Leadership &  motivation presentatiion
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  • Chor at E11 – Atey Ka Katta <br />
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Leadership &  motivation presentatiion Leadership & motivation presentatiion Presentation Transcript

  • LEADERSHIP: . Mubshair Durrani Irfan khan Ali Raza Nasir Faiq khan
  • LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR AND MOTIVATION
  • Leadership Behavior and Motivation    Focus of this Presentation is: im p o rta nc e o f le a d e rs hip a nd m o tiva tio n Our definition of leadership stressed the importance of influencing others to achieve the organizational objectives through change. High Performance occur when leader create motivational environment that inspire followers to achieve firm’s goals. 3-3
  • Leadership Behavior and Motivation      Motivational skills are critical to leadership success. How leader’s motivate their workers? Why people leave their jobs? Research shows employees stay if they are satisfied with their jobs and committed to their organizations and leave if they are not satisfied. Poor leaders drive employees to quit. 3-4
  • Leadership 5 12/13/13
  • Leadership Behavior and Style    Research on leadership had shifted from the trait theory paradigm to the behavioral theory paradigm. Now the focus on what the leader says and does. No leadership behavior were found to be consistently associated with leadership effectiveness. 3-6
  • Leadership Behavior and Style     Leaders’ behavior is based on their traits and skills. Different studies shows employees retention is based on relationship between manager and employee. Relationship is based on the manager’s leadership personality traits and attitudes. Traits and attitudes directly affect leaders behavior with the employees. 3-7
  • Leadership Behavior and Style   Pygmalion effect is based on traits, attitude expectation, and the leader’s treatment (behavior) of employees which determine the followers’ behavior and performance. Different studies confirmed leader’s behavior has causal effect on employee performance. 3-8
  • 3 Level Leadership Model 9 12/13/13
  • Stages of Leadership Model 10  First two levels, public and private leadership      A shared, motivating group purpose and vision Action, progress and results Collective unity and team spirit Individual selection and motivation Personal leadership    Developing one’s technical knowhow and skills Cultivating the right attitude towards other people Working on psychological self-mastery 12/13/13
  • What is leadership style? 3-11
  • Leadership Styles 12 12/13/13
  • 13 Blanchard and Hersey 4 part Model  Directing   Coaching   The stage in which the employee is doing the task but tentatively Supporting   When a employee is new to a task or job Employee know the task but lacks some confidence Delegating  Employee is up to speed and can handle the job 12/13/13
  • Leadership Qualities        Charismatic Innovative Command and Control Pace Setter (sets high standards for him and team) Servant (puts services to others before self interest) Situational (act according to situation) Transformational (transform situation and teams thinking)
  • What is the best leadership style? 3-15
  • What is the best leadership style? The one which works for the individual leader in a specific time and in a specific environment People change. Friends become enemies. Things go wrong, but life goes on . 3-16
  • Which leadership style do workers think is best? To lead people walk behind them - Lao Tzu 3-17
  • WHAT TO DO?
  • 1. Be a Shameless Idealist*
  • 2. Be Kind for No Reason
  • 3. Get Good Education and Move to a Bad Neighborhood*
  • 4. Build Institutes
  • 5. Fema Kuntum?
  • 6. Pay the Zakat for Success
  • 7. Know your Price
  • 8. Be a Giving Person*
  • 9. Start Reading
  • 10. Teach Followership
  • 11. Teach Listening Skills
  • 12. Everything is Possible in Pakistan, If You Don’t Have to W orry About Who Will Take the Credit?
  • “Although there is no one best leadership style in all situations, employees are more satisfied with a leader who is high in consideration.” 3-31
  • Motivation Anything that affects behavior in pursuit of a certain outcome. E.g( Facebook) 3-32
  • Motivation Process “People go from need to motive to behavior to consequence to satisfaction or dissatisfaction” E.g., we are thirsty (need) and have a drive (motive) to get drink. We get a drink (behavior) that quenches (consequence and satisfaction) our thirst. 3-33
  • Major Motivation Theories Classification of Motivation Theories Specific Motivation Theory 1. Content motivation theories (need motivation) a. Hierarchy of needs theory b.ERG theory c. Two-factor theory d.Acquired need theory 2. Process motivation theories (choose behavior to fulfill their needs) a. Equity theory b. Expectancy theory c. Goal-setting theory 3. Reinforcement theory (behavior can be explained, predicted, and controlled through the consequences for behavior) Type of Reinforcement a. Positive b. Avoidance c. Extinction d. Punishment 3-34
  • Content Motivation Theories Focus on explaining and predicting behavior based on people’s needs. 3-35
  • Hierarchy of Needs Theory Proposes that people are motivated through levels of needs which begin a basic life sustaining needs and progress to life and work satisfaction needs 3-36
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SelfActualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological 3-37
  • 38 12/13/13
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs How Firm meet these needs?  Self-Actualization Needs: Organization meet these needs by the development of employees’ skills, the chance to be creative, achievement and promotions, and the ability to have complete control over their jobs.  Esteem Needs: Organization meet these needs through titles, satisfaction of completing the jobs itself, merit pay raises, recognition, challenging task, participation in decision making and change for advancement. 3-39
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs    Social Needs: Organization meet these needs through the opportunity to interact with others, to be accepted, to have friends. Activities include parties, picnics, trips, and sport terms. Safety Needs: meet these needs through safe working conditions, salary increases to meet inflation, job security, and fringe benefits (medical insurance/sick pay etc). Physiological Needs: meet these needs adequate needs salary, breaks and working conditions. 3-40
  • ERG THEORY 41      A theory of human motivation that focuses on three groups of needs that form a hierarchy: e x is te nc e ne e d s re la te d ne s s ne e d s g ro wth ne e d s The theory suggests that these needs change their position in the hierarchy as circumstances change. 12/13/13
  • Existence Needs   This group of needs is concerned with providing the basic requirements for material existence, such as physiological and safety needs. In a work context this need is satisfied by money earned in a job for the purchase of food, shelter, clothing, etc.
  • Relatedness Needs    This group of needs focuses on the desire to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships with family, friends, co-workers and employers. Interact with other people, receive public recognition, and feel secure around people. The amount of time most people spend at work this need is normally satisfied to some extent by their relationships with colleagues and managers.
  • Growth Needs   These needs are about the fulfilment of desires to be creative, productive and to complete meaningful tasks. These needs are all about by personal development. In a work context a person's job, career, or profession can provide a significant satisfaction of growth needs.
  • CONCLUSION Clayton Alderfer extended and simplified Maslow’s hierarchy into a shorter set of three needs: Existence, Relatedness and Growth (hence 'ERG'). Unlike Maslow, he did not see these as being a hierarchy, but being more of a continuum.  
  • Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation    In 1960 Herzberg published two factor theory (maintenance and motivators of needs). This theory proposes that “people are motivated by motivator rather than maintenance factors”. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors. 3-46
  • Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation  Motivator Factors (believes motivation come from within the person through the work itself)  Maintenance (Hygiene) Factors (believes motivation from outside the person and the job itself) 3-47
  •        MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS Achievement Recognition Work Itself Responsibility Promotion Growth         HYGIENE FACTORS Pay and Benefits Company Policy and Administration Relationships with coworkers Physical Environment Supervision Status , Salary Job Security
  • Acquired Needs Theory (employees are motivated by their need for:) Affiliation Power Achievement 3-49
  • Acquired Needs Theory  Motivating with high Ach: through non-routine work, challenging task with clear attainable objectives. Fast feedback and keep out of their jobs.  Motivating with high power: Let employees plan and control their jobs as much as possible.  Motivating with high Aff: Give them lot of praise and recognition. Make great buddies and mentors. 3-50
  • 51 Criticism of the Content Theories   Despite their wide use and impact on the workplace, major criticisms exist of these theories. Universality - the theories pertain to be universal theories and apply to everyone. They take no account of gender, age, culture, religious or other factor differences. 12/13/13
  • 52  Individual differences and stability over time not only do the theories ignore the significance of individual differences but they largely fail to recognize that individual needs are constantly changing, and consequently what may be a motivator one day may not the next. Their static nature doesn't relate to the real world. 12/13/13
  • 53  Process simplicity - The theories assume that the connection between needs and behavior is non-problematic. They ignore the processes that must be evaluated and implemented to achieve the desired end result. 12/13/13
  • What is the Equity Theory of Motivation? John Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, put forward his Equity Theory on job motivation in 1963. 3-54
  • Equity Theory (proposed that employees are motivated when their perceived inputs equal outputs.) Our inputs (contributions) Our outcomes (rewards) = Others’ input (contributions) = Others’ outcomes (rewards) 3-55
  • 56 12/13/13
  • What is the Expectancy Theory of Motivation? In 1964, Vroom developed the Expectancy theory through his study of the motivations behind decision making. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process of why individuals choose one behavioral option over another. 3-57
  • Expectancy Theory Proposes that employees are motivated when they believe they can accomplish the task and the rewards for doing so are worth the effort. 3-58
  • Expectancy Theory-That which you focus on expands. If you focus on how bad the weather is…the weather becomes worse in your world. If you focus on how good your opponent is… your opponent becomes better in your world. If you focus on your strength…you become stronger in your world Choose your focus wisely !!! 3-59
  • What is the Goal-setting Theory of Motivation? The first empirical studies were performed by Cecil Alec Mace in 1935. Goal setting theory was developed and refined by Edwin A. Locke in the 1960s. Goals that are deemed difficult to achieve and specific tend to increase performance more than goals that are not. 3-60
  • Goal-setting Theory Proposes that specific, difficult goals motivate people 3-61
  • How Does a Leader Set Meaningful Goals & Objectives to Motivate Subordinates? 3-62
  • Criteria for Objectives  Singular result   Specific   Exact performance expected Measurable   One end result Observe and measure progress Target date  Specific completion date 3-63
  • Other Criteria for Objectives Difficult but achievable  Participatively set  Commitment of employees  3-64
  • What is Reinforcement Theory “proposes that through the consequences for behavior, people will be motivated to behave in predetermined ways” 3-65
  • Reinforcement Theory   Also known as behavior modification Based on studies of B.F. Skinner   Depends on reinforcement      Major topic of study in Psychology Positive (attractive rewards) Avoidance (avoid negative results) Extinction (reduce undesirable behavior) Punishment Reinforcement can be   Continuous Intermittent (the reward is given based on the passage of time or output. E.g., tea break, salary, praise after the achievement) 3-66
  • Yo u g e t wha t y o u re info rc e , no t a lwa y s wha t y o u re wa rd ! 3-67
  • How Can a Leader Motivate Using Reinforcement? 3-68
  • Motivating with Reinforcement  Set clear objectives   Use appropriate rewards       Employees must understand what is expected Must be seen as rewards Use the appropriate reinforcement schedule Do not reward unworthy performance Look for the positive Give sincere praise Do things for your employees 3-69
  • Give Sincere Praise   People will know if you mean it Praise Model (Person to Person)      Tell what was done well Tell why it is important Take a moment of silence Encourage continued good work Learn to give praise easily  It is an effective and inexpensive motivational tool 3-70
  • Which Motivation Theory is the “Correct” Model?    All of them None of them None works in all environments, in all situations, or for all people   Leader must be flexible Knowledge of all theories will help in determining the correct way to motivate in a given situation 3-71
  • Which Motivation Theory is the “Correct” Model? 3-72
  • THA K YO U. . ! N