget.job for you. With this type of vehicles there will be great advantages in the coming feature. Due to speedGPS navigation guides you through the traffic. control technique, accident free driving isThe GPS interface in the car pinpoints your possible and fuel savage is also made possibleexact location on a map. In case the GPS signal by the technique, which will make the car tocant be received due to high density of tall travel through shortest path. In the near future,buildings or other magnetic interface, the „dead autonomous car become more common all overreckoning „ technique, which works for short the world. Indian efforts in the embeddeddurations guides you effectively. The system is technology can assure that these autonomousalso loaded with GSM/CDMA protocol cars will become cheaper and may evolve withstandards further modified on the CANBUS many more advantages. So that we could findstandard t give uninterrupted information. ourselves using these autonomous cars in the Another device called the array near feature. microphone cuts off the surrounding noise and allows the speaker to communicate effectively. The person at the other end
  10. 10. www.signaling-gatewave.orgwww.vivisimo.comReal Time Systems-Alan BurnsReal Time Systems-Krishnamurthy.