Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge


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Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge

  1. 1. Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge Sustainable Services at Scale - Triple-S Stockholm World Water Week - September 2010 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Grantee Workshop
  2. 2. The power of water Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
  3. 3. Benefiting from ‘water capital’ <ul><ul><li>Political interests - local, national and international </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundraising - charity giving and tax payers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development organisations – professional careers </li></ul></ul>Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
  4. 4. But after the ribbon has been cut? Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Slippage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low functionality </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Progress has been made, but many challenges remain <ul><ul><li>High levels of system failure - 30 to 40% - a universal problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wasted financial investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health, dignity, well-being and livelihoods affected </li></ul></ul>Triple-S - sustainable services at scale @Fairwater
  6. 6. Triple-S multi-country study <ul><ul><li>Better understanding of service delivery and drivers – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To inform principles framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participative process – national stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the political economy of the sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>..... presentation of partial results - financing not included </li></ul></ul>Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
  7. 7. Thirteen study countries Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Range of sector maturity, aid dependency, business markets and reforms
  8. 8. Decentralisation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Mixed experience with decentralisation processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid and complete – with support programmes (Colombia, South Africa and Uganda) or with less structured support (Burkina Faso) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phased process – starts with deconcentration (Benin, Mozambique) or partial (Ghana) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some evidence of re-centralisation (Colombia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>....... and remember the timescale for decentralisation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Sector reform for rural areas Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Separation of functions with formalisation of community management (Ethiopia – legal issues remain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New demands on local government as service authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New roles for centralised agencies – often resistance to change (SANAA Honduras, PHED India, CWSA Ghana) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms delivered through a series of projects with risk of fragmentation or gaps (Ghana) or limited commitment (Honduras) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Study findings – sanctioned models Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
  11. 11. Community management Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Community management still predominant service delivery model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend away from volunteerism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out-sourcing of specific functions - plumbing or billing functions (Honduras, Sri Lanka) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full delegation of O&M and administration for more complex systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community decision-making retained (Ghana, USA) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Beyond community management Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Increase in commercial approaches - small towns and RGCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction and/or maintenance contracts with area based contracting - Benin, Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local government acts as service authority to let delegated contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued need for oversight and support from external agencies </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Delegation options – Benin Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Simple technology – hand pump More complex technology – mechanised boreholes and piped systems <ul><li>Delegation of one supply to one local operator </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation of many similar systems to one local operator </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation to one operator of many different types of systems – geographic or territorial lease </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation by Commune of the operation to a private operator </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation by Commune through concession contract - for both operation and investment costs </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation by Commune to an operator with no risk (not depending on tariff income to make profit) </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation by Commune to an operator, but with no direct relation with consumers (no recovery of bills) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Post-construction support Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Mainly applies to community management models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formally mandated and part of policy - Ghana, South Africa, Uganda, Sri Lanka, Thailand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, not adopted systematically in most cases because of financial and capacity constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions in Honduras – Técnico en Operación y Mantenamiento and USA through RCAP and NRWA </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Capacity support Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Typically provided by deconcentrated offices of central ministries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Support Units in Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other examples from Ghana, South Africa and Benin – new efforts in Burkina Faso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Support to the supporters’ most commonly local government - districts, communes or municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addressing gap in (newly) decentralised contexts – both for community management and more commercial arrangements </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Monitoring of sustainable services Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Few examples of comprehensive monitoring systems – focus on monitoring of outputs, not services (Ethiopia and Mozambique) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 6 of 13 countries have any indicator for functionality – exceptions like Honduras or Uganda with ‘10 golden indicators’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer countries have specific sector goals relating to sustainability (Honduras and Colombia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No globally agreed upon definition for sustainability - some promising examples of composite indicators - Honduras and Bolivia </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Accountability and regulation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Direct accountability mechanisms between consumers and service providers are vulnerable – cycle of poor service, low tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some evidence of ‘long-arm’ of accountability involving local or central government - Communes in Burkina Faso and Water Service Authorities in South Africa, DWD in Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak local government capacity is a major constraint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited experience with regulation of rural service providers – Colombia case illustrates risk of in-appropriate regulatory frameworks </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Professionalisation as a trend Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Move towards professionalisation across different service delivery models – increasing with system complexity and service levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum of change in community management – specialisation of functions, partial outsourcing and fully delegation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend in Latin America to strengthen existing committees and associations (Colombia - programa cultura empresarial ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In other regions, out sourcing is done with NGOs/CBOs and ‘commercial’ operators – increasing delegation options with coverage and service levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space for innovative business approaches? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. A global taxonomy? RURAL (VILLAGE) RURAL - HIGHLY DISPERSED RURAL GROWTH CENTRES AND SMALL TOWNS VOLUNTARY BASED SEMI-PROFESSIONALISED FULLY PROFESSIONALISED Delegated contracts to private operators Community-based management Direct local government or municipal provider Urban utility (public, private or mixed) Association of CBM or user associations Self Supply New business models and packages
  20. 20. Building blocks for professionalisation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Institutional roles and separation of functions Post-construction and capacity support Monitoring of services as outcomes Appropriate accountability and regulation Strong national leadership and vision
  21. 21. National leadership is all important Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>‘ Political’ support for professionalisation of rural water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term commitment to sector capacity building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government vision and leadership is key – Honduras still struggling despite reforms since 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for common and widely sanctioned agreements on service levels and different service delivery models ( Ghana ) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Meeting the costs of professionalisation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Think beyond capital and operation expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing of less politically expedient costs is essential through 3 ‘T’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All costs have to be met to shift from ‘business as usual’ and really address the sustainability challenge </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Triple-S Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Supporting indefinite and sustainable rural water services at scale _______ [email_address] [email_address]