Multiple Use(Water) Servicesin Ghana  Dr. Patrick Moriarty  IRC International Water and  Sanitation Centre
Presentation outlineBrief introduction to Multiple Use ServicesSome findings from Ghana and othercountriesProposed ways fo...
A brief introduction to MUS                                 http://www.musgroup.net/page/1461Multiple Use Services in Ghan...
Rationale for Multiple Use (Water) Services People require and use water for many purposes  Multiple Use Services in Ghana...
These play an important role in livelihoods:   Health   Income   Food production   Reducing vulnerability Multiple Use Ser...
However…most water projects andprogrammes have a limited focus   Domestic systems for domestic needs   Irrigation systems ...
What are Multiple Use (Water) Services?  A livelihood-based approach to providing  water services     takes people’s multi...
Different entry-pointsDomestic – plusIrrigation – plusCommunity-scale MUSMultiple Use Services in Ghana   Nov 2012
Domestic-plusCharacteristics:- Providing higher levels of service- Strengthening community  management- Add-ons, like catt...
MUS in Ghana (and elsewhere)Multiple Use Services in Ghana   Nov 2012
MUS in GhanaVarious studies have looked for evidence ofMUS   WASHCost   Triple-S   RockefellerMUS as a formally applied or...
MUS in Ghana – domestic plus         (de-facto)Multiple Use Services in Ghana   Nov 2012
Sources and Uses of Water                   100%                              % Formal for Productive                   90...
Dry season water use                                          50                                          45              ...
Use of water from piped network for productive activitiesSource: WASHCost
Productive use of water from domestic point sources                    100%                    90%                    80% ...
% of population using water from community-managed                                        point source for productive uses...
Other MUS in Ghana3,392 Small dams and dugouts – manysupporting de-facto MUSWidespread use of wastewater around citiesfor ...
Emerging findings aboutcost/benefits of MUS (not from            Ghana)Multiple Use Services in Ghana   Nov 2012
Benefits of MUS: servicesHigh correlation between the extent of MUS and performanceand sustainability of water services:  ...
Benefits of MUS: servicesIn Senegal, extent ofproductive use associatedGreater # of duties undertaken by water committeeMo...
What are the costs?Incremental costs:   Higher levels of service   Transaction costs of more participatory approach   Oppo...
Cost-benefitsFor the majority of systems, the theoretical financial benefitsfrom piped-water-based productive activities a...
Summing upMUS is not formally practiced in GhanaHowever, evidence that de-facto MUS iswidespread in rural areas and small ...
Potential and possible models for          MUS in Ghana Multiple Use Services in Ghana   Nov 2012
Possible MUS models identified:Domestic plus approaches:   Communal productive uses of point sources   Productive use of p...
Domestic plus around point sourcesDescription of model and scaling pathway: promoting cattle troughs andcommunal gardens a...
Commercial use of piped systems   in small towns and citiesDescription of model and scaling pathway: use existing model of...
Upgrading point sources to limited       mechanical schemesDescription of model: upgrading to higher level of service on e...
Potential of different approachesDomestic-plus approaches: low risk, potential to reach largenumbers of people but with sm...
What next?Identify consortium interested to experimentwith domestic plus approach to MUS in GhanaWork within existing dome...
ConclusionsDe-facto MUS widely practiced in GhanaGlobal evidence that MUS can lead to higherincomes and more sustainable w...
Thanks            All about MUS: http://www.musgroup.net            MUS video: http://www.musgroup.net/page/1461Multiple U...
Additional slides not used in the         presentationMultiple Use Services in Ghana   Nov 2012
Rehabilitation of small reservoirsDescription of model and scaling pathway: include MUS in rehabilitation of small reservo...
Promoting self-supply for irrigationDescription of model and scaling pathway: investment by farmers themselves, according ...
Self supply along formal suppliesDescription of model and scaling pathway: increase service levels through alternativesupp...
Local integrated planningDescription of model: community level planning without sectoral entrypoints. actual implementatio...
Reuse of wastewaterDescription of model: interventions along entiresanitation, wastewater, reuse chain, or only parts of i...
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana
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Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana

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This presentation was shared by Patrick Moriarty during the 29th National Level Learning Alliance Platform (NLLAP) Meeting, organised by Resource Centre Network Ghana (RCN Ghana) and hosted by Dr. Patrick Moriaty of IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre and and Mrs. Victoria Norbgey of Water Health International Ghana Office to share on the multiple use services (MUS) for improved water delivery in Ghana.

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  • Domestic needs: cooking drinking, sanitation, hygiene
  • Multiple Use (Water) Services in Ghana

    1. 1. Multiple Use(Water) Servicesin Ghana Dr. Patrick Moriarty IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
    2. 2. Presentation outlineBrief introduction to Multiple Use ServicesSome findings from Ghana and othercountriesProposed ways forward in Ghana Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    3. 3. A brief introduction to MUS http://www.musgroup.net/page/1461Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    4. 4. Rationale for Multiple Use (Water) Services People require and use water for many purposes Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    5. 5. These play an important role in livelihoods: Health Income Food production Reducing vulnerability Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    6. 6. However…most water projects andprogrammes have a limited focus Domestic systems for domestic needs Irrigation systems for field cropsSmall-scale productive uses, particularly atand around homestead, often not providedfor, and sometimes explicitly prohibited Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    7. 7. What are Multiple Use (Water) Services? A livelihood-based approach to providing water services takes people’s multiple water needs (domestic, productive) as the starting point with a view to improving health and livelihoods in an integrated manner often combining multiple sources for multiple uses MUS means maximising effectiveness of investment in water services Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    8. 8. Different entry-pointsDomestic – plusIrrigation – plusCommunity-scale MUSMultiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    9. 9. Domestic-plusCharacteristics:- Providing higher levels of service- Strengthening community management- Add-ons, like cattle troughs, community gardensHow to:- Structured planning approach- Bringing in livelihoods perspective Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    10. 10. MUS in Ghana (and elsewhere)Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    11. 11. MUS in GhanaVarious studies have looked for evidence ofMUS WASHCost Triple-S RockefellerMUS as a formally applied or tested approachhas yet to take place in Ghana Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    12. 12. MUS in Ghana – domestic plus (de-facto)Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    13. 13. Sources and Uses of Water 100% % Formal for Productive 90% 80% % Informal for Productive 70%% of respondants % informal for domestic 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Northern - East Gonja Ashanti - Bosomtwe Volta - Ketu SouthSource: WASHCost Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    14. 14. Dry season water use 50 45 Median Lower Quartile 40 35 litres per person per day Upper Quartile 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Northern - East Gonja Ashanti - Bosomtwe Volta - Ketu SouthSource: WASHCost
    15. 15. Use of water from piped network for productive activitiesSource: WASHCost
    16. 16. Productive use of water from domestic point sources 100% 90% 80% Water from the facility used for 70%% of point source watering gardens 60% 50% water from the facility used for watering livestock 40% 30% Water from the facility used for 20% small commercial uses (brick making, pito making etc) 10% 0% Akatsi East Gonja Sunyani WestSource of data: Triple-S (2012) Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    17. 17. % of population using water from community-managed point source for productive uses 100% 90% 80% % of population 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Kofi Tsbilkwa Amanfrom Afadjator Pano Kutunse Abensu anomawobi Ahasowudie Ebenezer Oboyambo kweshi Abbe Anyama lume atsyame avenui camp Dade mankye Adkeiman Alafia Agona East Awutu Senya East Akim Ga West HoSource of data: IRC/ Aquaconsult (Rotary/USAID sustainability check (2012) Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    18. 18. Other MUS in Ghana3,392 Small dams and dugouts – manysupporting de-facto MUSWidespread use of wastewater around citiesfor urban agricultureMultiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    19. 19. Emerging findings aboutcost/benefits of MUS (not from Ghana)Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    20. 20. Benefits of MUS: servicesHigh correlation between the extent of MUS and performanceand sustainability of water services: no damage of unplanned uses, anticipating competition between users income for cost-recovery and professionalization of service providers if more water is more reliably available, more incentive to use it productively Ownership and maintenance in case of self-supplySenegal: high productive use systems had, on average, greatertechnical sustainability than low systems, but similar financialsustainabilityChicken or egg? Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    21. 21. Benefits of MUS: servicesIn Senegal, extent ofproductive use associatedGreater # of duties undertaken by water committeeMore experienced water system operatorsGreater % of HHs making upfront cash contributionsfor system constructionGreater likelihood that community initiatedconstruction of water system Source: Hall et al. 2012
    22. 22. What are the costs?Incremental costs: Higher levels of service Transaction costs of more participatory approach Opportunity costs: more for some, or some for moreEvidence: Particularly for piped systems, the incremental costs are low (5-15% additional costs) – e.g. Bolivia, Honduras, Senegal, Nepal Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    23. 23. Cost-benefitsFor the majority of systems, the theoretical financial benefitsfrom piped-water-based productive activities are greater thanthe estimated incremental costs of system upgradeIf all the potential net benefits were used to repay theincremental costs, these would be recovered in approximately1-2 years (Senegal, Kenya) Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    24. 24. Summing upMUS is not formally practiced in GhanaHowever, evidence that de-facto MUS iswidespread in rural areas and small townsGrowing body of evidence from outside Ghanaof benefits of MUS Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    25. 25. Potential and possible models for MUS in Ghana Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    26. 26. Possible MUS models identified:Domestic plus approaches: Communal productive uses of point sources Productive use of piped systems in small towns and cities Upgrading point sources to limited mechanical schemes with higher levels of serviceIrrigation plus Rehabilitation and retrofitting small reservoirs Promoting self-supply for irrigation, even though not MUS MUS in public surface irrigation schemes – not analysed because in disarrayCommunity-driven MUS: Promoting self-supply alongside formal domestic supplies Integrated local level planning Improving conditions of reuse of wastewater Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    27. 27. Domestic plus around point sourcesDescription of model and scaling pathway: promoting cattle troughs andcommunal gardens around handpumps. Work through domestic sector agencies(CWSA, DAs and WATSANs), making their staff aware of MUS and include inproject cycle. Needs some piloting to showcase itPotential: 10 million of people relying on point sources; less when zooming in toNorthern belt and coastal zone where there are less open water sourcesPolicy and legislation: CWSA water use regulations are not a limitation; move tohigher levels of service is in fact encouragedWater resources implications: depends on yield of boreholesInstitutional arrangements: can be done from within domestic sector; requiressetting local regulations, which means technicians need to support communitiesin thisFinancing: can be done at minimal incremental costs, as no major hardware costsare involved. Piggy backing on investments in rural WASHTechnical issues: can be first step in going for higher levels of services. However abigger step will require change in technology Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    28. 28. Commercial use of piped systems in small towns and citiesDescription of model and scaling pathway: use existing model ofdifferential levels of services, may need further adjustments. Throughdomestic sector agencies. Also market mechanisms: users will only pay forit if they can make a return. Need for extension supportPotential: # of people in small towns. Mainly in the Northern region. couldbe temporary when there are no other sources availablePolicy and legislation: as for point-sources - bye laws and CWSA guidelinesWater resources implications: probably minor, possible limitations inbigger citiesInstitutional arrangements: as for point sourcesFinancing and cost recovery: payment of tariffs. Are people willing to paytariff for productive uses or prefer to develop alternative sources?Technical issues: straightforward Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    29. 29. Upgrading point sources to limited mechanical schemesDescription of model: upgrading to higher level of service on existingboreholes with handpumps using motorised pumps and small distributionnetwork. Through domestic sector agency, including it in manuals andDWSPs. Requires pilot projectsPotential: # of boreholes per region and # of people served and to beserved. DoublingPolicy and legislation: supportive through drive for increasing servicelevels and de facto priority for small towns. MUS not explicit thoughWater resource implications: only possible on higher yielding boreholesInstitutional arrangements: via CWSA, DAs, WATSANsFinancing: estimated increase from 30 US$/cap with some 5-6 US$, so20% incremental costsTechnical issues: there are already standardised designs, needs newdesign for community garden and cattle trough. What is the project cycle? Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    30. 30. Potential of different approachesDomestic-plus approaches: low risk, potential to reach largenumbers of people but with small per capita impact.Rehabilitation of small reservoirs: high risks with higherpotential impactSelf-supply for irrigation. High potential, but less tangiblepathwayself-supply to complement formal sources and localintegrated water resources planning, have low potential at theshort term to reach scaleReuse of wastewater: too complex intervention with unclearimpact Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    31. 31. What next?Identify consortium interested to experimentwith domestic plus approach to MUS in GhanaWork within existing domestic water supplyprojects and programmesFocus on gathering evidence on incrementalcosts and benefits (and challenges) Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    32. 32. ConclusionsDe-facto MUS widely practiced in GhanaGlobal evidence that MUS can lead to higherincomes and more sustainable water servicesHigh potential to experiment around domestic plus Cattle troughs and community gardens with point sources Differentiated tariffs on small piped-networks Upgrading boreholes through mechanisation Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    33. 33. Thanks All about MUS: http://www.musgroup.net MUS video: http://www.musgroup.net/page/1461Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    34. 34. Additional slides not used in the presentationMultiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    35. 35. Rehabilitation of small reservoirsDescription of model and scaling pathway: include MUS in rehabilitation of small reservoirs. Specificinterventions are site specific depending on de facto uses and ones that are already formally accommodated.Needs also participatory planning cycle and support in establishing institutional arrangements (WUAs).Through GIDA and their donors via pilot project approach. Also via NGOsPotential: 786 small dams in the country, mainly in Northern sector and savanah belt in Brong Ahaforegion, with 170 farmers per reservoir, but 300-400 people including other users. So some 100.000 peopleWater resources implications: depends on capacity of reservoir. Water quality requires treatment and someinfrastructure for other usesPolicy and legislation: Builds on NIP to increase irrigated acreage. Only including formal domestic suppliesmay lack policy backingInstitutional arrangements: WUAs are skewed towards irrigation farmers and needs to be broadened . Needsbroader support than MoFA onlyFinancing: no community contribute to CapEx, but farmers pay dues for OpEx. Not clear who pays CapManEx.No data on incremental costs.Technical issues: treatment (filtration galleries, HH water treatment) and need for standard designs for MUSand capacity building for contractorsOverall challenge: sustainability Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    36. 36. Promoting self-supply for irrigationDescription of model and scaling pathway: investment by farmers themselves, according to marketconditions. But facilitated by market development activities: supply chains, reducing costs ofpumping technologyPotential: only 2% of irrigable area developed. Probably around 10000 in UE. No data from otherregions. Would have to be done by satelitePolicy and legislation: in line with ambition of NIP to increase irrigated acreage, though it doesn’thave a specific policy on informal irrigation. Water use regulation of Ghana mentions you only needpermit when you irrigate beyond 1 ha. Only use registration when it is less than 1 ha and when youabstract by mechanicalWater resources implications: relative high water use, because small farm sizes and inefficient watermanagement. But total water consumption is smallInstitutional arrangements: farmer owned, farmer managed. Sometimes associations of groups offarmers, more for marketingFinancing and cost-recovery: private investment by farmers themselves. Data on costs from Eric’sthesis. 1200 US$/ha, permanent ones are 4800 US$/haTechnical issues: groundwater potential is not clear. Inefficient technologies and water use Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    37. 37. Self supply along formal suppliesDescription of model and scaling pathway: increase service levels through alternativesupplies alongside formal ones (wells, RWH, etc). Household investment.Potential: households who cannot develop alternate resources on their ownPolicy and legislation: self supply not recognised, though RWH coming upWater resources not limitedInstitutional arrangements: Via project and NGOs providing facilities– e.g. RWH Market based Promotion via domestic agencies (CWSA), not likely Promotion via local govt and/or WRC??Cost and financing: may be significant otherwise they would be developed already. Potential to leverage householdinvestment. Costs of market developmentTechnical issues: okScaling pathway: first need to clarify institutional mechanism. Need for learning, e.g. working group on self supply Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    38. 38. Local integrated planningDescription of model: community level planning without sectoral entrypoints. actual implementation may be through sector agenciesPotential: focus on population without access to domestic, so some 6million peoplePolicy and legislation: no policy backing for this. only sectoral planning istasks of local governmentWater resources: not likely to be problemInstitutional arrangements: via DA or WRC, but both have severelimitations. Or, via dedicated integrated project (CBRDP)Technical issues:Scaling pathway: short term via projects, but limited scalability. Middle tolong term via DAs or WRC Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012
    39. 39. Reuse of wastewaterDescription of model: interventions along entiresanitation, wastewater, reuse chain, or only parts of it. can bevery big or very smallPotential: over 12.000 farmers around Kumasi, Tamale, AccraWater resources: very complex urban water managementissues, including qualityInstitutional arrangements: very complex – see SWITCH AccraTechnical issue: highly complexFinancial and costs: very high if a fully integrated approach isfollowed.Scaling pathway: very limited. Only localised solutions Multiple Use Services in Ghana Nov 2012

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