Sir Dr.Khalil Ahmad
Mukhtiar Ahmed (26)
Karl Marx: Class Conflict
Divides society into two classes
Either they own productive property
Or labour for others
Marx explained that Capitalist society reproduces the
class structure in each new generation.
This happens as families gain wealth and passes it
down from generation to generation.
But, he predicted, Oppression and misery would
eventually drive the working majority to come together
to overthrow capitalism in favour of socialist system
that would end class differences
Criticism on Karl Marx’s Views
Denies a central idea of Davis-Moore thesis
that a system of unequal rewards is necessary
to place talented people in the right job and
to motivate them to work hard
Marx separated reward from Performance.
Revolutionary change that the Marx predicted has
failed to happen, at least in advanced capitalist
Why No Marxist Revolution?
While Marx predicted the inevitability of the
proletarian revolution in capitalist societies, we find
that this has not been the case. A number of factors
can account for the absence of the revolution
predicted by Marx.
These factors are:
The fragmentation of the capitalist class: -
Property is not held by single families, but by a
number of shareholders. These families have an
interest in preserving the capitalist system.
A higher standard of living: - Structural mobility has
contributed to the improvement of living standards
through the creation of a large number of white-collar
More extensive worker organisation: - The
demands of workers have been institutionalised
through the creation of trade unions. Collective
bargaining transforms workers' frustrations and
channels them into demands that do not disrupt the
More extensive legal protection: - Better conditions
of work through law enforcement and security systems
contain workers' frustrations.
Weber's View of Stratification
Max Weber formed a three-component theory of
stratification in which social difference is determined
by class, status, and power.
Class is a person's economic position, based on birth
and individual achievement.
Status is one's social prestige or honor, which may or
may not be influenced by class.
Power is one's ability to get one's way despite the
resistance of others.
According to Weberian theory, a member of the United
States Congress is an example of someone who is high in
the social hierarchy due to status and power, although
they have relatively low economic status.
Analysis Of Different Theories
There are three approaches to Social Stratification.
What is the level of analysis?
What is social stratification?
A system of
A division of
A factor that
What is the reason for our social
abilities in a
we consume all
Are unequal rewards fair?
rewards are fair.
rewards to more
important work is
No, Unequal rewards
only serve to divide
There is widespread
opposition to social
Maybe, People may or
may not define
inequality as fair.
People may view their
social position as a
measure of selfworth.
By concluding the words we can see that different
people presented different theories about stratification
Karl Marx and Max Weber say that social stratification
is not functional for society and some others are not
agree with them.
It means where there is social stratification, there is a