AbstractEmotion in itself in an abstract idea, it can only be perceived when studied through feelings inbehaviour of individuals. However a distinction has to be made between emotion and mood. Whileemotion is a short term and shot lived, mood is long term. For marketers to compete effectively andefficiently in the current competitive environment it is extremely important to recognize the featuresof their product that appeal most to their customer and if they don’t find any they should look todevelop some. Considering that a brand depicts two images - namely functional and symbolic- theformer referring to the basic needs the product satisfies or its inherent characteristics while the laterseeks to satisfy the extrinsic needs of the customer; it is this second component of a brand imagethrough which marketers inject emotional element into their product. There are various techniquesthrough which this can be achieved. The most common are celebrity branding and touch lines.
To begin with, when considering brands have emotions, questions arise in the minds are what areEmotions? How emotions effect the standing of a particular brand in a market? These emotions arereal or fake? Etc.WHAT IS EMOTION?Emotion is made up of different components, As Damasio(1999) said ―the full human impact ofemotions is only realized when they have been sensed, when they turn into feelings and when thesefeelings are felt in different ways that is where they become what is known as emotions‖.By emotions, we mean a state of readiness of mind that arises from the assessment of cognitive eventsor feelings; has the tone of phenomena; associated with physiological processes; often physicalexpression (for example, in gestures, posture, facial features), and leads may take someprocedures ormanagement with a passion, and this depends on the nature and meaning for the person thereafter.Fora similar perspective, see Lazarus (1991) and Oatley (1992).The line between an emotion and mood is frequently difficult to draw but often by conventionincludes conceiving of a mood as being longer lasting (from a few hours up to days) and lower instrength than an emotion. Yet, exceptions to this construal can be found. Still another distinctionbetween emotions and moods is that the former typically is on purpose (i.e., it has an object orreferent), whereas moods are generally non intentional and global (Frijda 1993). Also, moods are notas directly joined with action tendencies and unambiguous actions as are many emotions.IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONS:Marketers realize that emotions are important but they are not quite sure why? And how emotions cancreate differences in the market?Millward brown (1998), talking to consumer and asking them different questions about how theymade purchases? What are the things which influence them in purchasing? And how he/she consumesa product that represent certain brands the answer would be simpler ―depending upon my mood andinvolvement towards that product which is how well you are emotionally attached to the product of aparticular brand‖. Millward Browns thoughts about it is that ,‖ Brands are made up of groups ofassociations, feelings, images, sounds, fragments of experience as well as some derived knowledge.Why do people buy products of a certain brands customers purchase products both for what theproduct does for them called ―Product Function‖ and also for another important reason that is how theproduct make them feel to be precise ― Product Emotions‖.Boatwright,P. Cagon, J,1991: BuiltToLove: Creating products that captitative customers. So the basic thing which marketers have tounderstand is to convert need into want. Marketers have to engage customer emotionally with theproduct for gaining stand out position in the market.The higher emotional response tendency is linked with more recurrent use and acceptance of thebrand is strongly confirmed.Hansen, F.Christensen.S, 1991, Emotions. Advertising and consumerchoice. If the rate of customers emotional attachment to the product is high then loyalty towards thatproduct/brand increases. So that the power of that brand enhances. Let’s take an example of a Playboyin 1950’s; it had all the elements that a powerful brand could possibly have. Such as; Consumer Jazz Publicity Differentiation Various touch points or experience realms A visible brand champion
Strong employee brand advocates A clear brand image, message and promise Consistency in setting and meeting customer expectations Restraints in protecting the brand. An untapped niche.While it certainly goes against the tested marketing theory to extend a brand so much and so quickly,itworked for playboy. (Building Brand Value The Playboy Way, Susan Gunelios,2008). By gettingcomplete hold on some of the elements, brands can develop emotional attachment with the customerin order to strengthen its brand.EMOTIONAL BRANDING:Over the past decade trademark emotional growth itself in the way that has become an influential partof the extremely successful in branding, and has proved itself as a separate concept. (Gobe 2001;Zaltman 2003). Emotional branding is specifically termed as consumer-oriented, relational, and story-driven approach to build a strong and long term bond between consumer and the brand. (Roberts2004). Among marketing practitioners, this relational, shared, participatory, sensory, and sensitiveview of consumer- brand relationships is increasingly heralded as a central pillar of marketdifferentiation and sustainable competitive advantage (Atkin 2004; Gobe 2001; Lindstrom 2005;Roberts 2004). Emotional branding actually means that customers stay connected to the brand forlonger period of time.Various tools used for emotional branding:- Celebrity Branding. Touch-Lines.Celebrity Branding:-Celebrity branding is a type of branding, or advertising, which uses celebrities his or herposition in the community for the purpose of promoting a product or service or charity. Celebritybrands can take different forms, from the celebrities in the ads that appear simply a product or serviceor charity, to celebrities who attended the event PR, and create his or her own line of products orservices,And/or using his or her name as a brand. The most popular forms of celebrity brand lines arefor clothing and fragrances. Many singers, models and film stars now have at least onelicensed product or service which bears their name.Punch-lines:-SIMPLE MEANING OF PUNCHLINES1. An ending line, as in a play or joke, that makes a point.2. An often repeated phrase associated with an individual, organization, commercial product.
TOUCHING THE HEARTEffective marketing does not mean that you do not only have an impact on the heart of the consumerbut also to influence them emotionally so they can take positive action regarding that particular brand.Could target potential consumers of the new generation, which has more purchasing power, as well asspecific taste, liking for the latest products and the value system that is completely conventional. Thenew generation consumers can be targeted with the following Emotional Marketing Mix: 1. Glitzy Ad 2. Flashy Design 3. Lifestyle 4. ImageFor example, The Coca-Cola Company has selected specific colours for CAN to encourage certainemotions. The red color is in color, the ability to inspire and the power of confidence, and feelscomfortably warm. Stripes and silver bubbles give a refreshing look, and yellow tape is the exactcolour, but it is important to inspire a feeling of happiness. All together this design inspires family feelcomfortable. Their own commercials and also seems to promise a comfortable experience and socialdevelopment. All of these emotional factors to establish an association with the product. Whenconsumers see the product in the store that they do not only see a refreshing drink, feel a sense ofhappiness and comfort, in the hope of social interaction commercials display.Consumer-brand relationshipIn the context of relational approach, the special relationship between the consumer and the brandinvolves a new dimension that is the emotional dimension (Filser, 1996; Graillot, 1998; Gobé, 2001).In fact, the reality grab consumer sentiment and that affect their minds become a major concern forany brand and one of the key success factors for the development of a long-term relationship(Lacoeuilhe, 1997; Cristau, 2001). In this paper we will examine the value of the emotional side informing and maintaining the relationship between consumers and different brands. Humans tend tolike people who share their common traits. The same applies to the idea of brand and consumerinteractions (Aaker, 1996). Originating in social psychology, consumer-brand relationships are similar tointerpersonal relationships: They involve reciprocal exchanges between partners through a series of repeated actions; and Sustained consumer-brand relationships provide benefits to the participants, such as perceived commitment (Aaker, 1996; Smith et al., 2007).Through series of transactions, consumers’ experiences create some brand associations/links with afocal brand (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993, 2001). Keller (2001) notes that brand associations functionlike information nodes stored in memory, and contain the meaning of the brand for consumers. In herprevious study (Keller, 1998), It identifies three categories of brand associations: product and non-product related attributes, and the functional and symbolic benefits, and the position or the overallassessment. Like many of the characteristics of individuals within human relations and brandassociations influence in popular perceptions and evaluations of the brand(Aaker, 1996; Keller, 1993). Specifically, brand associations help the formation of brand imagewherein brand image refers to perceptions about a brand developed through brand associations andheld in consumers’ memory (Keller, 1998). Scholars have conceptualized brand image with two main– functional and symbolic – aspects: the former is developed using specific, inherent characteristic ofbrand attributes (e.g. price, design, and quality), while the latter is established using extrinsiccharacteristics (e.g. reputation, atmosphere) that satisfy
Customers’ higher-level needs (Bhat and Reddy, 1998; Grace and O’Cass, 2002; Kandampylly andSuhartanto, 2000; Keller, 1993). Brand associations generate different effects either or both on thetechnical aspects and symbolism, which affects the increase of building a brand image.On the assessment of the brand, and individuals who appreciate advanced features are likely to reactpositively to brands such as Chanel means that the images "classic" and "elegant." It was seen to suchroles and similarly between the brand and the self-focusing of research on school brand relationship.Find Matching knows self-concept, research has shown that this trend more similarities betweenconsumers and the brand, and increase the emotional bonds between the consumer and the brand(Fournier, 1998; Sirgy, 1982). Such emotional bonds further foster consumers’ positive evaluations ofthe brand including credibility, attitude, or image (Eagly and Chaiken, 1993).Fournier’s (1994, 1998) model of brand relationship quality (BRQ model) that highlights theimportance of relationship quality deserves particular attention. The BRQ model comprehensively andeffectively addresses diverse dimensions of ―relationship quality‖ in consumer-brand relationships,which advances the concept of relationship marketing. By definition, relationship marketing is anadvanced marketing concept and ―enhancing‖ as well as creating/maintaining the relationship withstakeholders are critical (Kotabe and Helsen, 2001). Specifically, the model posits that the interplay ofseven brand relationship qualities affect the relationship strength: 1. Intimacy (psychological closeness); 2. Passionate attachment; 3. Love (possible feelings towards a brand); 4. Self-concept connection (perception of a brand as the part of the self); 5. Personal commitment (loyalty to the brand); 6. Nostalgic connection (connection to the consumer’s history and particular memories); and 7. Partner quality (taking good care of its consumers).Fournier’s BRQ model has been re-evaluated by later researchers. For instance, Smith et al. (2007)identify four dimensions in the BRQ model (passionate attachment, love, self-connection, andnostalgic connection) as emotional dimensions of brand relationships and the other three (personalcommitment, brand partner quality, and intimacy) as behavioural dimensions. Dowling (2002)Caution is advised in the adoption of model BRQ, arguing that they have the capabilities of differentbrands to communicate with their customers. Overall, despite the acceptance of widespread andimportant model BRQ comprehensive due consideration of the multiple dimensions of qualityconsumer brand relationship. The research also explored the personal element of the relationshipbetween the brand and its customers.Fournier (1998) examined the nature of relationships that customers have— as well as want to have—with companies (see also Fournier and Yao 1997, Fournier et al. 1998).Fournier views brand-relationship quality as multifaceted and consisting of six dimensions beyond loyalty or commitmentalong which consumer brand relationships vary: 1. Self-concept connection, 2. Commitment or nostalgic attachment, 3. Behavioural interdependence, 4. love/passion, 5. Intimacy, and 6. Brand-partner quality.
She suggests the following typology of metaphors to represent commonCustomer-brand relationships: 1. Arranged marriages, 2. Casual friends/buddies, 3. Marriages of convenience, 4. Committed partnerships, 5. Best friendships, 6. Compartmentalized friendships, 7. Kinships, 8. Rebounds/avoidance-driven relationships, 9. Childhood friendships, 10. Courtships, 11. Dependencies, 12. Flings, 13. Enmities, 14. Secret affairs, and 15. Enslavements.CONCLUSION:The crux of the article is that for a company to establish long term mutual beneficial relationship withits customers, it is imperative to form ties not only based on transactional relationship but also pitch insome non-transactional elements. The emotional elements are chosen keeping in view the emotionalaspects of customer base. Then particular features are included in the product itself- such as, intimacy,love, passion and self concept connection etc. – concurrent with the customer’s emotional demand.
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