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Introduction to Dyslexia
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Introduction to Dyslexia

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  • This is the overview of the content.


  • 1. Overview
    • Introduction
    • What’s Dyslexia
    • Strengths and weaknesses
    • Simulation Test
    • Role and Responsibilities of the SNO
    • Teaching Suggestions
    • Successful Dyslexics
  • 2. An Introduction to Dyslexia
    • Greek term
    • It means difficulty( dys ) with words ( lexis )
    • Also known as Specific Developmental Dyslexia
  • 3. What’s Dyslexia?
    • A neurological- based specific learning difficulty that is characterised by difficulties in one or more of reading, writing and spelling.
    • Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of language acquisition, phonological processing, working memory, and sequencing .
    • Occur in learners with normal intelligence .
  • 4. What Causes Dyslexia?
    • Many theories but no consensus on the exact cause
    • Research confirms that it can run in the family
    • More common in males than females (4:1)
  • 5. Areas of Weaknesses
    • Language Acquisition
    • There is evidence to suggest that dyslexics have difficulty learning additional languages.
    • Phonological Processing Difficulty
    • Most common difficulty in dyslexics
    • Difficulty in learning the relationship between letters and sounds.
    • Working Memory
    • Poor ability to hold information in their short term memory
    • May affect mental arithmetic, remembering long list of instructions, learning phonics and developing vocabulary
    • Sequencing
    • Problem sequencing letters and sounds
  • 6. Areas of Strengths
    • Good reasoning skills
    • Creative
    • Think in big picture and multi-dimensional way
    • Visual and kinaesthetic learners
  • 7. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
    • General
    • Poor processing speed for spoken and/or written language
    • Poor concentration
    • Difficulty following instructions
    • Forgetful of words
  • 8. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
    • Written work
    • Poor standard of written work compared to oral ability
    • Poor penmanship
    • Messy work with many cancellations
    • Letter reversals
    • Inconsistent spelling of the same word
    • Letter confusion
    • Unusual sequencing of letters or words
  • 9. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
    • Reading
    • Slow, inaccurate or labored oral reading
    • Difficulty in blending letters together
    • Difficulty in establishing syllable division
    • Strange pronunciation of words
    • Expressionless reading
    • Deletion/addition of words
    • Failure to recognise familiar words
    • Poor comprehension of text
  • 10. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
    • Numeracy
    • Number order and/or symbols confusion
    • Difficulty with information in sequential order
    • Difficulty in memorising formulae
    • Find mental arithmetic at speed very difficult
  • 11. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
    • Time
    • Difficulty learning how to tell time
    • Poor general awareness of time and time-keeping
    • Confuse concept such as yesterday, today or tomorrow
    • Poor personal organisation
  • 12. Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners
    • Behaviour
    • Employ work avoidance tactics
    • Tend to dream in class
    • Easily distracted
    • Disruptive or withdrawn
    • Show excessive tiredness
  • 13. Simulation Test
    • Have a go.
    • The big brown fox had no dinner.
    • Such was the quality of his existence
  • 14. Approach to learning
    • As learners with dyslexia are often “whole picture thinkers” ,they need to know how their new learning fit in with what they already know.
    • They often have excellent visual – spatial skills, and like to attach information to images
    • They learn best through multisensory approach
  • 15. Role and Responsibilities of SNO
    • Provides specialized remediation in withdrawal setting
    • Provides in-class support
    • Screening of at –risk pupils using Dyslexia Screening Kit (Junior)
    • Sets Individualised Education Plan
  • 16. Role and Responsibilities of SNO
    • Remediation Programme
    • Based on Orton-Gillingham principles
    • Language based
    • Cognitive
    • Structured, sequential and cumulative
    • Simultaneously Multisensory
    • Diagnostic and prescriptive
    • Emotionally sound
  • 17.  
  • 18. Role and Responsibilities of SNO
    • In-class Support
    • Remind/prompt pupil to stay on-task, pay attention and participate
    • Help pupil to follow class routine
    • Help pupil to understand lesson content
    • Withdraw pupil for time-out if disruptive
    • Communicate pupil’s need to teachers
  • 19. Role and Responsibilities of SNO
    • Screening Test (Dyslexia)
    • Use DST-J (Dyslexia screening toolkit-Junior)
    • Collect supporting documents including work samples, checklist or other informal assessment done
    • Work closely with EP, LSC, teachers involved and level head for special needs
  • 20. Role and Responsibilities of SNO
    • Provision of skill training to pupils
    • Provision of peer training and support
    • Communicate with parents of child’s progress
    • Prepare teaching and learning resources
    • Share/discuss with teachers about strategies, support and creating a special needs friendly environment for the pupils
  • 21. Pre-Screening Procedures
    • Get samples of pupil’s work
    • Issue teacher and parents checklist
    • Issue consent form to parents for approval to conduct screening
    • Dyslexic at risk will be referred to EP
  • 22. Teaching Suggestions
    • Sit the child in front
    • Provide structure of lesson in advance
    • Instructions should be sequenced clearly. Do not give too many instructions at once.
    • Avoid giving instructions while pupils are reading or copying.
    • Get pupils to use highlighters to highlight key points
    • Provide time to think, organise and complete
  • 23. Teaching Suggestions
    • Provide positive feedback encouragement and praise to boost self-esteem
    • Involve peers who are
    • -mature
    • -helpful and sympathetic
    • -willing
    • -able to work within capabilities
  • 24. Successful Dyslexics
    • Leornardo da Vinci
    • Believed to suffer from dyslexia & ADD. He wrote his notes backwards,right to left in mirror image and his manuscript contain many spelling errors characteristic of dyslexia
    • Thomas Edison
    • Was thrown out of school at 12 because he was thought to be dumb. Terrible in maths, words and speech and unable to focus.
  • 25. Successful Dyslexics
    • She remembers being called dumb and stupid because she had a lot of problems reading. She went on to be nominated for an Oscar…
    • Whoopi Goldberg
  • 26.  
  • 27.