Individual characteristics (i.e., dispositional attributes of the individual that may have a strong genetic base), such as easy temperament, positive orientation, intelligence, self-esteem, autonomy, and sociability. . Family characteristics, such as secure attachments, lack of family conflict, and cohesive and warm family interactions that provide emotional support and affection. . External (environmental) support systems at school, work, or church that encourage and reinforce children’s coping strategies, reward individuals’ competencies and determination, and provide them with a sense of meaning and an internal locus of control.
“ Health behaviors for all youth and children start with healthy beliefs and clear standards in families, school, communities and peer groups, build bonding, attachement and commitment to families school communities and peer groups by providing opportunities, skills and recognition and by nurturing individual characteristics”
Substance Abuse Prevention interventions for children and adolescents
Decreases risk factors, increases protective factors Address all forms of drug use Is tailored to the target population Establish norms and expectations Use cognitive-behavioral methods Emphasize development of social, communication and problem-solving skills Increase self-efficacy and drug resistance skills Take place at level of school, family or community
Family ◦ History of drug abuse and conflict ◦ Favorable attitudes towards problem behavior School ◦ Academic failure ◦ Lack of commitment Individual ◦ Antisocial behavior ◦ rebelliousness Community ◦ Availability of drugs http://drug-abuse-rehab.net
Individual ◦ Positive attitude ◦ Self-esteem ◦ autonomy Family ◦ Secure attachments ◦ Lack of conflict External ◦ support systems
Originally designed as a selective prevention intervention 14 week program Three parts ◦ Parent Training ◦ Child Training ◦ Family Training Family communication/conflict Build self-esteem and family cohesion
11 lessons in 7th grade 3 lessons in 8th grade Increase motivation for healthy behaviors Change social norms surrounding use
Goal is community-wide change Implemented over several years 5 phase program ◦ Needs assessment ◦ Risk factor inventory ◦ Multi-facet action plan ◦ Recruitment of community participation ◦ Continuous evaluation
Successful programs use some element of cognitive behavioral therapy Interventions should be tailored to a community Interventions should involve as many aspects of the community as possible There is insufficient data to draw conclusions about prevention effects on adult health Short term effects are promising
1. Beets, M.W., Flay, B.R., Vuchinich, S., Snyder, F.J., Acock, A., Li, K., Burns, K., Washburn, I.J., & Duriak, J., (2009).Use of a social and character development program to prevent substance use, violent behaviors and sexual activity among elementary-school students in Hawaii. American Journal of Public Health, 99(8), 1438-1445.2. Communities That Care. (2008). CTC Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.sdrg.org/ctcresource/About_CTC_NEW.htm3. Eaton, D. K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Flint, K.H., Hawkins, J., Harris, W., Lowry, R., McManus, T., Chyen, D., Whittle, L., Lim, C., & Wechsler, H. (2011). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61 (4), 1 -160.4. Ellickson, P.L., McCafferey, D.F., Ghosh-Dastidar, B., Longshor, D.L. (2003). New inroads in preventing adolescent drug use: Results from a large-scale trial of project ALERT in middle schools. American Journal of Public Health, 93(11), 1830-1836.5. Ennett, S.T., Tobler, N.S., Ringwalt, C.L., Flewelling, R.L. (1994). How effective is drug abuse resistance education? A meta-analysis of project DARE outcome evaluations. American Journal of Public Health, 84(9) , 1394-1401.6. Grant, J.D. , Scherrer, J.F., Lynskey M.T., Lyons, M.J., Eiesen, S.A., Tsuang, M.T., True, W.R., & Bucholz, K.K. (2006). Adolescent alcohol use is a risk factor for adult alcohol and drug dependence: evidence from a twin design. Psychological Medicine, 36 , 109-118.7. Hawkins, J.D., & Catalano, R.F.(2003) Investing in Your Community’s Youth: An Introduction to the Communities that Care System. Channing Bete Company Inc.
8. Hawkins, J.D., Oesterele, S.O., Brown, E.C., Monahan, K.C., Abbott, R.D., Arthur, M.W., A&Catalano, R.F. (2012). Sustained decrease in risk exposure and youth problem behaviors after installation of the Communities That Care prevention system in a randomized trial. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine , 166(2), 141-148.9. Kumpher, K.L. (1998). Selective prevention interventions: the Strengthening Families program. In R. Ashery, E.B. Robertson & K.L. Kumpher (Eds.), Drug Abuse Prevention Through Family Interventions (160-207). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.10. Mihalic, S., Fagan, A., Irwin, K., Ballard, D., & Elliott, D. (2004). Blueprints for Violence Prevention. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.11. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2012). Prevention Benefits Exceed Its Cost and has Sustained Effects. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/nida- notes/2012/07/prevention-system%E2%80%99s-benefits-exceed-cost-has-sustained- effects.