Adapted from:
Andrews, J. & Lupart, J. (2008). The Inclusive Classroom.
Scarborough, Ontario: Nelson Thompson Learning.
Ed...
 Schools were primarily for the elite and privileged.

 Churches were responsible for any charitable or

humanistic work...
 During the 1800’s many provinces established special

residential schools. These were primarily to serve children
with s...
 By 1918, Newfoundland and Quebec were the only two

places in Canada that lacked compulsory education laws.
The public e...
 The eugenics movement enjoyed public support. Many

people living in institutions were sterilized without
being informed...
 People began to advocate more for children with

disabilities. Groups such as the Canadian Association
for Community Liv...
 The five – box special education approach was

adopted. The problem with this model was that
students often were not ade...
 Special education classes began to be incorporated

into the regular school system. They were rare and
often held in sep...
 A shift occurs towards educating special needs children in








“the least restrictive environment (Andrews and L...
 Advocates continued to push for educating special needs









children in the least restrictive environment.
Teac...
 A growing body of research discovered that special

education programs often did not result more positive
impacts for st...
 Teachers are adopting new methodologies that more

effectively serve all learners. Examples of this are: Universal
Desig...
 Classroom teachers are becoming aware of how to

program within their classrooms.
Identification

Diagnostic
Instruction...
 Learning Disability
 Formal Assessment Results from age 9 indicate: full scale I.Q.










92, verbal comprehe...
 Down’s Syndrome
 Psycho-educational assessment requested by Lindsey’s parents
 WISC-IV results included: Auditory-Verb...
It’s impossible to breath because my heart is broken in two
fracause and bleeding there’s no beat there without you. I
can...
Special education 3
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Special education 3

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Special education 3

  1. 1. Adapted from: Andrews, J. & Lupart, J. (2008). The Inclusive Classroom. Scarborough, Ontario: Nelson Thompson Learning. Edmunds, A. & Edmunds, G. (2008). Special Education in Canada. Toronto, Ontario: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
  2. 2.  Schools were primarily for the elite and privileged.  Churches were responsible for any charitable or humanistic work to help underprivileged children and families.  Issues regarding children with disabilities were not an educational concern. Basic care was often provided by physicians and/or churches. Care occurred in homes, institutions, or residential schools. People with disabilities were largely excluded from general society.
  3. 3.  During the 1800’s many provinces established special residential schools. These were primarily to serve children with severe sensory defects (hearing and vision impairments).  Medical professionals were largely responsible for referrals and the running of these schools. This was the beginning of the medical model of educating special needs students.  Many concepts instrumental to special education were developed in these specialized schools in the 1800’s. Individualized instruction.  Scaffolding  Emphasis on learning functional skills  Using immediate feedback as a form of reinforcement. 
  4. 4.  By 1918, Newfoundland and Quebec were the only two places in Canada that lacked compulsory education laws. The public education system grew and developed.  There was societal pressure to isolate and institutionalize severely physically and mentally disabled children. Residential schools grew in size and number.  Advances in IQ testing and other developments meant that more students were diagnosed with mental retardation. A massive push to institutionalize “mentally retarded individuals was publically condoned, spilling over into negativism against other exceptional groups” (Andrews and Lupart, pg. 32).
  5. 5.  The eugenics movement enjoyed public support. Many people living in institutions were sterilized without being informed of what was happening to them. This practice continued in Alberta until 1972.  The public system did not support integration. Progressive reformers began to establish facilities such as the Montreal Children’s Memorial Hospital and the Toronto Hospital for Sick Children. Research into best practices in medicine and education gained momentum
  6. 6.  People began to advocate more for children with disabilities. Groups such as the Canadian Association for Community Living and the Canadian Association for Children and Adults with Learning Disabilities were established in the 1950’s and 1960’s.  Emphasis was placed on testing, for labeling purposes. Documentation of the child’s needs was required and students began to be sorted into more diverse categories.
  7. 7.  The five – box special education approach was adopted. The problem with this model was that students often were not adequately programmed for until they reached special programs. A process which took time and did not always meet the needs of the child. Referral Testing Labelling Placement Programming
  8. 8.  Special education classes began to be incorporated into the regular school system. They were rare and often held in separate facilities.  The general belief was that children with special needs were served better in smaller classes with specialized teachers and resources.  Segregated classes often became a “dumping grounds” for marginalized groups of children who did not fit into the regular school system.  http://districtsite.epsb.ca/root/ListProgramProfiles.cf m?Group_Type=2
  9. 9.  A shift occurs towards educating special needs children in     “the least restrictive environment (Andrews and Lupart pg. 34). People began to think about the discriminatory aspects of labelling children and studies begin to emerge that indicate that special education classes did not always help students recognize their full potential. Advocacy groups began to promote deinstitutionalization and normalization. Teacher training programs began to place more emphasis on educating pre-service teachers about the learning needs of exceptional students. A push towards integrating students into regular classrooms began.
  10. 10.  Advocates continued to push for educating special needs     children in the least restrictive environment. Teachers expressed concern over not feeling adequately supported, or prepared, to meet the needs of special needs children who were mainstreamed into the regular system. Special needs students were rarely completely included. Educational assistants were often their primary caregivers and they remained somewhat isolated from their peers. The dual system of regular and special education was still maintained in most provinces and school boards. Often parents were highly encouraged to place their children in a special education classroom. http://districtsite.epsb.ca/root/ListProgramProfiles.cfm?Gr oup_Type=2
  11. 11.  A growing body of research discovered that special education programs often did not result more positive impacts for students than the regular school system. Furthermore, once a child was labelled and in the special education system, they often did not get back into the regular system.  As society has become more inclusive the special education and regular education systems began to merge. Emphasis is placed on student centered, individualized learning. In many boards the dual education system is being largely dismantled. In other boards, programs of choice remain.
  12. 12.  Teachers are adopting new methodologies that more effectively serve all learners. Examples of this are: Universal Design for Learning, differentiated instruction, assessment for learning and balanced literacy. There is more access to assistive technologies and a growing awareness of the need to train for 21st century competencies.  A shift is occurring away from the medical model of education towards a model where teachers are provided with the tools and competency to deal with a wide range of students within the regular classroom.  http://education.alberta.ca/admin/supportingstudent/sch oolleaders/placement.aspx  http://www.epsb.ca/inclusivelearning/LearningGuide_2013 .pdf
  13. 13.  Classroom teachers are becoming aware of how to program within their classrooms. Identification Diagnostic Instruction Assessment/IPP Development Educational Intervention Return to the Assessment and IPP Phase and repeat Referral Evaluation of Student Progress
  14. 14.  Learning Disability  Formal Assessment Results from age 9 indicate: full scale I.Q.       92, verbal comprehension (92), perceptual reasoning (79), Object assembly (63), working memory index (68), processing speed (66) WISC IV Basic Reading (22), Math Calculation (20), Problem Solving(8), Writing (5), Spelling (8), hard working, motivated, positive attitude, school is becoming difficult for him. Memory for story stronger than memory for a list of numbers Context of math problems seemed to helped him arrive at correct answers more easily than when asked to complete rote calculation questions Challenges: difficulty with reading, spelling, math, can be hyperactive and impulsive, not well organized Strengths: Well spoken student with interest in drama and theatrical productions, highly social, comfortable conversing with others especially adults.
  15. 15.  Down’s Syndrome  Psycho-educational assessment requested by Lindsey’s parents  WISC-IV results included: Auditory-Verbal Skills (8), Verbal reasoning      (16), Perceptual Reasoning (32), Working Memory (3), and Processing Speed (84) in %iles Elevated Score on the Inhibit Scale which means she has difficulty resisting the urge to act on her impulses Overall Reading skills are low average and fall around the early grade three Reading level. Reading fluency was a relative strength while reading vocabulary was the lowest Math and Writing are well below average falling a the early grade two level. Areas of concern: Lindsey has difficulty discussing her strengths and needs and often will avoid conversations about her ADHD Interjects, speaks loudly, misinterprets conversations, doesn’t think of social consequences, easily distracted, speaks out of turn, lacks intuitive understanding of social boundaries, lacks confidence in social behavior, and makes excuses for her behaviors, means well.
  16. 16. It’s impossible to breath because my heart is broken in two fracause and bleeding there’s no beat there without you. I can’t sleep at night so I don’t have dreams to bring you back to me you are lost forever it seems without loving you I can’t go on I don’t know how you are my life I told you that I meant it then. I mean it now My mind has become an echo chamber filled with your memories over and over they repeat there is no release your shadow is all over me misty eyes tears fall I miss you I do I can’t get over you at all I’m a lost soud floating alone in a vast universe and I don’t ever in my life remember feeling worses. Everything in my life all I ever knew suddenly becomes unreal a lie without you…

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