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Kampala, Uganda, 13 to 15 April 2010International Symposium on Sustainable Rural Water ServicesWhat’s in a service? Using water service ladders in life-cycle cost analysis Dr. Patrick Moriarty IRC, Ghana
Description of programme A five year action research programme. Working in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mozambique and India (Andhra Pradesh). Researching the FULL Life-Cycle Costs (LCC) of providing Rural and Peri-Urban (Domestic) Water and Sanitation Services, and …. Identifying ways in which this information can be used to improve service delivery
Disaggregated Life Cycle Costs Life Cycle Costs Components Capital expenditure (CapEx): hardware and software Operational and minor maintenance expenditure (OpEx) Capital maintenance expenditure (CapManEx)– rehabilitation, replacement Direct support costs – post construction activities, household expenditures Indirect support cost – macro level planning and policy formulation Costs of capital – costs of loans
What is a domestic water service? A water service is the water provided to people… typically defined in terms of: quantity and quality; accessibility and reliability Service ≠ Technology though there are strong links between the two: Hand-pumps normally represent one level of service; Taps in houses another.
Service levels and ladders A service level is a group of indicators that together establish a normative benchmark for service delivery. (e.g. 20l/p/d of WHO quality water within 500m of the dwelling and shared by no more than 300 people) A service ladder is a series of service levels grouped to convey the impression (or intention) of progress from one level to the next. Establishing service levels is a political process.
Water service levels
Existing JMP ladder Piped water on premises: Piped household water connection located inside the user's dwelling, Piped Other improved drinking water sources: Public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs or rainwater collection. Improved Unimproved drinking water sources: Unprotected dug well, unprotected spring, cart with small tank/drum, surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, irrigation channels), and bottled water. Unimproved
The WASHCost Water Service Ladder High service: people access a minimum of 60l/c/d of high quality water on demand High Intermediate service: people access a minimum of 40l/c/d of acceptable quality water from an improved source spending no more that 30 minutes per day Intermediate Basic service: people access a minimum of 20l/c/d of acceptable quality water from an improved source spending no more that 30 minutes per day Basic Sub-standard service: people access a service that is an improvement on having no service at all, but fails to meet the basic standard on one or more criteria Sub-standard No service No service: people access water from insecure or unimproved sources, or sources that are too distant, time consuming or are of poor quality
WASHCost proposed indicators
Service levels in WASHCost countries
Example from Ghana Coverage: Access (population): Yes Access (distance): No Reliability: No??? (none working when visited) Quantity: No/Yes?? (average wet/dry – domestic/non-domestic)
Conclusions and next steps To compare the costs of services it is first necessary to agree on a definition of the service. A generic service ladder has been developed based on examples of norms used in the WASHCost countries and linked to the JMP ladder. The usefulness of the service ladder will be further tested by WASHCost.
For more information: www.washcost.info Working paper no.2 Thank You