Photo Essay:16 Images for 16 Days Against Gender-Based Violence
According to a 2006 Human Rights Watch report, as many as 30% of all marriages in Kyrgyzstan may be the result of bride kidnapping. In certain villages the percentage is closer to 80%.
In 2009, President Nazerbayev of Kazakhstan signed in a new lawprohibiting all forms of discrimination based on gender.
As of 2011, 92 million girls over the age of 10 in Africa have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting(FGM/C), with more than 3 million atrisk of the practice in the region each year.
Rwanda has recently strengthened its laws protecting victims of rape, issuing substantial penalties and broadening the definition to include spousal rape. According to the US Department of State‟s 2010 Human Rights report, thegovernment of Rwanda handles rape cases as priority within its judicial system.
83% of Iraqi women report at least one form of marital controlling behavior while33% have experienced at least one form of emotional or psychological violence in their intimate relationships.
Tools like HarassMap are giving women and men in Egypt a mechanism for reporting incidences of sexual harassment via SMS technology.
India has one of the highest rates of sex selective abortion, with numbers of“missing girls” increasing from less than 2 million in the 1980s to 6 million in the 2000s.
Over 31 million girls in South Asia are forced to marry before the age of 18.
In 2006, Human Rights Watch named Romania as one of five countries in the world that had made „exemplary progress in combating rights abuses based on sexual orientation or gender identity‟.
In times of armed conflict, men are often not considered a “vulnerable group,” despite their enhanced vulnerability to forced conscription, sex-selective massacres, and mutilation.
47% of women interviewed in Tajikistan reported that their husband hasforced them to have sex. Spousal rape is not recognized by Tajik Legislation.
In 2007, the Parliament of Sierra Leone passed three Gender Acts to offer increased physical, psychological and financial protection to women, including the first formal law to address domestic violence.
Under customary law in South Sudan, rapists are able to escape punishment by marrying their victim, provided the victim‟s family agrees.
In 2006, the Women‟s Protection Act was passed in Pakistan. Among otherchanges, the Act reformed the Hudood Ordinances, under which rape victims could be charged with adultery and a woman was required to produce four Muslim male witnesses to prove rape.
According to a UNICEF study conducted in 2009, 76% of Somali women aged 15-49 consider a husband to be justified in hitting or beating his wife if she burns the food, argues with him, or refuses his sexual advances.
In Tunisia women have had access to birth control since 1962, and to abortionsince 1965—eight years before Roe vs. Wade gave American women the same right.
For more information on how IREX programs combat gender-based violenceand advance gender equity, please visit: http://www.irex.org/focus_area/gender For more information on the official 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence Campaign, visit: http://16dayscwgl.rutgers.edu/
Statistic Citation (In order of image)• UNFPA (n.d.) ‘Bride Kidnapping: an information note’, UNFPA, Bishkek pp.1, 3• UNIFEM (2010) ‘Gender Equality Law Comes into Force in Kazakhstan’, 5 January 2010, http://www.unifem.org/news_events/story_detail.php?StoryID=1036• http://www.unwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/UNTF-Fact-Sheet-2012.pdf• Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2007) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States Parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined fourth, fifth and sixth periodic reports of States parties Rwanda’, CEDAW/C/RWA/6, , p.41 US Department of State (2011), 2010 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda, US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Washington, DC. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/af/154364.htm• http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/pdfid/4e786a1a2.pdf• http://harassmap.org/• Jha, P., Kesler, M., Kumar, R., et al. 2011. Trends in selective abortions of girls in India: analysis of nationally representative birth histories from 1990 to 2005 and census data from 1991 to 2011. The Lancet, 377: 9781, 1921-1928, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60649-1 , 2011• http://www.unwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/UNTF-Fact-Sheet-2012.pdf• On International Day Against Homophobia, Violations Mixed With Victories, Human Rights Watch• Edgecombe, Emily. A General Analysis of ‘Vulnerable Populations’ in Post-Conflict Settings: Questions and Contradictions. 2012• Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (2008) ‘Tajikistan Country Gender Profile’, JICA Tajikistan Office, Dushanbe, p.11• Social Edge (2008) ‘Implementing the gender acts in Sierra Leone’, Alison Zureick, 29 January 2008, Social Edge, a Program of the Skoll Foundation. http://www.socialedge.org/blogs/alyson-in-africa/archive/2008/01/29/implementing-the-gender-acts- in-sierra-leone• Tønnessen, L. and Roald, A. (2007) ‘CMI Report: Discrimination in the Name of Religious Freedom: The Rights of Women and Non-Muslims after the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Sudan’, available at http://www.cmi.no/publications/file/2704- discrimination-in-the-name-of-religious-freedom.pdf• Protection of Women (Criminal Laws Amendment) Act 2006 in CEDAW (2011) Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Fourth periodic reports of States parties Pakistan, CEDAW/C/PAK/4, CEDAW, New York, p.25• Country data from UNICEF (2009) State of the World’s Children – online data, Available at http://www.unicef.org/sowc09/statistics/statistics.php• http://www.npr.org/2011/01/27/133248219/in-tunisia-women-play-equal-role-in-revolution