Introduction to Dyslexia


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  • This is the overview of the content.
  • Introduction to Dyslexia

    1. 1. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What’s Dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Test </li></ul><ul><li>Role and Responsibilities of the SNO </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Dyslexics </li></ul>
    2. 2. An Introduction to Dyslexia <ul><li>Greek term </li></ul><ul><li>It means difficulty( dys ) with words ( lexis ) </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as Specific Developmental Dyslexia </li></ul>
    3. 3. What’s Dyslexia? <ul><li>A neurological- based specific learning difficulty that is characterised by difficulties in one or more of reading, writing and spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of language acquisition, phonological processing, working memory, and sequencing . </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in learners with normal intelligence . </li></ul>
    4. 4. What Causes Dyslexia? <ul><li>Many theories but no consensus on the exact cause </li></ul><ul><li>Research confirms that it can run in the family </li></ul><ul><li>More common in males than females (4:1) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Areas of Weaknesses <ul><li>Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>There is evidence to suggest that dyslexics have difficulty learning additional languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological Processing Difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Most common difficulty in dyslexics </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in learning the relationship between letters and sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Working Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Poor ability to hold information in their short term memory </li></ul><ul><li>May affect mental arithmetic, remembering long list of instructions, learning phonics and developing vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Problem sequencing letters and sounds </li></ul>
    6. 6. Areas of Strengths <ul><li>Good reasoning skills </li></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Think in big picture and multi-dimensional way </li></ul><ul><li>Visual and kinaesthetic learners </li></ul>
    7. 7. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Poor processing speed for spoken and/or written language </li></ul><ul><li>Poor concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty following instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetful of words </li></ul>
    8. 8. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>Written work </li></ul><ul><li>Poor standard of written work compared to oral ability </li></ul><ul><li>Poor penmanship </li></ul><ul><li>Messy work with many cancellations </li></ul><ul><li>Letter reversals </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent spelling of the same word </li></ul><ul><li>Letter confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual sequencing of letters or words </li></ul>
    9. 9. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Slow, inaccurate or labored oral reading </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in blending letters together </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in establishing syllable division </li></ul><ul><li>Strange pronunciation of words </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionless reading </li></ul><ul><li>Deletion/addition of words </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to recognise familiar words </li></ul><ul><li>Poor comprehension of text </li></ul>
    10. 10. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>Numeracy </li></ul><ul><li>Number order and/or symbols confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with information in sequential order </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in memorising formulae </li></ul><ul><li>Find mental arithmetic at speed very difficult </li></ul>
    11. 11. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty learning how to tell time </li></ul><ul><li>Poor general awareness of time and time-keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Confuse concept such as yesterday, today or tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Poor personal organisation </li></ul>
    12. 12. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Employ work avoidance tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to dream in class </li></ul><ul><li>Easily distracted </li></ul><ul><li>Disruptive or withdrawn </li></ul><ul><li>Show excessive tiredness </li></ul>
    13. 13. Simulation Test <ul><li>Have a go. </li></ul><ul><li>The big brown fox had no dinner. </li></ul><ul><li>Such was the quality of his existence </li></ul>
    14. 14. Approach to learning <ul><li>As learners with dyslexia are often “whole picture thinkers” ,they need to know how their new learning fit in with what they already know. </li></ul><ul><li>They often have excellent visual – spatial skills, and like to attach information to images </li></ul><ul><li>They learn best through multisensory approach </li></ul>
    15. 15. Role and Responsibilities of SNO <ul><li>Provides specialized remediation in withdrawal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Provides in-class support </li></ul><ul><li>Screening of at –risk pupils using Dyslexia Screening Kit (Junior) </li></ul><ul><li>Sets Individualised Education Plan </li></ul>
    16. 16. Role and Responsibilities of SNO <ul><li>Remediation Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Orton-Gillingham principles </li></ul><ul><li>Language based </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Structured, sequential and cumulative </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously Multisensory </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic and prescriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally sound </li></ul>
    17. 18. Role and Responsibilities of SNO <ul><li>In-class Support </li></ul><ul><li>Remind/prompt pupil to stay on-task, pay attention and participate </li></ul><ul><li>Help pupil to follow class routine </li></ul><ul><li>Help pupil to understand lesson content </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraw pupil for time-out if disruptive </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate pupil’s need to teachers </li></ul>
    18. 19. Role and Responsibilities of SNO <ul><li>Screening Test (Dyslexia) </li></ul><ul><li>Use DST-J (Dyslexia screening toolkit-Junior) </li></ul><ul><li>Collect supporting documents including work samples, checklist or other informal assessment done </li></ul><ul><li>Work closely with EP, LSC, teachers involved and level head for special needs </li></ul>
    19. 20. Role and Responsibilities of SNO <ul><li>Provision of skill training to pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of peer training and support </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with parents of child’s progress </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare teaching and learning resources </li></ul><ul><li>Share/discuss with teachers about strategies, support and creating a special needs friendly environment for the pupils </li></ul>
    20. 21. Pre-Screening Procedures <ul><li>Get samples of pupil’s work </li></ul><ul><li>Issue teacher and parents checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Issue consent form to parents for approval to conduct screening </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslexic at risk will be referred to EP </li></ul>
    21. 22. Teaching Suggestions <ul><li>Sit the child in front </li></ul><ul><li>Provide structure of lesson in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions should be sequenced clearly. Do not give too many instructions at once. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid giving instructions while pupils are reading or copying. </li></ul><ul><li>Get pupils to use highlighters to highlight key points </li></ul><ul><li>Provide time to think, organise and complete </li></ul>
    22. 23. Teaching Suggestions <ul><li>Provide positive feedback encouragement and praise to boost self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Involve peers who are </li></ul><ul><li>-mature </li></ul><ul><li>-helpful and sympathetic </li></ul><ul><li>-willing </li></ul><ul><li>-able to work within capabilities </li></ul>
    23. 24. Successful Dyslexics <ul><li>Leornardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>Believed to suffer from dyslexia & ADD. He wrote his notes backwards,right to left in mirror image and his manuscript contain many spelling errors characteristic of dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison </li></ul><ul><li>Was thrown out of school at 12 because he was thought to be dumb. Terrible in maths, words and speech and unable to focus. </li></ul>
    24. 25. Successful Dyslexics <ul><li>She remembers being called dumb and stupid because she had a lot of problems reading. She went on to be nominated for an Oscar… </li></ul><ul><li>Whoopi Goldberg </li></ul>