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Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
Introduction to Dyslexia
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Introduction to Dyslexia

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    • 1. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What’s Dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Test </li></ul><ul><li>Role and Responsibilities of the SNO </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Dyslexics </li></ul>
    • 2. An Introduction to Dyslexia <ul><li>Greek term </li></ul><ul><li>It means difficulty( dys ) with words ( lexis ) </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as Specific Developmental Dyslexia </li></ul>
    • 3. What’s Dyslexia? <ul><li>A neurological- based specific learning difficulty that is characterised by difficulties in one or more of reading, writing and spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of language acquisition, phonological processing, working memory, and sequencing . </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in learners with normal intelligence . </li></ul>
    • 4. What Causes Dyslexia? <ul><li>Many theories but no consensus on the exact cause </li></ul><ul><li>Research confirms that it can run in the family </li></ul><ul><li>More common in males than females (4:1) </li></ul>
    • 5. Areas of Weaknesses <ul><li>Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>There is evidence to suggest that dyslexics have difficulty learning additional languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological Processing Difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Most common difficulty in dyslexics </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in learning the relationship between letters and sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Working Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Poor ability to hold information in their short term memory </li></ul><ul><li>May affect mental arithmetic, remembering long list of instructions, learning phonics and developing vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Problem sequencing letters and sounds </li></ul>
    • 6. Areas of Strengths <ul><li>Good reasoning skills </li></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Think in big picture and multi-dimensional way </li></ul><ul><li>Visual and kinaesthetic learners </li></ul>
    • 7. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Poor processing speed for spoken and/or written language </li></ul><ul><li>Poor concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty following instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetful of words </li></ul>
    • 8. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>Written work </li></ul><ul><li>Poor standard of written work compared to oral ability </li></ul><ul><li>Poor penmanship </li></ul><ul><li>Messy work with many cancellations </li></ul><ul><li>Letter reversals </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent spelling of the same word </li></ul><ul><li>Letter confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual sequencing of letters or words </li></ul>
    • 9. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Slow, inaccurate or labored oral reading </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in blending letters together </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in establishing syllable division </li></ul><ul><li>Strange pronunciation of words </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionless reading </li></ul><ul><li>Deletion/addition of words </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to recognise familiar words </li></ul><ul><li>Poor comprehension of text </li></ul>
    • 10. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>Numeracy </li></ul><ul><li>Number order and/or symbols confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with information in sequential order </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in memorising formulae </li></ul><ul><li>Find mental arithmetic at speed very difficult </li></ul>
    • 11. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty learning how to tell time </li></ul><ul><li>Poor general awareness of time and time-keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Confuse concept such as yesterday, today or tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Poor personal organisation </li></ul>
    • 12. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners <ul><li>Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Employ work avoidance tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to dream in class </li></ul><ul><li>Easily distracted </li></ul><ul><li>Disruptive or withdrawn </li></ul><ul><li>Show excessive tiredness </li></ul>
    • 13. Simulation Test <ul><li>Have a go. </li></ul><ul><li>The big brown fox had no dinner. </li></ul><ul><li>Such was the quality of his existence </li></ul>
    • 14. Approach to learning <ul><li>As learners with dyslexia are often “whole picture thinkers” ,they need to know how their new learning fit in with what they already know. </li></ul><ul><li>They often have excellent visual – spatial skills, and like to attach information to images </li></ul><ul><li>They learn best through multisensory approach </li></ul>
    • 15. Role and Responsibilities of SNO <ul><li>Provides specialized remediation in withdrawal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Provides in-class support </li></ul><ul><li>Screening of at –risk pupils using Dyslexia Screening Kit (Junior) </li></ul><ul><li>Sets Individualised Education Plan </li></ul>
    • 16. Role and Responsibilities of SNO <ul><li>Remediation Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Orton-Gillingham principles </li></ul><ul><li>Language based </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Structured, sequential and cumulative </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously Multisensory </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic and prescriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally sound </li></ul>
    • 17. &nbsp;
    • 18. Role and Responsibilities of SNO <ul><li>In-class Support </li></ul><ul><li>Remind/prompt pupil to stay on-task, pay attention and participate </li></ul><ul><li>Help pupil to follow class routine </li></ul><ul><li>Help pupil to understand lesson content </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraw pupil for time-out if disruptive </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate pupil’s need to teachers </li></ul>
    • 19. Role and Responsibilities of SNO <ul><li>Screening Test (Dyslexia) </li></ul><ul><li>Use DST-J (Dyslexia screening toolkit-Junior) </li></ul><ul><li>Collect supporting documents including work samples, checklist or other informal assessment done </li></ul><ul><li>Work closely with EP, LSC, teachers involved and level head for special needs </li></ul>
    • 20. Role and Responsibilities of SNO <ul><li>Provision of skill training to pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of peer training and support </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with parents of child’s progress </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare teaching and learning resources </li></ul><ul><li>Share/discuss with teachers about strategies, support and creating a special needs friendly environment for the pupils </li></ul>
    • 21. Pre-Screening Procedures <ul><li>Get samples of pupil’s work </li></ul><ul><li>Issue teacher and parents checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Issue consent form to parents for approval to conduct screening </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslexic at risk will be referred to EP </li></ul>
    • 22. Teaching Suggestions <ul><li>Sit the child in front </li></ul><ul><li>Provide structure of lesson in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions should be sequenced clearly. Do not give too many instructions at once. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid giving instructions while pupils are reading or copying. </li></ul><ul><li>Get pupils to use highlighters to highlight key points </li></ul><ul><li>Provide time to think, organise and complete </li></ul>
    • 23. Teaching Suggestions <ul><li>Provide positive feedback encouragement and praise to boost self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Involve peers who are </li></ul><ul><li>-mature </li></ul><ul><li>-helpful and sympathetic </li></ul><ul><li>-willing </li></ul><ul><li>-able to work within capabilities </li></ul>
    • 24. Successful Dyslexics <ul><li>Leornardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>Believed to suffer from dyslexia &amp; ADD. He wrote his notes backwards,right to left in mirror image and his manuscript contain many spelling errors characteristic of dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison </li></ul><ul><li>Was thrown out of school at 12 because he was thought to be dumb. Terrible in maths, words and speech and unable to focus. </li></ul>
    • 25. Successful Dyslexics <ul><li>She remembers being called dumb and stupid because she had a lot of problems reading. She went on to be nominated for an Oscar… </li></ul><ul><li>Whoopi Goldberg </li></ul>
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