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Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
 

Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge

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    Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge Presentation Transcript

    • Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge Sustainable Services at Scale - Triple-S Stockholm World Water Week - September 2010 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Grantee Workshop
    • The power of water Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
    • Benefiting from ‘water capital’
        • Political interests - local, national and international
        • Fundraising - charity giving and tax payers
        • Development organisations – professional careers
      Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
    • But after the ribbon has been cut? Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • Slippage
        • Lack of
        • sustainability
        • Low functionality
    • Progress has been made, but many challenges remain
        • High levels of system failure - 30 to 40% - a universal problem
        • Wasted financial investments
        • Health, dignity, well-being and livelihoods affected
      Triple-S - sustainable services at scale @Fairwater
    • Triple-S multi-country study
        • Better understanding of service delivery and drivers –
        • To inform principles framework
        • Participative process – national stakeholders
        • Understanding the political economy of the sector
        • ..... presentation of partial results - financing not included
      Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
    • Thirteen study countries Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Range of sector maturity, aid dependency, business markets and reforms
    • Decentralisation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • Mixed experience with decentralisation processes
        • Rapid and complete – with support programmes (Colombia, South Africa and Uganda) or with less structured support (Burkina Faso)
        • Phased process – starts with deconcentration (Benin, Mozambique) or partial (Ghana)
        • Some evidence of re-centralisation (Colombia)
        • ....... and remember the timescale for decentralisation
    • Sector reform for rural areas Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • Separation of functions with formalisation of community management (Ethiopia – legal issues remain)
        • New demands on local government as service authority
        • New roles for centralised agencies – often resistance to change (SANAA Honduras, PHED India, CWSA Ghana)
        • Reforms delivered through a series of projects with risk of fragmentation or gaps (Ghana) or limited commitment (Honduras)
    • Study findings – sanctioned models Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
    • Community management Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • Community management still predominant service delivery model
        • Trend away from volunteerism
        • Out-sourcing of specific functions - plumbing or billing functions (Honduras, Sri Lanka)
        • Full delegation of O&M and administration for more complex systems
        • Community decision-making retained (Ghana, USA)
    • Beyond community management Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • Increase in commercial approaches - small towns and RGCs
        • Construction and/or maintenance contracts with area based contracting - Benin, Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda
        • Local government acts as service authority to let delegated contracts
        • Continued need for oversight and support from external agencies
    • Delegation options – Benin Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Simple technology – hand pump More complex technology – mechanised boreholes and piped systems
      • Delegation of one supply to one local operator
      • Delegation of many similar systems to one local operator
      • Delegation to one operator of many different types of systems – geographic or territorial lease
      • Delegation by Commune of the operation to a private operator
      • Delegation by Commune through concession contract - for both operation and investment costs
      • Delegation by Commune to an operator with no risk (not depending on tariff income to make profit)
      • Delegation by Commune to an operator, but with no direct relation with consumers (no recovery of bills)
    • Post-construction support Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • Mainly applies to community management models
        • Formally mandated and part of policy - Ghana, South Africa, Uganda, Sri Lanka, Thailand
        • But, not adopted systematically in most cases because of financial and capacity constraints
        • Exceptions in Honduras – Técnico en Operación y Mantenamiento and USA through RCAP and NRWA
    • Capacity support Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • Typically provided by deconcentrated offices of central ministries
        • Technical Support Units in Uganda
        • Other examples from Ghana, South Africa and Benin – new efforts in Burkina Faso
        • ‘ Support to the supporters’ most commonly local government - districts, communes or municipalities
        • Addressing gap in (newly) decentralised contexts – both for community management and more commercial arrangements
    • Monitoring of sustainable services Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • Few examples of comprehensive monitoring systems – focus on monitoring of outputs, not services (Ethiopia and Mozambique)
        • Only 6 of 13 countries have any indicator for functionality – exceptions like Honduras or Uganda with ‘10 golden indicators’
        • Fewer countries have specific sector goals relating to sustainability (Honduras and Colombia)
        • No globally agreed upon definition for sustainability - some promising examples of composite indicators - Honduras and Bolivia
    • Accountability and regulation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • Direct accountability mechanisms between consumers and service providers are vulnerable – cycle of poor service, low tariffs
        • Some evidence of ‘long-arm’ of accountability involving local or central government - Communes in Burkina Faso and Water Service Authorities in South Africa, DWD in Uganda
        • Weak local government capacity is a major constraint
        • Limited experience with regulation of rural service providers – Colombia case illustrates risk of in-appropriate regulatory frameworks
    • Professionalisation as a trend Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • Move towards professionalisation across different service delivery models – increasing with system complexity and service levels
        • Spectrum of change in community management – specialisation of functions, partial outsourcing and fully delegation
        • Trend in Latin America to strengthen existing committees and associations (Colombia - programa cultura empresarial )
        • In other regions, out sourcing is done with NGOs/CBOs and ‘commercial’ operators – increasing delegation options with coverage and service levels
        • Space for innovative business approaches?
    • A global taxonomy? RURAL (VILLAGE) RURAL - HIGHLY DISPERSED RURAL GROWTH CENTRES AND SMALL TOWNS VOLUNTARY BASED SEMI-PROFESSIONALISED FULLY PROFESSIONALISED Delegated contracts to private operators Community-based management Direct local government or municipal provider Urban utility (public, private or mixed) Association of CBM or user associations Self Supply New business models and packages
    • Building blocks for professionalisation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Institutional roles and separation of functions Post-construction and capacity support Monitoring of services as outcomes Appropriate accountability and regulation Strong national leadership and vision
    • National leadership is all important Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • ‘ Political’ support for professionalisation of rural water
        • Long-term commitment to sector capacity building
        • Government vision and leadership is key – Honduras still struggling despite reforms since 2003
        • Need for common and widely sanctioned agreements on service levels and different service delivery models ( Ghana )
    • Meeting the costs of professionalisation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
        • Think beyond capital and operation expenditures
        • Financing of less politically expedient costs is essential through 3 ‘T’s
        • All costs have to be met to shift from ‘business as usual’ and really address the sustainability challenge
    • Triple-S Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Supporting indefinite and sustainable rural water services at scale _______ www.irc.nl/page/45530 [email_address] [email_address]