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Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
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Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana

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This presentation was shared by Patrick Moriarty during the 29th National Level Learning Alliance Platform (NLLAP) Meeting, organised by Resource Centre Network Ghana (RCN Ghana) and hosted by Dr. …

This presentation was shared by Patrick Moriarty during the 29th National Level Learning Alliance Platform (NLLAP) Meeting, organised by Resource Centre Network Ghana (RCN Ghana) and hosted by Dr. Patrick Moriaty of IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre and and Mrs. Victoria Norbgey of Water Health International Ghana Office to share on the multiple use services (MUS) for improved water delivery in Ghana.

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  • Domestic needs: cooking drinking, sanitation, hygiene
  • Transcript

    • 1. Multiple Use(Water) Servicesin Ghana Dr. Patrick Moriarty IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
    • 2. Presentation outlineBrief introduction to Multiple Use ServicesSome findings from Ghana and othercountriesProposed ways forward in Ghana Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 3. A brief introduction to MUS http://www.musgroup.net/page/1461Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 4. Rationale for Multiple Use (Water) Services People require and use water for many purposes Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 5. These play an important role in livelihoods: Health Income Food production Reducing vulnerability Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 6. However…most water projects andprogrammes have a limited focus Domestic systems for domestic needs Irrigation systems for field cropsSmall-scale productive uses, particularly atand around homestead, often not providedfor, and sometimes explicitly prohibited Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 7. What are Multiple Use (Water) Services? A livelihood-based approach to providing water services takes people’s multiple water needs (domestic, productive) as the starting point with a view to improving health and livelihoods in an integrated manner often combining multiple sources for multiple uses MUS means maximising effectiveness of investment in water services Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 8. Different entry-pointsDomestic – plusIrrigation – plusCommunity-scale MUSMultiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 9. Domestic-plusCharacteristics:- Providing higher levels of service- Strengthening community management- Add-ons, like cattle troughs, community gardensHow to:- Structured planning approach- Bringing in livelihoods perspective Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 10. MUS in Ghana (and elsewhere)Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 11. MUS in GhanaVarious studies have looked for evidence ofMUS WASHCost Triple-S RockefellerMUS as a formally applied or tested approachhas yet to take place in Ghana Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 12. MUS in Ghana – domestic plus (de-facto)Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 13. Sources and Uses of Water 100% % Formal for Productive 90% 80% % Informal for Productive 70%% of respondants % informal for domestic 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Northern - East Gonja Ashanti - Bosomtwe Volta - Ketu SouthSource: WASHCost Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 14. Dry season water use 50 45 Median Lower Quartile 40 35 litres per person per day Upper Quartile 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Northern - East Gonja Ashanti - Bosomtwe Volta - Ketu SouthSource: WASHCost
    • 15. Use of water from piped network for productive activitiesSource: WASHCost
    • 16. Productive use of water from domestic point sources 100% 90% 80% Water from the facility used for 70%% of point source watering gardens 60% 50% water from the facility used for watering livestock 40% 30% Water from the facility used for 20% small commercial uses (brick making, pito making etc) 10% 0% Akatsi East Gonja Sunyani WestSource of data: Triple-S (2012) Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 17. % of population using water from community-managed point source for productive uses 100% 90% 80% % of population 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Kofi Tsbilkwa Amanfrom Afadjator Pano Kutunse Abensu anomawobi Ahasowudie Ebenezer Oboyambo kweshi Abbe Anyama lume atsyame avenui camp Dade mankye Adkeiman Alafia Agona East Awutu Senya East Akim Ga West HoSource of data: IRC/ Aquaconsult (Rotary/USAID sustainability check (2012) Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 18. Other MUS in Ghana3,392 Small dams and dugouts – manysupporting de-facto MUSWidespread use of wastewater around citiesfor urban agricultureMultiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 19. Emerging findings aboutcost/benefits of MUS (not from Ghana)Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 20. Benefits of MUS: servicesHigh correlation between the extent of MUS and performanceand sustainability of water services: no damage of unplanned uses, anticipating competition between users income for cost-recovery and professionalization of service providers if more water is more reliably available, more incentive to use it productively Ownership and maintenance in case of self-supplySenegal: high productive use systems had, on average, greatertechnical sustainability than low systems, but similar financialsustainabilityChicken or egg? Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 21. Benefits of MUS: servicesIn Senegal, extent ofproductive use associatedGreater # of duties undertaken by water committeeMore experienced water system operatorsGreater % of HHs making upfront cash contributionsfor system constructionGreater likelihood that community initiatedconstruction of water system Source: Hall et al. 2012
    • 22. What are the costs?Incremental costs: Higher levels of service Transaction costs of more participatory approach Opportunity costs: more for some, or some for moreEvidence: Particularly for piped systems, the incremental costs are low (5-15% additional costs) – e.g. Bolivia, Honduras, Senegal, Nepal Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 23. Cost-benefitsFor the majority of systems, the theoretical financial benefitsfrom piped-water-based productive activities are greater thanthe estimated incremental costs of system upgradeIf all the potential net benefits were used to repay theincremental costs, these would be recovered in approximately1-2 years (Senegal, Kenya) Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 24. Summing upMUS is not formally practiced in GhanaHowever, evidence that de-facto MUS iswidespread in rural areas and small townsGrowing body of evidence from outside Ghanaof benefits of MUS Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 25. Potential and possible models for MUS in Ghana Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 26. Possible MUS models identified:Domestic plus approaches: Communal productive uses of point sources Productive use of piped systems in small towns and cities Upgrading point sources to limited mechanical schemes with higher levels of serviceIrrigation plus Rehabilitation and retrofitting small reservoirs Promoting self-supply for irrigation, even though not MUS MUS in public surface irrigation schemes – not analysed because in disarrayCommunity-driven MUS: Promoting self-supply alongside formal domestic supplies Integrated local level planning Improving conditions of reuse of wastewater Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 27. Domestic plus around point sourcesDescription of model and scaling pathway: promoting cattle troughs andcommunal gardens around handpumps. Work through domestic sector agencies(CWSA, DAs and WATSANs), making their staff aware of MUS and include inproject cycle. Needs some piloting to showcase itPotential: 10 million of people relying on point sources; less when zooming in toNorthern belt and coastal zone where there are less open water sourcesPolicy and legislation: CWSA water use regulations are not a limitation; move tohigher levels of service is in fact encouragedWater resources implications: depends on yield of boreholesInstitutional arrangements: can be done from within domestic sector; requiressetting local regulations, which means technicians need to support communitiesin thisFinancing: can be done at minimal incremental costs, as no major hardware costsare involved. Piggy backing on investments in rural WASHTechnical issues: can be first step in going for higher levels of services. However abigger step will require change in technology Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 28. Commercial use of piped systems in small towns and citiesDescription of model and scaling pathway: use existing model ofdifferential levels of services, may need further adjustments. Throughdomestic sector agencies. Also market mechanisms: users will only pay forit if they can make a return. Need for extension supportPotential: # of people in small towns. Mainly in the Northern region. couldbe temporary when there are no other sources availablePolicy and legislation: as for point-sources - bye laws and CWSA guidelinesWater resources implications: probably minor, possible limitations inbigger citiesInstitutional arrangements: as for point sourcesFinancing and cost recovery: payment of tariffs. Are people willing to paytariff for productive uses or prefer to develop alternative sources?Technical issues: straightforward Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 29. Upgrading point sources to limited mechanical schemesDescription of model: upgrading to higher level of service on existingboreholes with handpumps using motorised pumps and small distributionnetwork. Through domestic sector agency, including it in manuals andDWSPs. Requires pilot projectsPotential: # of boreholes per region and # of people served and to beserved. DoublingPolicy and legislation: supportive through drive for increasing servicelevels and de facto priority for small towns. MUS not explicit thoughWater resource implications: only possible on higher yielding boreholesInstitutional arrangements: via CWSA, DAs, WATSANsFinancing: estimated increase from 30 US$/cap with some 5-6 US$, so20% incremental costsTechnical issues: there are already standardised designs, needs newdesign for community garden and cattle trough. What is the project cycle? Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 30. Potential of different approachesDomestic-plus approaches: low risk, potential to reach largenumbers of people but with small per capita impact.Rehabilitation of small reservoirs: high risks with higherpotential impactSelf-supply for irrigation. High potential, but less tangiblepathwayself-supply to complement formal sources and localintegrated water resources planning, have low potential at theshort term to reach scaleReuse of wastewater: too complex intervention with unclearimpact Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 31. What next?Identify consortium interested to experimentwith domestic plus approach to MUS in GhanaWork within existing domestic water supplyprojects and programmesFocus on gathering evidence on incrementalcosts and benefits (and challenges) Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 32. ConclusionsDe-facto MUS widely practiced in GhanaGlobal evidence that MUS can lead to higherincomes and more sustainable water servicesHigh potential to experiment around domestic plus Cattle troughs and community gardens with point sources Differentiated tariffs on small piped-networks Upgrading boreholes through mechanisation Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 33. Thanks All about MUS: http://www.musgroup.net MUS video: http://www.musgroup.net/page/1461Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 34. Additional slides not used in the presentationMultiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 35. Rehabilitation of small reservoirsDescription of model and scaling pathway: include MUS in rehabilitation of small reservoirs. Specificinterventions are site specific depending on de facto uses and ones that are already formally accommodated.Needs also participatory planning cycle and support in establishing institutional arrangements (WUAs).Through GIDA and their donors via pilot project approach. Also via NGOsPotential: 786 small dams in the country, mainly in Northern sector and savanah belt in Brong Ahaforegion, with 170 farmers per reservoir, but 300-400 people including other users. So some 100.000 peopleWater resources implications: depends on capacity of reservoir. Water quality requires treatment and someinfrastructure for other usesPolicy and legislation: Builds on NIP to increase irrigated acreage. Only including formal domestic suppliesmay lack policy backingInstitutional arrangements: WUAs are skewed towards irrigation farmers and needs to be broadened . Needsbroader support than MoFA onlyFinancing: no community contribute to CapEx, but farmers pay dues for OpEx. Not clear who pays CapManEx.No data on incremental costs.Technical issues: treatment (filtration galleries, HH water treatment) and need for standard designs for MUSand capacity building for contractorsOverall challenge: sustainability Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 36. Promoting self-supply for irrigationDescription of model and scaling pathway: investment by farmers themselves, according to marketconditions. But facilitated by market development activities: supply chains, reducing costs ofpumping technologyPotential: only 2% of irrigable area developed. Probably around 10000 in UE. No data from otherregions. Would have to be done by satelitePolicy and legislation: in line with ambition of NIP to increase irrigated acreage, though it doesn’thave a specific policy on informal irrigation. Water use regulation of Ghana mentions you only needpermit when you irrigate beyond 1 ha. Only use registration when it is less than 1 ha and when youabstract by mechanicalWater resources implications: relative high water use, because small farm sizes and inefficient watermanagement. But total water consumption is smallInstitutional arrangements: farmer owned, farmer managed. Sometimes associations of groups offarmers, more for marketingFinancing and cost-recovery: private investment by farmers themselves. Data on costs from Eric’sthesis. 1200 US$/ha, permanent ones are 4800 US$/haTechnical issues: groundwater potential is not clear. Inefficient technologies and water use Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 37. Self supply along formal suppliesDescription of model and scaling pathway: increase service levels through alternativesupplies alongside formal ones (wells, RWH, etc). Household investment.Potential: households who cannot develop alternate resources on their ownPolicy and legislation: self supply not recognised, though RWH coming upWater resources not limitedInstitutional arrangements: Via project and NGOs providing facilities– e.g. RWH Market based Promotion via domestic agencies (CWSA), not likely Promotion via local govt and/or WRC??Cost and financing: may be significant otherwise they would be developed already. Potential to leverage householdinvestment. Costs of market developmentTechnical issues: okScaling pathway: first need to clarify institutional mechanism. Need for learning, e.g. working group on self supply Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 38. Local integrated planningDescription of model: community level planning without sectoral entrypoints. actual implementation may be through sector agenciesPotential: focus on population without access to domestic, so some 6million peoplePolicy and legislation: no policy backing for this. only sectoral planning istasks of local governmentWater resources: not likely to be problemInstitutional arrangements: via DA or WRC, but both have severelimitations. Or, via dedicated integrated project (CBRDP)Technical issues:Scaling pathway: short term via projects, but limited scalability. Middle tolong term via DAs or WRC Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    • 39. Reuse of wastewaterDescription of model: interventions along entiresanitation, wastewater, reuse chain, or only parts of it. can bevery big or very smallPotential: over 12.000 farmers around Kumasi, Tamale, AccraWater resources: very complex urban water managementissues, including qualityInstitutional arrangements: very complex – see SWITCH AccraTechnical issue: highly complexFinancial and costs: very high if a fully integrated approach isfollowed.Scaling pathway: very limited. Only localised solutions Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012

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