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Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge
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Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge

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  • 1. Professionalising rural water services: a response to the sustainability challenge Sustainable Services at Scale - Triple-S Stockholm World Water Week - September 2010 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Grantee Workshop
  • 2. The power of water Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
  • 3. Benefiting from ‘water capital’ <ul><ul><li>Political interests - local, national and international </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundraising - charity giving and tax payers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development organisations – professional careers </li></ul></ul>Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
  • 4. But after the ribbon has been cut? Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Slippage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low functionality </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Progress has been made, but many challenges remain <ul><ul><li>High levels of system failure - 30 to 40% - a universal problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wasted financial investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health, dignity, well-being and livelihoods affected </li></ul></ul>Triple-S - sustainable services at scale @Fairwater
  • 6. Triple-S multi-country study <ul><ul><li>Better understanding of service delivery and drivers – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To inform principles framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participative process – national stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the political economy of the sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>..... presentation of partial results - financing not included </li></ul></ul>Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
  • 7. Thirteen study countries Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Range of sector maturity, aid dependency, business markets and reforms
  • 8. Decentralisation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Mixed experience with decentralisation processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid and complete – with support programmes (Colombia, South Africa and Uganda) or with less structured support (Burkina Faso) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phased process – starts with deconcentration (Benin, Mozambique) or partial (Ghana) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some evidence of re-centralisation (Colombia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>....... and remember the timescale for decentralisation </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Sector reform for rural areas Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Separation of functions with formalisation of community management (Ethiopia – legal issues remain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New demands on local government as service authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New roles for centralised agencies – often resistance to change (SANAA Honduras, PHED India, CWSA Ghana) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms delivered through a series of projects with risk of fragmentation or gaps (Ghana) or limited commitment (Honduras) </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Study findings – sanctioned models Triple-S - sustainable services at scale
  • 11. Community management Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Community management still predominant service delivery model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend away from volunteerism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out-sourcing of specific functions - plumbing or billing functions (Honduras, Sri Lanka) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full delegation of O&M and administration for more complex systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community decision-making retained (Ghana, USA) </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Beyond community management Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Increase in commercial approaches - small towns and RGCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction and/or maintenance contracts with area based contracting - Benin, Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local government acts as service authority to let delegated contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued need for oversight and support from external agencies </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Delegation options – Benin Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Simple technology – hand pump More complex technology – mechanised boreholes and piped systems <ul><li>Delegation of one supply to one local operator </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation of many similar systems to one local operator </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation to one operator of many different types of systems – geographic or territorial lease </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation by Commune of the operation to a private operator </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation by Commune through concession contract - for both operation and investment costs </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation by Commune to an operator with no risk (not depending on tariff income to make profit) </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation by Commune to an operator, but with no direct relation with consumers (no recovery of bills) </li></ul>
  • 14. Post-construction support Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Mainly applies to community management models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formally mandated and part of policy - Ghana, South Africa, Uganda, Sri Lanka, Thailand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, not adopted systematically in most cases because of financial and capacity constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions in Honduras – Técnico en Operación y Mantenamiento and USA through RCAP and NRWA </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Capacity support Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Typically provided by deconcentrated offices of central ministries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Support Units in Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other examples from Ghana, South Africa and Benin – new efforts in Burkina Faso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Support to the supporters’ most commonly local government - districts, communes or municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addressing gap in (newly) decentralised contexts – both for community management and more commercial arrangements </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Monitoring of sustainable services Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Few examples of comprehensive monitoring systems – focus on monitoring of outputs, not services (Ethiopia and Mozambique) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 6 of 13 countries have any indicator for functionality – exceptions like Honduras or Uganda with ‘10 golden indicators’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer countries have specific sector goals relating to sustainability (Honduras and Colombia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No globally agreed upon definition for sustainability - some promising examples of composite indicators - Honduras and Bolivia </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Accountability and regulation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Direct accountability mechanisms between consumers and service providers are vulnerable – cycle of poor service, low tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some evidence of ‘long-arm’ of accountability involving local or central government - Communes in Burkina Faso and Water Service Authorities in South Africa, DWD in Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak local government capacity is a major constraint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited experience with regulation of rural service providers – Colombia case illustrates risk of in-appropriate regulatory frameworks </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Professionalisation as a trend Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Move towards professionalisation across different service delivery models – increasing with system complexity and service levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum of change in community management – specialisation of functions, partial outsourcing and fully delegation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend in Latin America to strengthen existing committees and associations (Colombia - programa cultura empresarial ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In other regions, out sourcing is done with NGOs/CBOs and ‘commercial’ operators – increasing delegation options with coverage and service levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space for innovative business approaches? </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. A global taxonomy? RURAL (VILLAGE) RURAL - HIGHLY DISPERSED RURAL GROWTH CENTRES AND SMALL TOWNS VOLUNTARY BASED SEMI-PROFESSIONALISED FULLY PROFESSIONALISED Delegated contracts to private operators Community-based management Direct local government or municipal provider Urban utility (public, private or mixed) Association of CBM or user associations Self Supply New business models and packages
  • 20. Building blocks for professionalisation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Institutional roles and separation of functions Post-construction and capacity support Monitoring of services as outcomes Appropriate accountability and regulation Strong national leadership and vision
  • 21. National leadership is all important Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>‘ Political’ support for professionalisation of rural water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term commitment to sector capacity building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government vision and leadership is key – Honduras still struggling despite reforms since 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for common and widely sanctioned agreements on service levels and different service delivery models ( Ghana ) </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Meeting the costs of professionalisation Triple-S - sustainable services at scale <ul><ul><li>Think beyond capital and operation expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing of less politically expedient costs is essential through 3 ‘T’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All costs have to be met to shift from ‘business as usual’ and really address the sustainability challenge </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Triple-S Triple-S - sustainable services at scale Supporting indefinite and sustainable rural water services at scale _______ www.irc.nl/page/45530 [email_address] [email_address]

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