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Session Governance - Bharal Lal access to ws by empowering communities india (pp-tminimizer)

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  • 1. Governance Access to and use of safe drinking water to achieve household level water security by empowering rural communities Bharat Lal Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission Department of Drinking Water Supply Government of India April 13, 2010
  • 2. India – Rural water supply its all about scale
    • 1.2 billion people -15% world’s population and 5% land mass
    • Only 1.5% world’s water resources
    • About 720 million rural population lives in 650,000 villages or 1.6 million habitations
    • Full coverage but annually about 16% habitations slip back
    • About 12% population i.e. 125 million people without improved water sources;
    • 32% drinking water sources - bacteriological contamination
    • 9% drinking water sources - chemical contamination
    • In some parts of the country, due to droughts, emergency arrangements for drinking water supply including through road tankers and even trains, made
  • 3. Background
    • 1950 : Constitution of India - water placed in the State list
    • 1972 : At national level, Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme launched to supplement the efforts of States
    • 1986 : National Drinking Water Mission (NDWM) set up renamed as Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission in 1991
    • 1993 : 73 rd Amendment in the Constitution - ‘rural water supply’ placed in the XIth Schedule of to be devolved to local self- Governments i.e. three-tier Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)
    • 1999 : Sector Reforms i.e. de-centralized, demand-driven, community-managed rural water supply programme initiated
    • 2009 : ARWSP revamped as National Rural Drinking Water Programme
  • 4. Investment in RWS water sector Rs. in crore
  • 5. Rising expectations
    • With increasing awareness, economic prosperity, people realizing the importance of time, rise demand for
      • adequate quality of water
      • quality of water supplied, and
      • reliability of service
  • 6. Governance Emerging issues & new challenges
    • In a democratic set up, dealing with demanding & assertive public - rising people’s expectations
    • In rural areas, improved quality of life and therefore infrastructure and delivery of services a priority
    • Active and vigilant civil society – use of Right to Information Act (RTI) and need for transparency
    • All round professionalism – contractors, suppliers,
    • Changing role of institutions/ Government
    • Expanding economy & rising demand of water
    • Household level water security – health issues becoming central to RWS sector
    • Introduction of new technology in many areas
  • 7. Governance Drinking water security
    • Overdependence on ground water - 80% of drinking water supply schemes;
    • Drought a recurring phenomenon in many areas;
    • About 15% villages/ habitations slipping back i.e. sources and or systems becoming defunct due to :
      • i.) poor O&M leading to systems becoming defunct;
      • ii.) sources drying up due to unregulated over-extraction of ground water for irrigation and industry
      • ii.) sources getting contaminated by chemical contaminants, viz. Arsenic, Fluoride, Iron, salinity, other pollutants, etc.
      • iii.) leaching of fertilizers into soil thus contaminating with nitrates
      • iv.) leaching of untreated industrial effluent and sewage, and dumping of solid wastes leading to nitrate contamination
      • v.) leaching of sewage leading to bacteriological contamination
  • 8. Gujarat - 2001 Freshwater availability
    • Uneven water availability in the State (cu m/ person/ annum)
      • India - 1,836
      • Gujarat - 1,137
      • South & Central Gujarat -1,932
      • North Gujarat - 342
      • Saurashtra - 734
      • Kutch - 875
    • Water scarcity in 2/3 rd part of the State
    • 7,675 habitations quality-affected
      • Fluoride - 4,187
      • Salinity - 2,508
      • Nitrate - 1,335
  • 9. Scarcity of drinking water
  • 10. Drought Prone Areas Supply Through Railways Supply Through Tankers Quality Problems – Fluorosis, Salinity, Nitrate Problem Areas
  • 11.
  • 12. Drought prone areas Supply through railways Supply through tankers Quality Problems – Fluorosis,Salinity, Nitrate Problem Areas
  • 13. Gujarat In 2000 and 2001
    • Out of 18,066 villages, more than 12,000 villages were facing water scarcity;
    • Water supplied through road tankers – in all about 8,000 ;
    • Water supply in two regions by railway wagons;
    • Law and order problem started – 4 persons died;
    • Large scale migration; relief operation and cattle camps
    • Large scale emergency water supply works taken up;
    • On 26 th January, 2001, earthquake hit the State – 20,000 persons died,
    • Government preoccupied with relief operation, emergency management both for earthquake and drought affected;
    • Other developmental & economic activities suffered
  • 14. Mitigation of drinking water scarcity (by State Government) Year Work done In the number of villages Expenditure (Indian Rs. in million) 1999-2000 6,423 1,379.60 2000-2001 6,601 1,186.00 2001-2002 5,914 1,011.30 2002-2003 4,847 1,233.50 2003-2004 797 292.40 2004-2005 527 238.30
  • 15. Governance unbundling of the sector – institutional set up Bulk water transfer : infrastructure development and management State Government Water Supply Department Gujarat Water Infrastructure Ltd. (GWIL) Gujarat Water Supply & Sewerage Board (GWSSB) Water and Sanitation Management Organisation (WASMO) Water distribution up to village level To facilitate village people for community-managed water supply programmes
  • 16. Paradigm shift
    • Role of each institution redefined and sector unbundled;
    • Focus shifted from ground water to surface water - extensive water resource management;
    • Shift in the role of Government - from Provider to Facilitator
    • All in-village management of water resource, water supply and sanitation - responsibility of the village level local self-Government – Village Panchayat
    • Empowerment of PRIs by enactment, massive capacity building and handholding — Mission Mode
    • NGOs/ civil society a major partner
    • State wide drinking water grid for drought proofing and sustainability
  • 17. State-wide water supply Grid
  • 18. Water supply coverage of villages through State-wide water supply grid Scheme Planned Implemented & water supply started Work under progress Sardar Sarovar Canal Based Drinking Water Supply Scheme 5,315 4,033 1,282 Sujalam Sufalam Yojana 4,904 3,770 1,204 Regional Rural Water Supply Schemes 4,772 4,330 442 Total 14,991 12,133 2,928
  • 19. Drinking water infrastructure Bulk Pipeline 1,889 km Distribution network 1,06,000 km ESR 6,415 number 654.00 million litre Sumps 4,689 number 1,102.20 million litre Treatment plants 149 number 2,500 million litre per day
  • 20. In-village water security : The approach
    • Water Committees/ Village Panchayats :
      • A 10-15 member elected by body by the village community with suitable representation to women and weaker sections;
      • In-village water resource management, water supply and sanitation
      • Planning, approval, implementation, procurement, management, operation, maintenance, tariff collection, etc.
    • Village community to contribute partial capital cost and full O&M responsibility;
    • Upto 90% capital cost funding from WASMO;
    • 10% of the Capital cost by WASMO as an Incentive funds for replacement, upgradation, emergency repair, etc.
    • NGOs as implementing support agencies;
    • Third party inspection and technical support;
    • Bulk water supply up to the village level on payment basis
  • 21. The facilitator – WASMO
    • Set up in March, 2002 to facilitate decentralized, demand-driven, community-managed water and sanitation programme;
    • As a Knowledge Resource Centre – believes in partnerships and working together with other such organizations;
    • Friend, Philosopher and Guide to Water Committees/ Village Panchayats, local communities;
    • Core areas - community mobilization, engineering support, water quality monitoring, financing, geo-hydrology, communication, campaign, documentation, monitoring & evaluation, etc.;
    • Funding Water Committees, facilitating their works;
    • Strong partnerships with more than 75 NGOs
    • Very high level of motivation to achieve the goal – ensuring safe and clean water to all on long-term basis
  • 22. Water quality monitoring & surveillance capacity building
    • Aiming to prepare community and GPs to take over the full responsibility of managing drinking water – focus on water quality issue
    • 5 persons to be trained in each Gram Panchayats
    • Water testing kits to be made available
    • Encouraged to carry out regular indicative tests
    • In case of contamination, samples to be taken to Labs for confirmatory tests
    • Remedial action to be initiated by the community as well as public health authorities.
  • 23. User participation for safe water Programme introduction and village level water quality team formation 14,216 WQ teams/ villages Village Level Trainings 17,456 training programmes held 125,167 persons trained for WQ testing Block Level Trainings 1,067 (43,234 participants) District Level Trainings 270 (5,117 participants) State Level Trainings 34 (1,377 participants) Water Quality Testing Kits distribution 13,904 Bacteriological Test Kits distribution 6,69,423 Sanitary Survey conducted 20,262
  • 24. Improvement in water quality Coverage Pre- Monsoon Post-Monsoon After the campaign No. of districts 23 26 14 No. of Blocks 184 225 110 No. of Villages 7,973 12,135 6,499 No. of samples 17,961 32,074 21,612 Chemically fit samples 13,602 (75%) 23,943 (74%) 17,992 (83%) Bacteriologically fit samples 9,228 (51%) 22,936 (72.5%) 20,960 (97%)
  • 25. Safe water - corrective actions
  • 26. Corrective action - Sanitation drive
  • 27. Innovations
    • Gravity based schemes (spring -based systems)
    • Sameep hand pump
    • Cluster storage systems
    • Waste water use- Excess water in trough and then to soak pit
    • Waste water use for kitchen garden and even sold for agriculture
    Tapping perennial springs Use of spillage from stand post Sameep hand pump Cluster Storage Systems Kitchen garden through waste water
  • 28. Rooftop Rain Water Harvesting
  • 29. Scaling up
  • 30. Scaling up in-village management
    • Started with 82 villages in 2002, Pani Samitis (Water Committee) formed in 15,807 villages
    • Water supply work taken up in 9,024 villages
      • Work completed in 5,488 villages
      • Work ongoing in 3,554 villages
    • Water committee managing water supply in 12,000 villages out of 18066 villages
    • In 14,216 villages, regular water quality testing done by the village community
  • 31. Year-wise water supply through tankers
  • 32. Women’s opinions on problems in fetching water (pre and post implementation by Pani Samiti) Gujarat Vidyapeeth, 2008
  • 33. Evaluation ORG – MARG, 2007 Project details & financial issues discussed in village meetings 88.5 % Display of project expenditure details in public place 77 % Gram Sabha convened more than 5 times during the project cycle 90 % Average collection of water tariff by Pani Samiti per person per annum Rs.114.27 Access to water at household level increased from 17.8 % to 75.6 % Satisfaction with improved water services 81.4 % Improvement in hygiene practices among school children – Cutting nails regularly 96 % Washing hands after toilets and before meals 63 % Grievance redressal as per set time schedule 99.6 % Users satisfied with the work of Pani Samiti 96.89 %
  • 34. Myths that have been broken
    • Village community cannot take over this responsibility;
    • People are unwilling to contribute, not willing to pay for O&M;
    • Gram Panchayats incapable of carrying out construction works;
    • Gram Panchayats cannot maintain fiscal discipline/ transparency;
    • Dependency culture - Government to provide drinking water free;
    • Issues of inclusion – marginalized groups will be affected;
    • Conservative society; women have no role to play;
    • Scaling up of such an approach not possible;
    • Water governance & regulation will be difficult;
    • Government and its agencies will become irrelevant;
    • Water quality aspects and safe drinking water will be the casualty;
  • 35.
    • Village Panchayat / its sub-committee to be responsible for in-village management of water resources, water supply and sanitation;
    • It is to be empowered to shoulder the full responsibility of in-village drinking water management, in which NOGs to play huge role;
    • Focus on strengthening of their capacity and facilitate transfer of appropriate technology, knowledge, etc.
    • In spite of strengthening of local water sources, if safe and clean water in adequate quantity throughout the year is not available, Government/ its agencies to provide water at the doorstep of the villages.
    • Water quality surveillance by village people and linkage with National Disease Surveillance Programme to monitor water borne diseases
    • WASMO awarded Prime Minister’s Civil Service Award (2007) and United Nations Public Service Award (2009) for bringing drinking water security and ensuring water quality
    Essence of the model
  • 36. Thank you