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Introduction to Dyslexia
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Introduction to Dyslexia


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  • Transcript

    • 1. Overview
      • Introduction
      • What’s Dyslexia
      • Strengths and weaknesses
      • Simulation Test
      • Role and Responsibilities of the SNO
      • Teaching Suggestions
      • Successful Dyslexics
    • 2. An Introduction to Dyslexia
      • Greek term
      • It means difficulty( dys ) with words ( lexis )
      • Also known as Specific Developmental Dyslexia
    • 3. What’s Dyslexia?
      • A neurological- based specific learning difficulty that is characterised by difficulties in one or more of reading, writing and spelling.
      • Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of language acquisition, phonological processing, working memory, and sequencing .
      • Occur in learners with normal intelligence .
    • 4. What Causes Dyslexia?
      • Many theories but no consensus on the exact cause
      • Research confirms that it can run in the family
      • More common in males than females (4:1)
    • 5. Areas of Weaknesses
      • Language Acquisition
      • There is evidence to suggest that dyslexics have difficulty learning additional languages.
      • Phonological Processing Difficulty
      • Most common difficulty in dyslexics
      • Difficulty in learning the relationship between letters and sounds.
      • Working Memory
      • Poor ability to hold information in their short term memory
      • May affect mental arithmetic, remembering long list of instructions, learning phonics and developing vocabulary
      • Sequencing
      • Problem sequencing letters and sounds
    • 6. Areas of Strengths
      • Good reasoning skills
      • Creative
      • Think in big picture and multi-dimensional way
      • Visual and kinaesthetic learners
    • 7. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
      • General
      • Poor processing speed for spoken and/or written language
      • Poor concentration
      • Difficulty following instructions
      • Forgetful of words
    • 8. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
      • Written work
      • Poor standard of written work compared to oral ability
      • Poor penmanship
      • Messy work with many cancellations
      • Letter reversals
      • Inconsistent spelling of the same word
      • Letter confusion
      • Unusual sequencing of letters or words
    • 9. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
      • Reading
      • Slow, inaccurate or labored oral reading
      • Difficulty in blending letters together
      • Difficulty in establishing syllable division
      • Strange pronunciation of words
      • Expressionless reading
      • Deletion/addition of words
      • Failure to recognise familiar words
      • Poor comprehension of text
    • 10. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
      • Numeracy
      • Number order and/or symbols confusion
      • Difficulty with information in sequential order
      • Difficulty in memorising formulae
      • Find mental arithmetic at speed very difficult
    • 11. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
      • Time
      • Difficulty learning how to tell time
      • Poor general awareness of time and time-keeping
      • Confuse concept such as yesterday, today or tomorrow
      • Poor personal organisation
    • 12. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
      • Behaviour
      • Employ work avoidance tactics
      • Tend to dream in class
      • Easily distracted
      • Disruptive or withdrawn
      • Show excessive tiredness
    • 13. Simulation Test
      • Have a go.
      • The big brown fox had no dinner.
      • Such was the quality of his existence
    • 14. Approach to learning
      • As learners with dyslexia are often “whole picture thinkers” ,they need to know how their new learning fit in with what they already know.
      • They often have excellent visual – spatial skills, and like to attach information to images
      • They learn best through multisensory approach
    • 15. Role and Responsibilities of SNO
      • Provides specialized remediation in withdrawal setting
      • Provides in-class support
      • Screening of at –risk pupils using Dyslexia Screening Kit (Junior)
      • Sets Individualised Education Plan
    • 16. Role and Responsibilities of SNO
      • Remediation Programme
      • Based on Orton-Gillingham principles
      • Language based
      • Cognitive
      • Structured, sequential and cumulative
      • Simultaneously Multisensory
      • Diagnostic and prescriptive
      • Emotionally sound
    • 17.  
    • 18. Role and Responsibilities of SNO
      • In-class Support
      • Remind/prompt pupil to stay on-task, pay attention and participate
      • Help pupil to follow class routine
      • Help pupil to understand lesson content
      • Withdraw pupil for time-out if disruptive
      • Communicate pupil’s need to teachers
    • 19. Role and Responsibilities of SNO
      • Screening Test (Dyslexia)
      • Use DST-J (Dyslexia screening toolkit-Junior)
      • Collect supporting documents including work samples, checklist or other informal assessment done
      • Work closely with EP, LSC, teachers involved and level head for special needs
    • 20. Role and Responsibilities of SNO
      • Provision of skill training to pupils
      • Provision of peer training and support
      • Communicate with parents of child’s progress
      • Prepare teaching and learning resources
      • Share/discuss with teachers about strategies, support and creating a special needs friendly environment for the pupils
    • 21. Pre-Screening Procedures
      • Get samples of pupil’s work
      • Issue teacher and parents checklist
      • Issue consent form to parents for approval to conduct screening
      • Dyslexic at risk will be referred to EP
    • 22. Teaching Suggestions
      • Sit the child in front
      • Provide structure of lesson in advance
      • Instructions should be sequenced clearly. Do not give too many instructions at once.
      • Avoid giving instructions while pupils are reading or copying.
      • Get pupils to use highlighters to highlight key points
      • Provide time to think, organise and complete
    • 23. Teaching Suggestions
      • Provide positive feedback encouragement and praise to boost self-esteem
      • Involve peers who are
      • -mature
      • -helpful and sympathetic
      • -willing
      • -able to work within capabilities
    • 24. Successful Dyslexics
      • Leornardo da Vinci
      • Believed to suffer from dyslexia & ADD. He wrote his notes backwards,right to left in mirror image and his manuscript contain many spelling errors characteristic of dyslexia
      • Thomas Edison
      • Was thrown out of school at 12 because he was thought to be dumb. Terrible in maths, words and speech and unable to focus.
    • 25. Successful Dyslexics
      • She remembers being called dumb and stupid because she had a lot of problems reading. She went on to be nominated for an Oscar…
      • Whoopi Goldberg
    • 26.  
    • 27.